Idea Of The Corrections System Criminology Essay

The thought of the corrections system has been around for a piece. Within this system there lies several different types of plans that do non necessitate an wrongdoer to be placed in a prison or gaol. These plans to let the wrongdoer to stay out in the community, while being closely monitored.

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The earliest and most common plans are probation and word. These two plans allow most wrongdoers to be in their normal mundane scene, unless otherwise stated by the justice or probation or parole officer. Normally this is the sentence given to wrongdoers who have a non-violent discourtesy and are less likely to run off. These are the wrongdoers who are seen to be harmful to society. Probation and words are two of the easiest ways to assist with jobs within the gaol such as overcrowding.

Background/History

Probation and word are two of the oldest plans within the corrections system that takes attention of non-violent wrongdoers. Before the development of these plans, the wrongdoers would be placed into the same installations as all the other wrongdoers. This was n’t just to the wrongdoers, nor was it helpful to the staff at that place. The existent end of probation and word was non to put these people into prisons or gaols, but to rehabilitate them while in the attention of their community.

Probation

John Augustus was the male parent of probation, although there were similar patterns around 437 BC. Augustus was your mean, mundane adult male. However, his end with probation was behavioural reform. He believed that if the system allowed the wrongdoer to remain within the community, they would acquire kind of a 2nd opportunity. Then, by supplying support and counsel from probation officers, the officers may in fact be able to make the end of helping the wrongdoer in going a observant person.

The word probation really is a signifier of the Latin word probatio which mean to prove or turn out. The persons who receive probation are called student nurses. They are people who have been convicted of a offense and are given this sentence alternatively of traveling to imprison. Probation officers are the people who supervise them. They are normally court-appointed and must do certain that their student nurse follows the regulations handed down to them by the tribunal.

Parole

Parole was foremost used in Australia and Ireland. It was seen as an award for inmates who were on their best behaviour. Parole is a privilege given to an person when are eligible to parole. This happens after the captive receives a lower limit or maximal sentence ; so they become eligible with the determination of the parole board, which decides whether or non to set them on word after a consideration hearing. Just like probation, this is a plan that focuses on the rehabilitation of wrongdoers and acquiring them back into the community and on the right path.

Parole was foremost introduced in the United States by Brockway Zebulon in 1876 as a manner to cut down gaol overcrowding. Zebulon besides saw this as manner to rehabilitate wrongdoers by promoting them to exhibit good behaviour while incarcerated. This allows wrongdoers to be let back into their community after functioning a part of their gaol clip and unrecorded, but under supervising from a Parole Officer. The parole period is based on a determination made by the board of word. If the wrongdoer violates their word while out, they are so placed back into the prison system. Both Alexander Maconochie and Walter Crofton played of import functions in the development of the parole plan.

Literature Review

Probation

Evidence of probation goes all the manner back to the Middle Ages ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) . During that clip, the tribunal systems practiced suspended sentences. The first tribunals in America allowed these suspended sentences, but non every tribunal used this ( Young 1976 ) . All of this occurred before John Augustus ‘ thought of probation came about ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) .

John Augustus was a local man of affairs who asked Judgess to let him to pay the mulcts for wrongdoers who had been convicted of minor or non-violent offenses and so let him to oversee them ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) . After bailing these persons out, he helped them happen occupations and monitored their alterations ( Young 1976 ) . When it was clip for the wrongdoer to return to tribunal, Augustus went along and provided the justice with a study on how the wrongdoer was come oning. ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ; Young 1976 )

In 1978, thanks to the success of John Augustus, the first probation jurisprudence was passed in Massachusetts ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) . However, it was n’t until after Chicago established the first juvenile tribunal that probation became a popular and utile condemning method ( Young 1976 ) . In 1925, the National Probation Act was passed, which finally created a probation system for the federal authorities ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ; Young 1976 ) . By 1956, every province had some signifier of probation as a condemning method ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ; Young 1976 ) .

There are two chief ends established by the probation plan. The first is to protect society from extra offense by the wrongdoer ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) . The accomplishment of this end normally comes through the study of a presentence probe that is done to find whether or non the wrongdoer is a hazard to society ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) . If the information that comes from this study confirm that the wrongdoer is in fact non a hazard to society so they are sentenced to probation. If the information confirms that the wrongdoer is a unsafe wrongdoer and may be harmful to their community, so they are normally sentenced to more rough reverberations ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) .

The 2nd end is to assist the wrongdoers ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) . This is done through supervising and direction ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) . Probation officers are at that place to fundamentally watch over the student nurses and do certain that they stay off from things that could do them to reoffend. They besides monitor their actions and assist maintain them from misdemeanor regulations that have been set as a consequence of their probation. Equally far as managing goes, the probation officer is at that place to take the wrongdoer in the manner that they need to travel in order non to pique once more ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ; Young 1976 ) . They are at that place to assist and finally supply the wrongdoer with the resources that they need. This really includes assisting them to happen employment which is a demand when on probation.

If a student nurse violate their probation orders they will hold their probation revoked. Their misdemeanors fall under one of two types. The first is proficient, which is normally defined by minor misdemeanors ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) . The 2nd is a re-arrest or new discourtesy ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) . This is serious misdemeanor of probation regulations. Another discourtesy committed by the wrongdoer shows that the person is non likely to adhere to the probation regulations and non prepared to collaborate. These persons tend to hold their probation revoked and stop up back in the gaol or prison installations ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) .

Over the old ages, the figure of student nurses has fluctuated. From 1995 to 2004, the figure of persons on probation rose from 3,077,861 to 4,151,125. This is about a 0.2 % alteration in 2004, the smallest one-year growing rate since 1979. In 21 provinces, the grownup probation population decreased with Washington State being the lone 1 who saw a dual figure lessening. Kentucky, Mississippi, New Mexico, and New Jersey were among the four provinces who saw an addition of more than 10 % in probation population. Since 1990, student nurses have accounted for about half the growing of the full prison population. ( Glaze and Palla 2005 ; Burrell 2005 )

As with anything, there are jobs that occur with probation ( Paparozzi and DeMichele 2008 ) . When placed on probation, wrongdoers are expected to follow the guidelines provided to them through the tribunals ( Ditton and Ford 1994 ) . However, we find that they do n’t ever follow the regulations and sometimes ne’er acquire caught or charged. In 2004, in a certain country of Florida, 199,215 persons were supposed to be on probation in peculiar month. About one of five wrongdoers had disappeared ; out of those left, near to one of four had an active misdemeanor study. Nothing was done because a justice stated that it would be difficult to make something with each individual that had violated their word.

Another job with probation is that the officers experience heavy caseloads ( Paparozzi and DeMichele 2008 ) . They frequently have to draw overtime in order to maintain up. It ‘s difficult for the officers to pull off all their instances and be certain to maintain up with oversing the wrongdoers ( Paparozzi and DeMichele 2008 ) . This besides tends to be an issue when it comes to parole officers.

Parole

The word system goes back to the 1800s when Sir Walter Crofton introduced tickets of leave ( Schuessler 1954 ) . He used these to give to captives who experienced good behaviour in exchange for an early release from prison. Crofton besides introduced the thought of intermediate prisons ( Schuessler 1954 ) . Inmates could populate and work in a supervised mode while transporting out their prison sentence ( Schuessler 1954 ) .

As for the United States, Brockway Zebulon introduced the thought of the first word system ( Schuessler 1954 ) . Zebulon used the aid of voluntary community members to supervise the behaviour of the inmates who were released. He was n’t focused on the aid of constabulary officers, as he believed they had enough on their home base. As clip went on, he used the aid of voluntary members who were concerned with the wellbeing of the person. By the 1900s this thought had spread and go popular in every province except Virginia, Mississippi, and Florida. ( Schuessler 1954 ; Dressler 1951 ; Abadinsky 1982 )

The parole board was established in 1902 ( Schuessler 1954 ) . This took the probationers out from under the control of the officers in prisons and allowed the parole board to specify the regulations and ordinances for them ( Abadinsky 1982 ) . The board was made of three members ; the deputy warden would sit in as the chair individual ( Abadinsky 1982 ) . Prisoners would come before the board as their behaviour was analyzed and the board would find whether the inmate deserved a word ( Schuessler 1954 ) .

The word board established to pull off words based on the inmate ‘s behaviour ( Virginia General Assembly 1992 ) . However they besides had to detect the inmate ‘s condemnable history, anterior supervising chances in the community, behaviour in the prison during their gaol clip, and the inmates ‘ programs after being released ( Abadinsky 1982 ) . During this clip, parole officers were introduced into the system. Their occupation was to oversee probationers once they are released from prison ( Virginia General Assembly 1992 ) .

In 1910, in couples who were sentenced and confined in any US prison would hold automatic and equal opportunity to parole Torahs set by those establishments. No word would be sentenced until the lawyer general approves it. For captives who were sentenced to a life sentence would be able to travel up for word after 15 old ages. As a consequence of all of this, each prison had to engage a parole officer who would oversee the inmate and assist the probationers get a occupation. ( Schuessler 1954 ; Dressler 1951 ; Abadinsky 1982 )

Within the clip of being paroled, merely like with probation, the probationer must stay by a set of regulations ( Schuessler 1954 ) . The must run into with their parole officer at meetings established by the office. The must adhere to all other regulations and ordinances of being on word. In the instance of any new apprehensions, the probationer must describe this to their parole officer ( Schuessler 1954 ) . If the probationer moves, they must do the parole officer cognizant. This besides goes for any alteration in employment. During this clip the officer can non hold any control substances in their ownership nor be in the ownership of a piece ( Schuessler 1954 ) . It ‘s besides recommended that the probationer chorus from tie ining with persons that may do them to reoffend or could perchance acquire them in problem in any manner ( Schuessler 1954 ) .

The figure of persons on word went from 679,421 in 1995 to 765,355 in 2004. Therefore, the Nation ‘s parole population grew approximately 2.7 % . This is a immense difference compared to the little growing of probation. A sum of about 10 provinces had double-digit additions in their parole population and every bit few as nine provinces saw lessenings in their parole population. ( Glaze and Palla 2005 ; Burrell 2005 )

There are legion jobs with the word system ( Paparozzi and DeMichele 2008 ; DeMichele and Payne 2007 ) . One being the sum of caseload being given to parole officers ( Schuessler 1954 ) . The system seems to hold a deficit of parole officers taking the 1s that there are to hold more instances, doing it difficult for them to maintain control of what they have ( Paparozzi and DeMichele 2008 ; DeMichele and Payne 2007 ) . Another job is the fact that if the person is a reoffender, the opportunities of them reoffending is greater than those of a first-time wrongdoer ( Schuessler 1954 ) . This is true because the US has seen a high rate in recidivism over clip. There is non much that can be done due to the deficiency of forces.

Probation and Parole Officers

Basically, probation and parole officers serve the same responsibilities. They are supposed to oversee and pull off the wrongdoers. This allows them to be instance workers every bit good as jurisprudence hatchet mans because they have to do certain the wrongdoers do n’t interrupt any Torahs. Some will reason that supervising is the most of import facet of the occupation. ( DeMichele and Payne 2007 )

Probation and parole officer have several responsibilities they must go to to. They conduct place visits, execute curfew cheques and verify with the employer of the wrongdoer is really employed. They besides help the wrongdoer get into intervention installations if they need it. That ‘s merely a few of the responsibilities that these officers accomplish. ( Dressler 1951 ; Schuessler 1954 )

In order to became a probation or parole officer you must travel through specialised preparation at a Peace Officer Standards and Training installation. Once this preparation is completed, they become POST certified peace officers. These officers must take portion in quarterly preparation categories in a assortment of countries refering their occupation.

Difference between probation and word

Most people think that probation and word are the same thing. The have the same end as to rehabilitate wrongdoers, but they play two different functions. Probation is fundamentally an extension to the wrongdoer ‘s sentence, while word is a wages given to captives for good behaviour ( Dressler 1951 ) . Parole lessens the sum of clip the persons serves in prison ( Dressler 1951 ) .

Probation is a sentence handed straight to the wrongdoer from the justice, but a parole board is in charge of the determination to allow an wrongdoer with word ( Dressler 1951 ) . When it comes to parole, the justice has no say, the determination is left up to the parole board in the prison installation ( Dressler 1951 ; Abadinsky 1982 ) .

Probationers are eligible for word after they have served the minimal prison sentence that has been handed down to them ( Abadinsky 1982 ) . The board at this point determines whether or non the single receives parole ( Dressler 1951 ) . Equally far as probation goes, this is based on the justice ‘s determination after finding the earnestness of the offense and whether or non the person is likely to reoffend within the provisional period ( Dressler 1951 ) .

Society on Probation and Parole

Those within the community have mixed reactions about these plans. Most feel as if it is a good thing to seek and rehabilitate these wrongdoers. However, they are diffident how they feel about this persons holding contact within the community. They feel as if these persons have already offended, that there is non much to maintain them from piquing once more.

Equally far as wrongdoers are concerned, those who serve gaol clip are able kind of web within the prison walls. They develop these relationships with other captives that lead them back where they began. These relationships allow them to set up other relationships out in the community with other felons or aberrant persons. This is non the instance all the clip, but for a bulk of the clip, this is the instance. Some members of society realize this and get down to worry what could come of these relationships and webs that have been made.

When an wrongdoer is released back into society, they have to larn how to command what happens as a consequence of being labeled. As an wrongdoer enters the prison system, they become labeled as an wrongdoer. This label so makes it difficult for them to happen employment, every bit good as brand alterations that lead and keep them on the right way.

There are persons who are willing to assist these wrongdoers, but most fear their yesteryear. This is when the aid of the word or probation officer comes into drama. It ‘s their occupation to assist these single get occupations or acquire into rehab or even continue with their instruction. More than probably, if an wrongdoer reoffends, it ‘s because they are unable to set up a topographic point in society that keeps them busy. Idle custodies are the Satans workshop which means anyone who has free clip to waste is more likely to pique than person who is invariably making something.

Decision

The occupations of being a probation or parole officer is non easy. On a twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours footing they have to cover with maintaining path and oversing single, every bit good as perchance having more persons. Their occupation is already difficult plenty with doing certain their student nurses and probationers are following the regulations, but when you have multiple things tend to acquire slippery.

These officers are underappreciated. They are besides frequently taken advantage of. These people come into these places to assist people. That ‘s why they choose this calling, to seek and do a difference in one ‘s life.

These two plans are really utile within our rectification system. They provide for agencies of rehabilitation merely as their laminitiss wished they would. They besides save revenue enhancement remunerators a great trade of money. Prison overcrowding do the revenue enhancement remunerators of America to hold to fork over more money to back up the support of prison and gaol installations. With probation and word plans holding been founded, we are able to salvage money and relieve the crowding in these correctional installations. Although they are non all fail cogent evidence, they do assist.

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