Synopsis On IMPACT OF TERRORISM ON MORALE AND MOTIVATION OF SECURITY FORCES IN JAMMU & KASHMIR Submitted by: Rajani Santosh (Synopsis for Ph. D. registration) Proposed Research Topic: Impact of terrorism on Morale and Motivation of Security Forces in Jammu & Kashmir Name of the candidate : Name of the Supervisor : Department Faculty Date : : : Rajani Santosh ________________ Management and Labour Studies, Management Studies March 2009 (Rajani Santosh) Index Sl No. Topic Page No. 1. Introduction…………………………………………. 1 2. Study Area/ Scope of Study……………….. 7 3. Justification…………………………………………. 8 4.
Hypothesis & Objective of the Study… 10 5. Review of Literature……………………………. 10 6. Research Methodology………………………… 16 7. Plan of proposed work……………………. …… 17 8. References…………………………………………… 18 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K Introduction: T he term “Terrorism” comes from the French word “terrorisme” in 18th century based on the Latin word language verbs “terrere” (to frighten) and “deterrene” (to frighten from). It dates to 1795 and originally used to describe the actions of Jacobins in their rule of post-revolutionary France, the so called “Reign of terror”.
The Jacobins in their rule of France even have said to coin the term “terrorists” to refer to themselves and they praised terror as the best way to defend liberty. Thus terrorism and terror therefore originally refer to methods employed by regimes to control their open populations through fear. Some definitions of terrorism:1. “Terrorism” is defined as the premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non combatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. (Defined by The State department, USA). . Paul Pillar, former deputy chief of CIA’s counter terrorism centre, defines terrorism with 4 key elements: • • • • Premeditated – planned in advance, rather than an impulsive act of rage. Political not criminal, like the violence groups such as the mafia use to get money, but designed to change the existing political order. Civilians aimed i. e. not at military target or combat ready troops. Carried out by Sub national groups – not by the army of a country. Terrorism is the use of violence for the purpose of achieving a political, eligious or ideological goal. The targets of terrorist acts can be government officials, military personnel, and people serving in the interest of the government or civilians. Acts of terror against military targets tends to blend into a strategy of guerrilla Warfare. According to one view, one person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter. Random violence against civilians (non-combatants) is the type of actions taken by terrorists for achieving a political goal, on a scale smaller than full scale warfare.
Acts of terrorism can be perpetrated by individuals or groups or states, as an alternative to an open declaration of war, and are often carried out by those who otherwise feel powerless. It has also been 1 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K used by groups wishing to coerce a govt in order to achieve political or other objectives and also by dictatorships or other autocratic governments in order to overcome opposition to their policies.
Semi-clandestine individual, group often uses this for idiosyncratic criminal or political reasons, whereby in contrast to assassination – the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly or selectively from a target population and serve as message generator. Currently most terrorism is drug or religion based and includes spanking of children or the teaching of an eternity of torture in Hell as forms of physical or spiritual terrorism. It may or may not be directed against a particular govt and it may or may not be state sponsored.
The systematic use of violence to achieve political end is not new among many other examples, it featured during the troubles in Ireland before its independence in 1922. In recent decades, it has become a common tactic among a wide variety of groups from independence movements to the secret services of various countries. Random bombing, shootings and/or disappearance – and the panic and fear they provoke – put pressure on the govt, proving that they are unable to protect their populations or can be used by dictatorships to frighten their people into submission and obedience.
Acts of murder and destruction deliberately directed against civilians or military in non-military situations. In some cases, terrorism has been a mean to carry on a conflict without the adversary realising the nature of the threat, mistaking terrorism for criminal activity. Because of these characteristics, terrorism has become increasingly common among those pursuing extreme goals through out the world. But despite its popularity, terrorism can be a nebulous concept. use different methodology. Even with the U. S. Govt agencies responsible for different functions in our current fight against terrorism
History of terrorism: – (In India) A study of the early history of terrorism in India shows that there are quite a few communities and groups who have a long history of taking to terrorism to indicate their honour. A few of these are Bengalese, Marathas and Sikhs. Both in Nagaland and in Mizoram, there were certain historical factors that made insurgency-linked terrorism almost inevitable in 1980’s. 2 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K ‘Meiti’ terror in Manipur had rooted in 1964 but it was started in a mid way in 1978 and became quite bad by 1980.
There were several aspects of terrorism- like looting of banks and killing non-Manipuris, raiding Police stations-but their many objectives was to kill police officers, especially CRPF and the Manipur Rifles. There was terror and counter- terror in Tripura in 1980 by the tribals against nontribals subsequent counter terror by non-tribals. There was a govt. promoted terrorism in Meghalaya in 1979. There were 3 ancient tribes in Meghalaya – Khasis, Jaintias and Garos who in the isolation of mountains had evolved a unique culture distinguished by the practice of matriarchy in spite of recent conversion to Christianity.
The sense of terror created in Assam from 1980 onwards. There was an atmosphere of two sites being at war with each other – the Hindu Assamies on one side and the Muslim and the Bengali speaking on the other side. Terrorism in Kashmir: After the rise of Pakistan supported terrorism in 1989, the Kashmir issue came into focus in politics of South Asia. Since the early 1990s’ a ‘proxy war’ has been developed by Pakistan over Kashmir. The onset the proxy war had brought bilateral relations between the two states to its nadir and contributed directly over nuclearisation of both nations in 1998.
In the past 50 years, the two sides have fought three conventional war (two directly over Kashmir) and came to war on several occasions. For the past fifteen years, they have been locked in a ‘proxy war’ in Kashmir, which shows little signs of abatement. It has already claimed over 10,000 lives and perhaps irreparably ruined the paradise on Earth. It has further undermined the prospects for regional economic integration and cooperation in one of the world’s poorest regions. For fostering regional peace and prosperity therefore, resolving the Kashmir dispute is an immediate priority.
The state of Jammu and Kashmir was the largest and fore most populous of the 565 princely states in British India. The British Crown was to lapse with British Colonial disengagement from India in a technical sense that meant that the rulers of the princely states had the right to decide if they wished to accede to either India or Pakistan. So the choice of joining either of the Dominions was left to the rulers of the States concerned. Moreover, in the Indian Independence Act, 1947, 3 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K here was a provision for any conditional accession. All the princely states except Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir, joined either India or Pakistan before 15th Aug. 1947. But Kashmir posed a unique problem since the Dogra ruler of Kashmir Maharaja Hari Singh has calculated that by not joining either India or Pakistan during the period of the transfer of power, he would emerge as the ruler of an independent Kashmir state. He, thus, did not exercise the option immediately and instead offered a proposal of Standstill Agreement to both the Dominion, pending final decision on States’ accession.
However, after the invasion of kabailis, maharaja seeked help from India and was given assistance by India. Thus, he signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of India on Oct 26, 1947. Active terrorist groups and types of terrorist attacks: The active terrorist groups are Lashkar-e-Toiba, Hizbul Mujahideen, Jaish-e-Mohd and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. Besides, these there are a number of minor militant groups comprising of Kashmiris, Pakistanis and Afghans. The Hizbul is considered the most indigenous militant group and its objective is very limited.
It fights for an independent Kashmir and does not support the merger of Kashmir with Pakistan. The Lashkar-e-Toiba comprising mainly of Pakistanis is well organized and is independent (especially financially) and of the ISI (Pakistans Inter Service Intelligence) when compared to other militant organisations. For the Lashkar, Kashmir is a means to achieve its pan-Islamic objectives. Understanding the objectives of these two organisations and their limitations, the ISI created the Jaish with Maulana Masood Azhar as its Chief. Jaish has been involved in all suicide attacks carried out in Kashmir.
The Jaish coming into being much later than other militant groups is attempting desperately to find some space for itself through spectacular acts aimed at capturing the attention of people both inside and outside Kashmir. The type of terrorist attacks used are fidayeen (suicidal bombs). The other type of terrorist attack is the one happened in the parliament attack. The killing of Jaishe-Muhammad Chief, Qazi Baba mastermind behind the parliament attack and the outfits’ deputy commander, Nasir Mahmood Anwar, there has been a renewed spurt in militant violence. The militant groups continue to randomly target Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K civilians and have adopted the strategy of carrying out joint attack against security forces. An encounter in Jammu sector revealed that militants killed belonged to three outfits, Lashkar-e-Toiba, Hizbul Mujahideen and Al Mansoreen – fist time that multiple organisations cooperated in a single operation. Impact of terrorism: Political impact: A terrorist act is a political act or is committed with the intention to cause a political effect. A Clausewitz states “War is a continuation policy by other means”.
Psychological impact: The intended results of terrorist act causes a psychological effect i. e. terror. Coercive impact: – Violence and destruction are used in the commission of the act to produce the desired effect. Even if the casualties or destruction is not the result of a terrorist operation, the threat or potential of violence is what produces the intended effect. Dynamic impact: Terrorist groups demand change, revolution or political movement. Even if the goals of a movement are reactionary in nature, they require action to “turn back the clock” or restore some cherished value system that is extinct.
No body commits violent attack on strangers or innocents to keep things “just the way they are” Deliberate impact: – terrorism is an actively planned and intended to achieve particular goals. It is rationally employed, specifically selected tactic and is not a random act. Since the victims of terrorist violence are often of little importance, which one being as a good for the terrorists purposes as another, victim or target selection can appear random or unprovoked. Media Exploitation: – Any terrorist organisation plans for exploitation of available media to get the message to the right audiences.
Social impact or operations in permissive Society: – When the terrorist groups want to make an impact on social groups it implicates its terror on an individual or more belonging to that particular social group. This can be either religious people, pilgrimage of any other wholly places. 5 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K Security Forces: The security forces can be considered as model for national integration because there are no castes, religion or other differences among personnel in the armed forces.
Religious institutions are treated similarly and officers worship together. Soldiers give their lives for each other regardless of their sectarian differences. The security forces comprises of paramilitary, police forces and army. The Border security Force (BSF) and the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) come under paramilitary forces dealing with terrorism in the J&K. These forces have a vital role to check insurgency, immigration, infiltration and solution to the problem of terrorism. Role of security forces in Jammu & Kashmir:
With more than one and half a decade having gone by since militancy erupted in the state of J&K, leading to the deployment of the Indian Army in aid of civil authorities. A comparison of the situation prevalent in 1989 and every year that has gone by ever since provides ample testimony to the positive role played by the Indian Army and bringing the matter under control in the state. While carrying out anti proxy war operations the army in the valley has killed 8791 militants out of the 10727 killed by all the security forces together from 1990 to date.
The presence of CRPF in the J&K dates back to 1950 when a detachment of three coys of 1st battalion was deployed to the state to deal with the deteriorating law & order situation in Srinagar. During the 1965 Indo-Pak war, the CRPF was entrusted to guard the vital installations and strategic bridges in J&K. During 1967 one more CRPF Bns (2nd Bns) was moved to the J&K due to continuous turmoil in the State. Then three more units (16, 20 & 22 Bns) followed and were deployed on the borders for checking trans-border crimes and operating some of observation posts for anti-smuggling duties.
The concept of Special Task Force was introduced by CRPF and counter-insurgency operations were simultaneously launched in the entire Kashmir valley. Until 1965, the State Armed Police Battalions manned India’s borders with Pakistan. The inadequacy of the State Armed Police to cope with armed 6 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K aggression due to which the Government of India felt the need for a specialised centrally controlled Border Security Force, which would be armed and trained to man the International Border with Pakistan. The Border Security Force came into existence on 01 Dec 1965.
During the Kargil conflict in May-July 1999, the BSF remained on the heights of the mountains and defended the integrity of the country with all the might at its command in unison with the Army. The BSF took over the erection of the border fencing in Jammu & Kashmir and it was successful in its task despite all attempts of Pakistan to scuttle our efforts. The BSF has been defending the borders along with the army and checking infiltration on the borders during the current standoff with Pakistan. Study Area/ scope of the study: The proposed study falls under the ambit of human resource management and labour welfare.
The study is proposed to focus on various security forces in Jammu & Kashmir i. e. Paramilitary, Police forces and Army. The endeavour of the proposed study will be to study the impact of terrorism on morale and motivation among security forces in J&K. It will also make a comparative assessment of the motivational and morale levels of the jawans/officers of Army, police forces and paramilitary forces. The proposed study therefore, expects to bring out some useful factors, which lead to the upliftment of morale and motivation of security forces, and factors, which kill the morale and motivation of the security forces.
The endeavour shall be to study the stratified samples of different armed forces age, category, rank etc. to make the data more authentic and meaningful; the motivational level of different age groups will be checked. The organisations selected for the study are as follows: 1. Director/IGP, Sher-I-Kashmir Police Academy, Udhampur, J&K – 182104 Principal/SP, SPS, Police Training School, Kathua, J&K Commandant, STC, BSF, KMR, Near New Airport, Srinagar, J&K 7 2. 3. Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K . ADIG, CTS, BSF Dhar Road, P. O. ROAD, Udhampur- 182126 Central Reserve Police Force, Commandant/Principal, Recruit Training Centre-IV, CRPF, Srinagar (J&K) Training Centre, SSB Samba Gandhi Nagar, Jammu-180004 (J&K) Sardar Ballabh Bai Patel National Police Academy, Hydrabad. Bureau of Police Research & Development, New Delhi. Headquarter, Northern Command, Udhampur. 5. 6. 8. 9. 10. Justification: Terrorism is spreading its root not only in J&K but also to whole of India, and also throughout the world.
In the recent occurrences of act of terrorism is bomb blast on 7th July 2005 in London’s Public transport system during the rush hours. A series of four bombs attack, three bombs exploded within 50 seconds of each other on three London Underground trains Fifty-six people were killed in the attacks, including the four-suspected bombers, with 700 injured. These are the first suicide bombings in Western Europe, and are thought to have been planned by Islamic paramilitary organisations based in the United Kingdom, possibly affiliated with AlQaeda.
Recently, bomb blasted in Dhaka, Bangladesh on 17th Aug 2005. There were 100 bombs exploded in 58 different locations. The bombs appeared to be homemade and capable of causing only limited damage. About 120 are reported to be injured and Islamic terrorist organisation Jamayet-ul-Mujahideen was suspected for the blast. 8 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K On 20th July 2005, Srinagar bombing occurred in which a car bomb exploded near an Indian army vehicle in the famous church lane area. Militant group Hijbul Muzahideen claimed responsibility for the attack.
On 5th July 2005 six terrorist of Lashkar-e-toiba were killed at the Ramjanmbhumi-Babarimasjid disputed site in Ayodhya. It is suspected that it had a hand of Dawood Ibrahim. The international terrorism fuelled by the Pakistan’s ISI backed Al-Qaeda militants might have continued to grow. It would be difficult to assign any definite limit to this growth. It suffices to say that it can be reasonably summarised that if left unchecked for few more years, it could have developed any or all of the following: • • • • • • • • • Expanded the war in Chechnya to other Russian republics.
Expanded activities in Kashmir to the level where the government of India might have had to take recourse to war with Pakistan. Established a far more violent Islamists salient in Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore and Malaysia. Capture the whole of Afghanistan. Effective domination over parts of central Asia. Over turning the existing Saudi regime. Establish effective capacity to undertake attacks recently occurring in many parts of India, Bangladesh, London and USA etc. Ability to damage USA and its interests worldwide as much higher levels.
Fortress Afghanistan developed as a full-fledged training base for Islamistsas opposed to few thousand jihadi fighters- for overthrowing several regimes in Middle East and elsewhere. • • • • Talibanisation of Pakistan or sufficient integration with elements in the Pakistan military and ISI. Jihadisation of Bangladesh. Terrorising the Islamic Diaspora in USA, west and elsewhere in the world to contribute a portion of their income to the Islamists coffers. Attempt subversion of the Indian Muslims psyche through intimidation and selective assassination. 9
Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K Thus, it is justified that international terrorism is curse to humane life and it should be come to an end in order to preserve human race. Hypothesis: Hyp-1: The level of morale and motivation in respect to terrorism is satisfactory among security forces. Hyp-2: There exist a positive correlation between motivation and performance of Jawans /officers of security forces. Objectives of the study: 1. To study the impact of terrorism on morale and motivation of security forces in J&K 2.
Comparative study of morale and motivational level among paramilitary forces, Police forces and Military. 3. To suggest the motivational solutions, on basis of scientific research, with the objective of making the Indian security forces as highly motivated combat forces. Review of Literature: Xenophon in 400 BC has stated that “not number or strengths brings victory in the war; but whichever army goes into battle with his combat motivation, their enemies cannot withstand them”. “Combat motivation” is a key factor in enabling conventional armies to win conflicts.
In Israel, case of motivating soldiers it has been referred to as the “Secrete Weapon” of the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF). “War is an act of force to compel our enemy to do our will”, As Clausewitz wrote, that it is important to take account of an arms combat morale because ‘will’ in the context of battlefield can be equated to combat motivation which is centrality to successful outcome in military operations. Such a focus is especially imperative for the US armed forces as well as other modern western armies where the search for the technological solutions often has been pursued expense of personnel.
In spite of the fact that combat motivation is such a key ingredient to winning battles, 10 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K most military and academic establishment have found some difficulty in measuring combat motivation. Morale by Jhon Baymes is “the enthusiasm and persistence with which a member of a group engages in the prescribed activities o the group”. Frederick Manning defines morale as “a function of cohesion an esprite de corps”.
Unit cohesion always has been necessary in combat, because each member of the unit relies on other in order to survive and to carry out successful combat operations. Cohesion has been defined as “the bonding together of the members of the organisations/unit in such a way as to sustain their will and commitment to each other, their unit, and their mission”. The IDF, since its establishment has had the reputation of high combat motivation and effectiveness, which have been developed and maintain by its customary emphasis on professionalism and realistic combat training.
Nevertheless, unit cohesion and esprit-de-corps also have been deciding factor of high morale and combat motivation. Other crucial esprit-de-corps factors effecting combat motivation are: Stress from superior or subordinate during riots violence, war situations. Human rights violations Land related problems Role of Media. Corruption Inter-religious Threat to life Psychiatric evaluations Physical fatigueness Training and counselling. roblem and problem and and interregional differences Holidays and leave Economic security Reward and award system Climate and environment Political dominance High public Separation from family Inadequacy and obsolete weaponry Social security measures Boredom and isolation expectations from 11 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K According to Anthony Kellett, “Israelis regarding fighting as very mush a social act based on collective activity, cooperation and mutual support”.
Survey research of Israeli veterence from the Lebanon war showed that feeling of loneliness i. e. lack of support given by a tight knit combat unit and buddies was the single prediction of combat stress reaction and that the best prediction of loneliness was low officer support. According to J. Glenn Gray, author of The Warriors, ”Soldiers have died more or less willingly not… for any abstract good but because they realise that by fleeing their post …they would expose companions to grave danger . Such loyalty to the group is the essence of fighting morale. ” S. L. A.
Marshall’s study of World War II US infantrymen led him to conclude that “men do not fight a cause but because they do not want to let their comrades down. ” According to Pippa Norris, Montague Kern and Marion Just, terrorist events are commonly understood ‘terrorists’ or alternatively as ‘liberation movements’, ‘radical activists’, ‘armed rebels’, ‘urban guerrillas’ or ‘extremist dissidents’, just as nation states can be labeled ‘terrorists’ or seen as ‘repressive regimes’, ‘authoritarian systems’, or ‘dictatorships’. Morale is an elusive thing. It is not easy to define, control or measure.
However, it exercises a potent influence on the human relations climate in an organisation. According to Yoder, “morale is a feeling, somewhat related to esprit de corps, enthusiasm or zeal. For a group of workers, morale, according to a popular usage of the word, refers to the over-all tone, climate or atmosphere of work, perhaps vaguely sensed by the members. If workers appear to feel enthusiastic and optimistic about group activities, if they have a sense of mission about their job, if they are friendly with each other, they are described as having a good or high morale.
If they seem to be dissatisfied, irritated, cranky, critical, restless and pessimistic, they are described as having poor or low morale”. 12 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K Fippo has described morale “As a mental condition or attitude of individuals and groups which determines their willingness to co-operate. Good morale is evidenced by employee enthusiasm, voluntary conformance with regulations and orders, and a willingness to co-operate with others in the accomplishment of an organisation’s objectives.
Poor morale is evidenced by surliness, insubordination, a feeling of discouragement and dislike of the job, company and associates. “3 According to Mooney, “morale is the sum total of several psychic qualities which include courage, fortitude, resolution and, above all, confidence. ” Theo Haimann says, “It is a state of mind and emotions affecting the attitude and willingness to work which, in turn, affect individual and organisational objectives”. Davis observes, “Organisational morale is basically a mental condition of groups and individuals which determines their attitude.
Prof. Mee, however, holds the view that “good employee morale is the mental attitude of the individuals, or of the group, which enables an employee to realise that the maximum satisfaction of his drives coincides with the fulfillment of the objectives with those of the company, and subordinates his own desires to those of the company. ” Leighton observes: “Morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in the pursuit of a common purpose. 8 Guion defines morale as “the extent to which an individual’s needs are satisfied and the extent to which the individual perceives that satisfaction as stemming from his total job situation. ” Miller and Form give three definitions of morale. “First, moral refers to the total satisfactions which the individual (or group member) acquires as a result of his membership and involvement in an organisational setting. Second, it relates to the state of motivational drives through which the individuals (or group members) tend to accomplish goals and face the future challenges.
Third, it is the consensus or “esprit de corps” revealed by a group which make efforts towards the accomplishment of its goals. ” 13 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J In the opinion of Kahn and Katz, “morale is a combination of attitudes towards the company, job and the immediate supervisor. ” Milton L. Blum defines morale as “the possession of a feeling on the part of the employee of being accepted and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals and confidence in the desirability of these goals.
Harrell considers morale as “a group concept having five components:(a) a feeling of togetherness, i. e. , of belonging to a group and not being isolated; (b) a clear goal (which will be targets of production) set before them; (c) there must be an observed or perceived progress toward the attainment of the goal, i. e. , expectation of success; (d) within the group each member feels that he has a meaningful task to perform, and (e) a supportive or stimulating leadership)”. According to Jucius, “morale is a state of mind or of a willingness to work which, in turn affects individuals and organisational objectives. Factors raising morale: • • • • • • • • • • • • • a clear goal or a strong sense of purpose Progress towards goal i. e. perceived progress Physical health i. e. sufficient sleeps, healthy food, exercise etc. Being efficient and effective with good planning Training and counselling Sense of belongingness A supportive and stimulating leadership Factors killing morale: Anxiety, worry, fear of an individual or group Unclear goal or purpose Vague plans Lack of progress Feeling of isolation and loneliness Poor physical conditions like lack o sleep, restlessness etc 14
Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J Motivation means incentives, drives, inspirations, stimulus, enthusiasm, diving force, desires, wants, wishes, aims, goals, needs, motives. Motivation is derived from a Latin word ‘movere’ which means ‘to move’. Motivation can be defined as ‘a process that starts with physiological and psychological deficiencies or needs that activate behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive”. As Berelson and Steiner state: “A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates, or moves and directs or hannels behaviour toward goals. Stanford and Wrightman describe a motive thus: “It is a restlessness, a lack, a yen a force. Once in the grip of a motive, the organism does something. It most generally does something to reduce the restlessness, to remedy the lack, to alleviate yen, to mitigate force” Lillies observes: “It is the stimulation of any emotion or desire operating upon one’s will and prompting or driving it to action. ” According to Dubin, “Motivation is the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation. The Encyclopedia of Management observes: “Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goal, and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces, including the degree of readiness. ” Tolman observes, “More specifically, the term motivation has been called an intervening variable”. Intervening variables are internal and psychological processes which are not directly observable and which, in turn, account for behaviour. “A willingness to expend energy to achieve a goal or reward.
It is a force that activates dormant energies and sets in motion the action of the people. It is the function that kindles a burning passion for action among the human beings of an organisation. ” The various practices of motivating employees should take in care the motivated behaviours like: • • • The expression of human motives differ from culture to culture and from person to person within a culture Similar motives may be manifested through unlike behaviours Unlike motives may be expressed through unlike behaviour 15
Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J • • Motives may appear in disguised form Any single act or behaviour may express several motives The purpose and objective of morale and motivation study should be to create a condition in which people will be willing to work with zeal, initiative, interest, enthusiasm with a high personal group morale satisfaction with a sense of responsibility, loyalty and discipline, with pride and confidence in most cohesive manner so that the goals and objective may be achieved more efficiently and effectively.
Research methodology: The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of terrorism on morale and motivation of security forces for regular three year on different security forces like paramilitary forces comprising of CRPF, BSF and police forces and military. The proposed research work will be carried out in various institutions of security forces in J, which is already referred in the organisational profile. The study will be based on the following dimensions, which judge the motivational level of the jawans/officers of the security forces.
Stress from superior or subordinate during riots violence, war situations, human rights violations, land related problems, role of media, corruption, inter-religious differences, inter-regional differences, threat to life, psychiatric problem and evaluations, physical problem and fatigue ness, training and counselling, social security measures, holidays and leave, economic security, reward and award system, climate and environment, political dominance, high expectations from public, separation from family, boredom and isolation, inadequacy and obsolete weaponry. The research work and investigation will follow the following procedure:
Primary data collection: Primary data will be collected through structured questionnaire and will be administered on sample respondents. Questions will be focused on morale and motivation levels of the various security forces selected for the study. 16 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J Secondary Data collection: The secondary data will be collected from various sources such as in house journals, reports and periodicals of selected institutions, books, magazines, publications pertaining to management and researches done in the field and many other sources.
Moreover, the data shall be collected from internet, for collecting latest data. The data will be gathered based on stratified random sampling techniques. This will include all levels of hierarchy from officers to Jawans from various streams of security forces. This will include the BSF, CRPF, Police Forces and Military divisions in J. The sample strength will hold true in case of all the divisions. The research will also be built on the comparative anlysis across the institutions under studies. After the impact assessment is completed, the data and the result will be duly referred to management for its validation.
Data analysis: The data collected from primary as well as secondary sources shall be analysed by various statistical techniques such as averages, Standard Deviation, Factor Analysis, Correlation and Regression analysis whichever would be required for drawing inferences. Plan of proposed work: First year plan: Extensive literature survey, review of literature, visit to libraries, centres and institutions, referring academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, edited books etc. abstracting indexing journals, published or unpublished doctorate thesis.
Seeking permissions for research work from the institutions under study. Preparation of questionnaire by designing and testing validity and reliability. Actual survey and data collection. Second year plan: Survey and data collection for the second round. Compilation and analysis of data. 17 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J Third year plan: survey and data collection for the third round, compilation, feeding and its analysis. Application of quantitative techniques, data interpretation and final thesis preparation and writing of thesis during end of third year.
References/Bibiliography: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Akbar, M. J. 1994, Kashmir: Beyond The Vale and India: The Siege Within. Alasfair Lamb (1966) – The Kashmir Problem: The Historical Survey. BECKETT, IAN F. W. , & PIMLOTT, John, edited, Armed Forces & Modern Counter-Insurgency, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1985. David Galula, Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory & Practice, New York: Praeger, 1964. Dispute in Kashmir – The Conflict Continues’, Evans, Alexander, in Al Mizan, Vol. I. Dorman & Otte, ‘Military Intervention: from Gunboat Diplomacy to Humanitarian Intervention (Dartmonth publishing, Aldershot.
E. Morris & Alan Hoe, Terrorism: Threat & Response, London: Macmillon, 1987. Janowits & Nan Dooru, 1971, “ On Military Intervention’ (Rotterdam University Press) J. Horchem, “Terrorism in Germany: 1985″, in Paul Wilkinson and A. M. Stewart, eds. , Contemporary Research on Terrorism, Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1987,p. 144. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Joseph Korbel (1966) – Danger in Kashmir K. P. S. Gill, “ Terrorism, Institutional Collapse & Emergency Response Protocols, “ Faultliness, 4, February 2000. K. P. S. Gill, “Endgame in Punjab: 1988-93, “Faultlines, New Delhi, 1, May 1999. Likert, R. The Human Organisation: Its Management and Value, New York, McGraw Hill, 1967. Manvendra Singh, “Years after request, Army still counter-insurgency equipment”, Indian Express, 12-12-97. Maslow, A. H. , Motivation and Personality, New York, Harper 18 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J and Row, 1954. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Mayo, E. , The D. C. , Social Atkinson, Problems J. W. , of R. A. , an Industrial H. L. , Civilization,Bostan, Harvard University, 1945. McClelland, Clark, Lowell, TheAchievement Motive, New York, Appleton-Century Crofts, 1953. McGregar, D. Leadership and Motivation, Boston, Michael Brecher – (1953) the struggle for Kashmir. Mukherjee, B. N. , “A Factor Analytic Study of Job-Satisfaction”,Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 1970, 5(4), pp. 229-439. Murthy, K. S. , “Job-Satisfaction as related to Personality ables’*, Journal of the Indian Academy of 1969, 6(3), pp 71-73. 22. 23. 24. 25. Pakistan : Cardle of Terrorism”, Pareek, U. , “A Motivational Paradigm of Development”, Indian Educational Review, 2(2), 1967. Pareek, U. , “Motivational Patterns and Planned Social Change”, International Social Science Journal, 1968, 20(3), pp. 463-73. Paul Wilkinson, “Terrorism versus Liberal Democracy: The Problems of Response”, in William Gutteridge, ed. , The New Terrorism, n. p. : Institute for the study of Conflict. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. PUSHTAY, J. S. , Counter-insurgency Warfare, New York: Free Press, 1965. Schofield, Victoria, 1996 “Kashmir in the Gossfire (I. B. Touris) S. Sanyal, “One Man’s Terrorist: Law Enforcers’ Attitudes Towards terrorism”, Faultlines,3, New Delhi, Novernber l999, pp. 168-81. S. K. Gosh, Terrorism: World under Siege , New Delhi: Ashih Publishing House, 1994. Sharma, D. L. 127-32. 31. Sigmund Freud, Civilization and its Discontents cited in Daya Somasundaram, Scarred Minds: The Psychological Impact of War on Sri Lankan Tamils, New Delhi: Sage, p. 92. 32. 33. 34. Sisir Gupta (1966) Kashmir: A study in India – Pakistan relations. Trist, E. G. , et al. Organizational Choice, London, Tavistock, 1963. Varma, B. 1988, Insurgency and Counter – terrorism (Uppal Publishing house, New Delhi. ) “Psychological Mechanism of the Morale of 1950, 25, pp. Industrial Workers,” Indian Journal of Psychology, Vari Applied Psychology, MIT Press,1966. 9 Synopsis: Impact of terrorism on morale & motivation of security forces in J&K 35. 36. 37. Vroom, V. H. , Work and Motivation, New York, Wiley, 1964. U. S. army officer, in R. Marston, “Resettlement as a CounterRevolutionary echnique”, Journal of the Royal United Servoces Institute. Water Laqueur, The New Terrorism: Fanaticism & the Arms of Mass Destruction. Civilization New York: Oxford University Press. Siogmund Freud, 38. 39. 40. Whyte, W. F. , Money and Motivation: An Analysis of Incentives in Industry, New York, Harper, 1955. Wilson, N. A.
B. , On the Quality of Working Life, London, HMSO, 1973. Wilkinson, Terrorism and the Liberal State, London: Macmillan, 1977, p. 81. Internet Website: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. http://www. indiatimes. com/ http://www. humanresources. about. com/ http://www. globalsecurity. org/ http://www. religioustolerance. org/ http://isp. cz/jcrane/Glossary. html http://en. wikipedia. org/ http://www. terrorism – research. com/ http://www. jammu-kashmir. com/ http://www. view. ac. ng/asianstudies/publications/working. html 9. 10. http://www. ipcs. org/ ******* 20