The term green place means a place created to utilize less energy, H2O and natural resources, and is infinite efficient. A green place has to supply good air quality and comfort to the occupants since it is meant to bring forth less wastage comparison to normal house. Green place can be considered as a sustainable development which can do best usage of the natural resources and decrease the effects of the waste to the environment. Green place is a luxury plus to the society since it can better the householders ‘ life style. Green place is a type of green edifice. It is to set into pattern the constructions and characteristics which are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient. The green place designs stressed on the facets of economic system, lastingness and comfort.
Bernstein, ( 2007 ) it is a really powerful thing that people who was being surveyed starts to perpetrate to build green places. It means that they are paying attending to the holistic benefit of green. Since the green engineering is being introduced in Malaysia, so it can be used in developing green place and green edifice in our state. Green place features, its elements and jobs of puting up green place in Malaysia will be discussed in this chapter.
2.2 Types of Green Homes
There are a few types of green place. One of the types of green place is an empirical energy-efficient place. This type of green place focal point on the efficiency of energy through the usage good insularity, advanced Windowss, summer shadiness, good airing, and etc. Zero energy place is besides included in green place. Its purpose is to accomplish zero energy cost. Zero energy place is being equipped with energy-efficient contraptions. In add-on, it uses renewable energies as its power beginning. Passive solar techniques, natural airing in roofs are being used in the edifice. You can state that it produces its ain energy by directing some of the energy back to the public-service corporation. At dark or twenty-four hours without sunlight, the householder obtained energy from the public-service corporation but when cheery twenty-four hours and the place is vacant, the power is being sent back to the public-service corporation. Therefore, it can state to hold zero energy ingestion. It besides consists of HVAC design. Furthermore, super-insulated place is a type of green place. It uses the internal place warming beginnings and inactive solar technique to cut down its energy use. Besides that, inactive house which consume low energy costs is a type of green place. Passive solar techniques are being used to diminish the energy use of the house. The building stuffs, doors and Windowss used is being taken into consideration when this type of house is being built.
2.3 Green Home Characteristics
Yudelson, Jerry ( 2007 ) defines green place as ‘a place that at minimal saves at least 30 % of the energy of a conventional new place by put ining water-conserving fixtures and utilizations of non-toxic coatings. ‘ From this statement, we can cognize that green place provides a better and healthier life to the householders by diminishing the pollution which can be caused by a conventional place. Furthermore, it besides stated that green place can cut down the used of energy since the energy-efficiency contraptions are being installed in green place.
After the 1992 Rio Earth Summit which awarded the Austin Green Building Program in Texas, the definition of ‘green ‘ includes H2O usage, waste disposal, edifice stuffs and energy ingestion. Green architecture and green design is being used to develop green place. Eco-friendly edifice stuffs and building patterns are being used to build green place.
2.2.1 Environmentally Friendly Site
A green place must hold an environmentally friendly site since maximizing the exposure of the house to sunshine is of import. By maximizing the exposure of the house to sunlight, it can supply the house with more natural visible radiation and heat. An environmentally friendly site which can supply a good shadiness to chill the house is of import to the state which is situated in the tropical country such as Malaysia. Trees and bushs are besides of import as they may move as a good shadiness. Merely cut off the trees and gown which will barricade the tracts and the building of the house. Green place can be constructed at the site which has good handiness to the comfortss and services.
2.2.2 Energy-efficiency Materials and Designs
Energy-efficiency stuffs are being used in green place to diminish HVAC loss. There are assortments of stuffs and designs which can be apply to avoid the outside air come inside the house. Materials and designs which avoid the outside air can be used to command the interior clime of the house easy. LED visible radiations can be used as an option of candent visible radiation bulb.
2.2.3 Low-flow Water Fixtures
Green place installs low-flow H2O fixtures to decrease the ingestion of H2O. Low-flow H2O fixtures can still work like high-flow H2O fixtures. The difference between low-flow H2O fixture and high-flow H2O fixture can non be told since it does non do uneffective showering experience.
2.2.4 Healthy Indoor Air Environment
Fresh air airing is being set up in green place to avoid the outside air from impacting the indoor air quality. A good fresh air airing system does non used up a batch of power beginning. It will filtrate all the dusts and bacteriums of the outside air and supply fresh indoor air to the residents. Green place provides healthy indoor air because it used low volatile organic compound pigment to paint the house. Furthermore, no rug and formaldehyde-free cabinets are being used in green place. These characteristics make the indoor air healthier because they make the indoor air fresh and free from pollutants such as dust.
2.2.5 Use of Sustainable Merchandises
Sustainable merchandises and stuffs are being used to build green place. Sustainable merchandises such as optimum engineered joist and beams are being used to construct green place. Mulch in the pace can be made by utilizing recycle waste. Use metal or cement tile roof to replace herpes zosters roof as metal and cement tile have longer life span. Bamboo floors is a building stuffs that we should look for when building green place since it lasts longer comparison to other assortments of forests. Toilet which used up a smaller sum of H2O should be installed in green place to replace traditional lavatory. Homeowner should recycle or compost the waste. Skylights should be put in to decrease the use of visible radiation bulbs.
2.3 Elementss of Green Home
There are four basic elements of green place which need to be implemented when constructing a green place. The four basic elements of green place are energy efficiency, material efficiency, H2O efficiency and indoor air quality.
2.3.1 Energy Efficiency
Energy is one of the basic necessities of our day-to-day activities. Harmonizing to Kilbert ( 2008 ) , energy efficiency is the used of systems or merchandises that can diminish the usage of energy without cut down the public presentation of the merchandises or systems from its ordinary map. These systems and merchandises are used in green place to guarantee ingestion of less energy. Design green place in energy efficient manner in the building stage. Sun, air current, heat, and visible radiation are being taken into consideration to hold a green place which is energy efficient. There are besides efficient HVAC systems and illuming to cut down the energy degree in a house. Energy efficiency characteristics such as structural insulated panels building, photovoltaic solar panels, energy-efficient Windowss and etc are being installed in green place.
2.3.2 Material Efficiency
Green place utilizations green and high quality stuffs when it is being constructed. This can better indoor air quality and avoid the toxic produced by normal edifice stuffs. Even recycled stuffs and merchandises can execute good and what ‘s best is they can cut down the cost of stuffs.
2.3.3 Water Efficiency
Water is really of import for cleansing and waste direction. Water efficiency means the systems or merchandises which allow us to decrease the usage of H2O comparison to the traditional 1s without lessening the public presentation of the systems or the merchandises. Water efficiency can be achieved by conserving the fresh water resources. Water -efficient contraptions, plumbing fixtures, and efficient sewage can cut down the use of H2O. Dual flush lavatories and low-flow showerheads and spigots are being used to diminish the use in green place to do certain it is H2O efficiency. Furthermore, rainwater and gray H2O can be used to blush the lavatories, H2O the workss and rinse the auto. Plants which are drought-resistance can cut down the use of H2O.
2.3.4 Indoor Air Quality
The wellness and comfort of the householders can be affected by the indoor air quality. Indoor air quality can be affected by the design, building and the stuffs used to build a house. A good green design, green stuffs and a good building are of import to accomplish high indoor air quality. A well-design airing and wet control play the most of import function in supplying good indoor air quality. Besides that, a good care on these contraptions are of import to supply good indoor air.
2.4 Designs in a Green Home
The size of place will impact the sum of energy used. A larger place demands more warming, air conditioning and illuming comparison to a smaller place. Therefore, a smaller place is more energy efficient comparison to a larger place.
2.4.2 Shape and Orientation
Harmonizing to Kibert ( 2008 ) , the edifice which include place which situated in the North hemisphere, it is best to allow the indoor country to confront the south side of the house whereas place which is situated in the South hemisphere, the indoor country should confront the north side of the house. For place located in the state which has cold clime will be in square form as it can cut down the surface country of the place. Smaller surface country can forestall heat loss of the place. Home in warmer countries particularly tropical countries has long and narrow form since it can decrease the comparative exposure of the surface of the place to the Sun.
Harmonizing to Bullard ( 2005 ) , landscape is being designed to cut down the usage of resources for sewage, fertilisation and care. Actually landscape played an of import function in green place because it can do our place becomes more efficient and sustainable in the long term. Turf can be used in landscaping but it should non transcend 25 % of the landscape country. Trees can be used for landscaping but it must be placed strategically to supply shadiness to the place. Make certain the trees are planted at the side which can assist to shadow the house. By utilizing trees as sunglassess, the householder can avoid the use of air conditioner.
Gardens, trees, bushs and lawns which are being placed around the place must follow the shading and landscape gardening constructs. Landscaping besides includes the elements such as courtyards, shaded paving and etc. These are of import elements towards energy-efficiency place. Plants which are drought-resistance are recommended comparison to workss which need to be H2O on a regular basis. Drought-resistance workss can take us towards H2O efficiency of green place. Drought-resistance workss can besides take down the use of pesticides since they are plagues immune.
Even the lawn mower must hold green construct which is it does non foul the environment. Electric lawn mowers are preferred comparison to gas-powered lawn mowers because electric lawn mowers are more energy-efficient and make non foul the environment like gas-powered lawn mowers. Irrigation system can be converted to drip irrigation system which enables the H2O to flux straight to the workss without being wasted. Homeowners can take solar-powered landscaping visible radiations to replace electric-powered landscape gardening visible radiations. These visible radiations can assist to diminish the use of electricity. Rain barrel can be included in the landscape gardening to increase the H2O efficiency. Rain H2O which is stored in the rain barrel can be utilize to H2O the workss and it is besides chemical-free most of the clip so it ca n’t foul the environment.
Composting can be used to compose the trash which is biodegradable. It can supply the dirt and workss with organic foods. It can besides decrease the use of chemical fertilisers and better the dirt ‘s wet.
Green roof system may include drainage beds, workss and filter fabric. The roofs of green place must supply efficient storm H2O direction. A green roof must besides supply comfort to the householders by diminishing the heat in the afternoon and diminishing the cold at dark. At the same clip, green roof can really be a home ground for animate beings and workss. Besides that, green roof can supply thermic comfort and open-space end. Furthermore, it can cut down the air-conditioning measure of householders. Therefore, green roof emphasiss on supplying a healthy place. In Malaysia, green roof can merely be found at green edifices and green places since it is non being widely used by the developers in the state at this phase. There are two types of green roof which are extended green roof and intensive green roof. The type of green roof which can move as the home ground for workss is the intensive green roof since it is thicker. Although it can move as the home ground for the workss, it is much heavier comparison to extensive green roof. Furthermore, it is every bit preferred as the extended roof since it is harder to keep. Most of the people prefer extended roof because it is made of lighter stuffs and is easier to keep. Green roof can be described as a park in the center of the concrete jungle. However, the cost of green roof is rather expensive so most of the green place undertakings in Malaysia do non include this design in the undertaking.
Daylighting is the natural visible radiation coming through from Windowss and gaps of a edifice to decrease the used of electricity. Daylight can diminish the used of energy. It non merely light up the inside of the place, other than that, it provide heating and chilling intents to the householders. Since Malaya is located near the equator line, therefore it has a tropical clime. The tropical clime allows Malaysia to hold renewable energies at all clip of the twelvemonth to function as the power beginning for green place. Thus the sunshine can fall equally on the green place. Daylighting design procedure can assist to maximize the usage of it in green place. Basic ocular acuteness and issues of public presentation must be taken into consideration when supplying effectual daylighting to green place. Design must remain off from veiling contemplations particularly at topographic points which critical usual undertaking is being performed. Design for daylighting must besides avoid blaze. Glare will impact the pleasing environment of the place as it can do utmost degree of brightness to the householder. A good daylighting design will heighten the daytime zone. Daylight zone can be enhanced by widening the margin of the gap or window. Windows which located at higher topographic point can cut down blaze. Direct beam of sunshine must be avoided to cut down veiling contemplations. Curtains and flora can be used to filtrate daytime. Picture below shown the daylighting designs which should be adopted.
Beginning: DAYLIGHTING by Gregg D. Ander
Windows allow daytime to entree into green place. Besides that, windows besides serve as aggregators of heat and as ventilators. The Windowss have to be located at the right topographic point and have the right size so that they can function their maps. Windows ‘ stuff belongingss and the orientation will besides impact the sum of daytime. Shades and drapes can be used to command the daytimes enter to the place.
184.108.40.206 Light Shelfs
A light shelves can heighten the place ‘s brightness. Light shelves have the ability to decrease the window brightness. Light shelves have both of these maps because they consist of reflecting surface which can reflect the daytime and they can reflect direct sunshine to the ceiling. The visible radiation which is being reflected can decrease the deep shadows and the demand of general light.
Skylight located at the roof and is crystalline. This characteristic allows daytime to come in the house. Skylight must be designated with white semitransparent acrylic to forestall internal heat job. Skylight must be fitted decently to avoid leaking job. Therefore, green place is advisable to utilize fanlight which has two window glasss or more to allow it move as heat reflecting coat.
220.127.116.11 Light Tubes
Light tubing or known as solar tubing is being usage in green place to hold surface which can reflects the daytime and base on balls on the visible radiation to the place inside. Light tubing has lesser heat transportation since its surface is smaller comparison to skylight. Light tubing is being shown in the image below.
Beginning: Wikipedia ( Daylights )
2.4.6 Natural Ventilation
Natural airing is really of import when puting up a green place. Natural airing includes Windowss, doors, fans and etc. Difference in force per unit area helps fresh air to travel into the place by the aid of the natural airing system. Difference in humidness and difference in temperature cause the difference in force per unit area. The location and size of gap of green place may impact the natural airing of the place. Doors and Windowss have to be located at a place which can acquire adequate cross airing when it is needed by the householder. They besides need to be sealed to forestall extra heat and cool air of the place.
A good natural airing must move as a circuit which provides equal supply and fumes to its residents. Issues such as mean air current velocity, environing planting and landforms, wind way and etc demand to be taken into consideration when designing and put ining inactive airing system. Passive airing system is being used since it is environmental friendly. However, unreal airing system has an of import function in airing since it can filtrate the outside air before it flux into the place.
2.4.7 Renewable Energy Use
It is a must for green place to bring forth a portion of its energy. Solar energy, weave energy and geothermic heat pump can be used as the power beginning of the place. However, in Malaysia we merely used solar energy to bring forth the energy of green place. Renewable energy is environmentally friendly and the best of it is renewable energy let energy nest eggs. Since Malaya has tropical clime, solar energy can be used to bring forth place ‘s energy. Solar energy provides heat and electricity. Solar electricity can be used in green place by put ining solar roof herpes zosters. In United States, photovoltaics and inactive solar are being installed when the place is being built. By utilizing solar energy, the proprietor can salvage electricity cost.
Solar thermal system is widely used in Malaysia. The solar thermal system gaining controls and shops the heat the minute the sunlight work stoppages its surface and it straight being turned to heat. A good solar thermal system has to forestall heat loss. This is being done by the top surface of the solar thermal system. Backup boiler is being used to bring forth heat on cloudy twenty-four hours and cold conditions twenty-four hours. The solar thermal system can roll up energy on cheery twenty-four hours and maintain the energy in the backup boiler.
2.5 Benefits of Green Home
Green place provides householders with a batch of benefits. The benefits can be grouped into a few facets since it is non merely environmentally friendly. It besides gives healthier life to the householders, provide comfy place to householders, used less cost to run and etc.
Green place can assist householders to salvage energy through use of alternate energy beginnings such as biomass, geothermic, air current and solar power. Green place which is energy efficiency and H2O efficiency can cut down the use of energy and H2O. Green place can assist to better quality of air and H2O and cut down waste. Green place uses 50 % less sum of H2O comparison to conventional place since it has drought-resistance landscape and H2O salvaging sewage system. Most of the green places are being set up utilizing quickly renewable stuffs such as bamboo therefore, natural resources are being protected. Green place produces lesser waste which is harmful to the environment since most of the stuffs used are green stuffs and renewable stuffs. Harmonizing to a study which is done in the United States ( 2008 ) , if all the edifices met the green edifice criterions, the state ‘s energy use will diminish 10 per centum. Therefore, we can protect the environment by constructing more green places alternatively of conventional places.
Developers of green place usage new methods and stuffs to construct green place. Although the new methods and stuffs are more expensive comparison to the stuffs and methods which are being used to construct conventional places, these extra costs can be deduct off because green place has lower cost of care, operations and insurance costs. Green place ‘s energy efficiency can diminish the householder ‘s public-service corporation measures. Green place allows the householder to cut down 40 % to 50 % of H2O and energy per month. The lighting system and contraptions which are energy efficient can take down the energy use. Green place besides has sewage system, lavatories, showers and etc which can cut down the use of H2O. The use of electricity in green place can be lowered by utilizing solar thermic system excessively. Since green place used green and sustainable stuffs to be contrasted, it has less care costs. Its thirster lifetime besides guarantee it does necessitate to be maintained every bit often as conventional place. Since green place provides healthier life, the householders can stay healthy and indirectly diminish their medical measures. The demand of green place is acquiring higher presents and its value comes in higher than conventional place. Therefore, the proprietor of green place can sell out the place at a higher market value and acquire higher net income.
One of the parts of green place in the wellness of its residents is its constituents and stuffs used have zero volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds will do concerns, sickness, kidney harm and etc. Green stuffs and constituents of green place can take down the toxic degree of the chemical therefore supplying householder with high quality indoor air. Actually the indoor air pollution is more risky comparison to outdoor air pollution. Green place has air airing system which can filtrate the outside air before the air is being flowed to indoor to cut down air pollution.
Furthermore, green place has lesser mold and dust touchs jobs. The green place ‘s air airing system can filtrate mold and dust touchs. Therefore, it can maintain the indoor air remain fresh. The residents of green place no longer hold sensitive olfactory organ job since the pollen and dust can be filter out. The H2O of green place is besides being filtered by the H2O filtration system in green place. It keeps the H2O used for day-to-day activities clean and out of any pollutants. Clean H2O is really of import as it will impact the householder ‘s wellness.
2.6 Problems of Green Home
There are a few barriers of puting up green place. One of the barriers is excess costs will happen since green place demands to be installed with solar energy systems, H2O efficiency sewage systems, natural air airing system and etc which are expensive. Since green place is still new in Malaysia, the demand of green place is non every bit high comparison to conventional place. This happen because most of the Malaysia citizens are still incognizant of the benefits of green place and the pollution caused by conventional place. This is the most of import factor. Since the demand for green place is non high, the developers continue to supply more conventional place which has higher market demand. The deficiency of demand in green place makes it harder to be marketed as merely a little sum of purchasers are able to afford it because of its monetary value. Most of the householders in Malaysia are non willing to pay more to purchase green place since the authorities of Malaysia do non give equal instruction and inducements for the citizens to promote them to purchase green place. Most of the Malaysia householders still do non hold apprehensions on green place until now although the authorities had promoted it since twelvemonth 2007.
The developers need to fix some money to supply their contractors and workers to larn about the green technique used in constructing green place since it is a new construct. This will take up a batch of clip and money of the developers to develop their contractors and employees. Even the gross revenues and selling squads have to be trained to sell green place.