Hospital is a wellness attention establishment that supplying attentions services to patient. The unwanted solid or semi-solid stuffs and non-soluble stuffs that produced from infirmary are known as infirmary solid waste or biomedical solid waste. In Malaysia, an efficient direction of infirmary solid waste is needed. The failure to pull off infirmary solid waste will give negative effects to patient and public wellness therefore finally fouling our environment. To work out this affair, assorted direction systems and patterns have been introduced for appropriate handling and safe disposal of infirmary solid wastes. Some of the systems and patterns include landfills, incineration, autoclaving and recycle/reuse. To pull off infirmary solid waste, usage of individual patterns can non work out the direction jobs. Largely, a figure of patterns are use together. Each pattern has its ain advantages and disadvantages. So, utilizing a figure of patterns is an effectual manner to pull off infirmary solid waste job expeditiously. This survey is to research and discourse about infirmary solid waste direction patterns in Kuala Lumpur, so that, we can observe the chief direction job of infirmary solid waste. In add-on, we besides can be after a new and better pattern of infirmary solid waste for the hereafter.
To place the processs of infirmary solid waste direction in KL.
To depict the ways to pull off infirmary solid waste.
An article entitle Hospital solid waste direction patterns in Limpopo Province,
South Africa: A instance survey of two infirmaries, from journal Waste Management, by Felicia Nemathaga, Sally Maringa and Luke Chimuka said that, to manage and dispose the infirmary waste safely, assorted waste direction systems and patterns have been reported. For illustrations of these patterns is landfills, incenaration, autoclaving and recycling. Normally, in most instances to work out the jobs of pull offing hospital waste, a figure of patterns are used in combination because each patterns has it ‘s ain failings and strengths.
From article entitle Biological Solid Waste Management in an Indian Hospital: a instance survey by Gayathril V. Patil and Kamala Pokhrel province that before the regulative presentment of bio-medical Solid Waste ( Management and Handling ) Rule 1998, waste from houses, stores, offices, industries, and infirmaries was the duty of municipal or governmental governments, but now it has become compulsory for infirmaries, clinics, other medical establishments and veterinary establishment to dispose of bio-medical solid waste as per the jurisprudence.
An article entitle Hospital solid waste direction patterns in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A instance survey of two infirmaries, from journal Waste Management, by Felicia Nemathaga, Sally Maringa and Luke Chimuka province that waste generated at infirmary is classified to general, medical and sharps. General waste defined as infirmary waste that does non present any immediate danger to human or to the environment. Medical waste is merely known to includes infective, pathological and chemical waste. Meanwhile, sharps are defined as any tools that could do a cut or puncture taking to injure.
Based on a paper entitled ‘Developing a maestro program for infirmary solid waste direction: A instance survey ‘ , Karamouz et Al. ( 2007 ) stated that “ aˆ¦most of the infirmary solid wastes are stored, disposed or burnt in unfastened infinites. In some instances, these solid wastes ( including infective wastes ) are disposed in landfills used for the disposal of domestic wastes, which can do considerable environmental and wellness jobs. “ .
Karamouz et Al. ( 2007 ) besides stated that based on his research at Khuzestan, “ aˆ¦the chief job of infirmary solid waste direction in the survey country is due to improper solid waste storage, wadding and transit instead than deficiency of installations. “ .
To develop a maestro program for infirmary solid waste direction, “ aˆ¦pollution burden decrease, development of infirmary solid waste separation, storage, transit and disposal systems, human resources development, development of monitoring, intervention and trying webs, research and engineering transportation, institutional alterations and betterment of the
legal model ” demand to be done as said by Karamouz et Al. ( 2007 ) .
The World Health Organization ( WHO ) , ( 2000 ) defines hospital solid waste as “ any solid waste that is generated in the diagnosing, intervention, or immunisation of human existences or animate beings, in research pertaining thereto, or proving of biological, including but non limited to: soiled or blood-soaked patchs, civilization dishes and other glasswork “ . It besides includes cast-off surgical baseball mitts and instruments, acerate leafs, lancets, civilizations, stocks and swabs used to inoculate civilizations and removed organic structure variety meats.
The waste generated from infirmaries is now recognized as a serious job that may hold damaging effects either on the environment or on human existences through direct or indirect contact. Exposure to risky wellness attention waste can ensue in disease or hurt ( WHO, 1999 ) .
In many states, risky and medical wastes are still handled and disposed off together with domestic wastes, therefore making a great wellness hazard to municipal workers, the populace, and the environment ( Silva etA al. , 2005 )
Analyzing the regulations, processs, and ordinances set Forth by the infirmary ‘s directory to be followed by the forces sing the direction of medical waste generated at the infirmary
The information gathered were based upon reexamining the statistical records of El-Beheira Governorate issued each twelvemonth by the Health Affairs Directorate ( 2007 )
Questionnaire distributed to the eight selected infirmaries in Damanhur City
Questionnaire was used to measure the current infirmary waste direction system in footings of segregation, aggregation, transit, intervention, and disposal
The aggregation of hospital waste samples and quantitative analysis were carried out in 2008
All of the wastes generated in 8 infirmaries were weighed on a day-to-day footing
The information from the study were analyzed utilizing Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) version 11.0 computing machine package bundle
In order to accomplish the aims of our research, a few methods were used to roll up informations and gather information on the assorted techniques and theoretical accounts used in the direction of infirmary solid waste. The first method used was on-line research. Diaries related to infirmary solid waste direction were searched upon to happen documents that are related to our survey. Members were required to reexamine one paper each to obtain of import information from that peculiar paper. The background of infirmary solid waste patterns in Kuala Lumpur was besides searched upon to acquire a clearer image of our subject. This on-line research was done for a hebdomad continuously.
The 2nd method is field work. We visited three infirmaries within the Kuala Lumpur country to hold a better apprehension on the processs in pull offing infirmary solid waste. The infirmaries are Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Gleneagles Intan Medical Centre and National Heart Institute. The staffs of the infirmaries gave us briefings and brought us to hold a expression around so that we can detect the whole procedure. This was done in 3 yearss clip where one twenty-four hours was spent for each infirmary.
Interviews were conducted every bit good with the governments and staffs of the three infirmaries mentioned above to farther understand the development of infirmary solid waste direction in Kuala Lumpur. Explanations were besides given sing the current state of affairs of infirmary solid waste direction in Malaysia and some informations were provided every bit good. The interview Sessionss were conducted on the same twenty-four hours as the infirmary visit to the several infirmaries.
The following method used was study. Two sets of questionnaires were formed and given out to the populace and infirmary staffs, with 50 respondents severally. For the populace, their degree of consciousness and cognition on infirmary solid waste direction were determined while their cognition every bit good as the processs in pull offing infirmary solid waste were obtained from the staffs of infirmaries. The questionnaires were distributed and collected within a hebdomad.
Last, rating and analysis were done on the chosen documents and every bit good as the questionnaires. The contents of the documents were evaluated and compared with the current techniques used in the direction of infirmary solid waste in Kuala Lumpur. The informations obtained from the questionnaires were analysed to hold a general position of the populace and hospital staffs sing infirmary solid waste direction. This was done in a hebdomad clip.
23 August 2010
Started our online research
Gathered information of our subject and questionnaires
30 August 2010
Formed the questionnaires
Called infirmaries to do assignment for interview and field work
1 September 2010
Distributed questionnaires to the populace
Collected the questionnaires back on the topographic point
2 September 2010
Distributed questionnaires to hospital staffs
6 September 2010
Collected the questionnaires back from the infirmary staffs
7 September 2010
Interview session and field work at Hospital Kuala Lumpur
9 September 2010
Interview session and field work at Gleneagles Intan Medical Centre
15 September 2010
Interview session and field work at National Heart Institute
20 September 2010
Started study doing
Transportation system to infirmaries
RM1.85 per litre
To do assignment for interview and infirmary visit
DiGi Prepaid SIM Pack ( RM8.50 per battalion )
RM0.30 per page
RM0.04 per page
Entire disbursals: RM82.40
Nemathaga, F. , Maringa, S. , Chimuka, L. ( 2008 ) . Hospital solid waste direction patterns in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A instance survey of two infirmaries. Waste direction, 28, 1236-1245.
Patil, G.V. , & A ; Pokhrel, K. ( 2004 ) . Biomedical solid waste direction in an Indian infirmary: A instance survey. Waste Management, 25, 592-599.
Magda Magdy Abd El-Salam. ( 2010 ) . Hospital waste direction in El-Beheira Governorate, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Management, 91 ( 3 ) : 618-629.
Karamouz, M. , Zahrale, B. , Kerachian, R. , Jaafarzadeh, N. & A ; Mahjouri, N. ( 2007 ) . Developing a maestro program for infirmary solid waste direction: A instance survey. Waste Management, 27 ( 5 ) : 626-638