Hong Kong’s ageing population

Chapter ONE:Introduction

1.1 Background

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Hong Kong aging population is celebrated subject for discuss. This societal job is really hard to work out, hence, I would wish to research aging population and leisure relationship, Leisure activities and leisure installations is indivisible, harmonizing to Rapoport ( 1975 ) As the population ages, many aged wellness will diminish, complaints impacting aged physical and psychological. Besides, explore Government see aged demands be aftering installations or non. I would wish to verify this theory correct or non.

The Government Information Centre ( 2003 ) states that Hong Kong was besides confronting the ripening job and this was besides the large job, The Hong Kong elder population in 2003 to 2033, there will be from 680 million to 838 million ; it prove Hong Kong is confronting serious aging job.

Although Government can non to the full resolved aging job, Government has duty to alleviate aging job. For illustration, Government must considerate senior people enjoy the great life and acquire the good wellness in the ulterior old ages. Therefore, authorities should supply adequate leisure installations to elderly to make on a regular basis exercising.

Many researcher describe exercising can advance the physical and spirit good being. This is authorities provide the leisure installations ground. Aerobic exercising such as running, jogging can better bosom and lungs map. Reduce hazard of bosom can increase organic structure wellness.

Government ever promote the fittingness plan to public, the purpose is achieve athletics for all run. Sport for All ” – a sustainable and community-wide clean civilization whereby people of all age groups participate actively in athleticss in pursuit of sound physical and psychological wellness every bit good as positive community spirit. This action increase the Numberss of aged become active to utilize the installations through the fittingness plan.

  1. Purpose of survey

To research Hong Kong aging population with aged wellness job

To look into Government better public leisure installations for aged

Recommendation for Hong Kong due to aging population increase new subsidiary installations to help aged usage the leisure installations.

ChapterTwo: Literature position

2.1Definition and the procedure ofAging

Aging is natural phenomenon, everybody can non avoid this aging procedure:

“Aging is inevitable, and affects every individual one of us. No 1 can get away this

fact.” ( Griffin, 2006, p.2 )

“It is a must for people traveling through aging. It refers to the irreversible biological alterations that occur increasingly within persons over their life span “ ( Millen, 1979 ) .

“The procedure of going older, a procedure that is genetically determined and environmentally modulated” . ( Medicine Internet, 2000 )

2.2 Successful aging

The aging procedure success is relate to people more concern their wellness, professional therapy service, Inc. ( 2012 ) province that wellness and low mortality have direct relationship. Rowe and Kahn ( 1998 ) reappraisal that successful aging include there constituents. It benefit for aged mental and physical wellness life.

  1. Health, low chance of disease and disablement
  2. High mental and physical map
  3. Active battle with life

Another Scholar Rosler ( 2006 ) is similar to Rowe and Kahn’s, he besides describe successful ripening is refer to three actions.

  1. The turning away of disease and disablement
  2. The continuance of effectual physical and psychological operation in the ulterior old ages
  3. Continue active battle with life.

2.3Aging Population Situation

As we all know, Hong Kong is confronting a serious job – Aging population. The book Evolutionary Biology of Aging ( 1992 ) provides the undermentioned definition of aging: diminution in the age-specific fittingness constituents of an being due to internal physiological impairment. United Nation research that aging population is the state when the fraction of the population aged 65 and over exceeds 8-10 % , diminution in the proportion of the population composed of kids and rise in the proportion of the population that is elderly. About Hong Kong aging job, sing Hong Kong 2030 be aftering Vision and Strategy, it show us increase in the average age of the population in Hong Kong from 2006 to 2036 of 39.6 old ages to 46.1 old ages old. Aged population will account for 26 % of the population. Above informations turn out Hong Kong is confronting the aging population.

2.3.1Current and Future Global Aging

Not merely has Hong Kong confronting aging job, besides the universe grown older every twenty-four hours. United state 2005 warning that over 421 million people worldwide were aged 65 and over in 2000, this figure is three times higher than 1950, united state estimation three-base hit once more to one and half billion by the twelvemonth in 2050. Hayutin ( 2007 ) analysis over 16 % of the universes people will be aged 65o or supra, it was comparison with merely 7 % in 2005

2.3.2Baby boomers and aging job relationship

Baby boomers all born between 1946 and 1964, policy reference 2011-12 provinces that “As post-war “baby-boomers” attack retirement age, our population aged 65 or above is expected to billow from approximately 900 000 at present to 2.1 million by 2030 to account for a one-fourth of our population. The quickly ageing population will convey enormous challenges to our aged and public health care services.”

2.3.3Hong Kong each territory aging population

Hong Kong have 18 territories, each territory have different population construction. Regard to Census and statistics section population and family statistics 2012, the first three of territories which have more aged above 65 is Eastern, Kwun Tong, Sha Tin, it is 91700, 99500 and 71800, Besides, the average age of the population is increasing because of a decrease in figure of immature people taking to an addition in proportion of older people, this theory is same as aging population definition. Eastern, Kwun Tong, Sha Tin average age is 44, 42 and 41. Therefore, the study proves that the three territory most facing aging population in Hong Kong.

2.4 Problems originating from aging population

Aging population conveying a batch of job to society, Miner ( 2001 ) states that two cardinal demographic forces are behind the planetary aging trend-falling birthrate rates and lifting length of service, aging population set uping the labor rate straight, it ensuing in some industry appear deficit of people. On the other manus, in a recent survey, cardiovascular device liability hebdomad diary ( 2006 ) it proved that the aging population increasing medical load, aging population will enforce considerable work load and fiscal force per unit areas on the wellness service, The figure of people aged 65 and over is predicted to increase by approximately 53 % between 2001 and 2031. This is likely to take to an addition in the figure of people who have chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. By 2031, they predict that the figure of instances of coronary bosom disease will increase by 44 % , the figure of instances of bosom failure will increase by 54 % , and the figure of instances of atrial fibrillation will increase by 46 % . Beside,

Demographic alterations besides affect the public demand for medical service. Harmonizing to 2010 statistics, the hazard of older people is more than non- aged patients around four times. In order to same study 2010 statistics, per 1000 individuals under the age 65 demand 1.3 beds, 65 old ages of age or more individual will necessitate 11.8. Those job is all hospital’s hereafter facing.

2.5Definition of leisure

Gibson and Wood ( 2000 ) describe leisure is refer to the clip an person has outside of clip spent undertaking work and other indispensable activities such as feeding, analyzing and kiping. Roberts ( 1978 ) argue leisure is comparatively freely undertaken non work activities. Dumazdier ( 1960 ) in male parent of leisure surveies states that leisure as free clip activities were different from productive work and concluded that leisure served two chief map which is relaxation, amusement. Relaxation is leisure provide recovery from weariness. Entertainment is leisure alleviations boredom such as watching film and listen music.

2.5.1Leisure and Aging relationship

Sum up the old position, aging people who over 65 old ages will easy to acquire ill, Juliet K ( 2011 ) believe that the wellness benefits of exercising are well-established. That means people do more exercising can increase wellness, besides the medical disbursal of authorities can cut down. Pate ( 1995 ) argues although increased exposure to chronic disease and disablement is built-in in the aging procedure, grounds suggests being physically active may change the class of many often happening diseases among the aged. Not merely has regular exercising been specifically reported to cut down the hazard factors associated with bosom disease and shot, exercising is besides an of import factor in cut downing overall morbidity and mortality. On the other side, some professional non hold above theory, Godbey ( 2008 ) believes that relationship between life style and wellness is complex. Active leisure does positively act upon wellness, but wellness jobs, which are more frequent in old age, can negatively act upon engagement in such leisure. That’s average although leisure is good for wellness, some athletics games possibly damage their wellness, because they are powerless and easy to acquire hurt. Therefore, elderly should take the suited exercising. Godbey ( 2003 ) happen out some theory about aging people participant the leisure activities ; because most retire people gain leisure both in footings of free clip and repose. They have many times for spent on leisure activities. Than, the bookman reference the aged Begin modify existing leisure involvement, for illustration, they begin give up the high motion exercising, possibly change the leisure activities to sedentary activities such as picture taking or play.

2.6 Aged leisure exercising and physical wellness

Aging is besides associated with diminution in thin organic structure mass, or fat free mass ( FFM ) , and increase in cardinal adiposeness which is a hazard factor for the metabolic syndrome. Jiang Ling ( 2009 ) said that “Keep regular day-to-day and appropriate exercising was that more effectual to forestall some common geriatric unwellnesss such as Alzheimer ‘s disease, Diabetes, Degenerative Arthritis, Heart Disease, Hypertension, Osteoporosis, and

Stroke. Table 1 is naming some benefit of aged making exercising.

Minimize physiological alterations associated with aging

Increase length of service

Improvement of aerophilic capacity, musculus strength and flexibleness

Improvement in physical public presentation and map

Improvement in psychomotor accomplishment

Prevention of falls

Reduced hazard of many chronic diseases

Improvement of temper and wellbeing

Improvement of sleep quality

Reduced anxiousness and depression


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2.6.1 Training method Suggestion for aged

Ad Hoc Committee on Healthy Aging ( 2001 ) reappraisal that increase physical activity, preparation, exercising, physical fittingness can place most of import lifestyle factor in prevent big figure of disease and advancing physical wellbeing. Hassel bring ( 2010 ) , the aged demand to make exercise 3 to 7 yearss a hebdomad for at least 30 proceedingss each clip

2.6.2 Resistance Training

Resistance or strength preparation physiques musculus strength and mass. Nelson et Al. showed that age-related loss of strength, musculus mass and bone denseness, particularly in adult females, could be lessened by beef uping exercising begun in center or old age. Additions in musculus strength in frail seniors may heighten balance, aerophilic capacity, flexibleness and performance-based trials of functional restriction, such as pace speed, step mounting and the get up and travel trial. Most low to chair strength opposition preparation plans, nevertheless, do non well better strength.

2.6.3Aerobic Training

Aerobic preparation, or endurance exercising, improves aerophilic capacity. It involves activity aimed at raising the bosom rate to a mark of approximately 60 % to 90 % of upper limit predicted bosom rate. In the aged, your plan or trainers need to be cognizant of age-related physiological alterations and utilize the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion, to put the maximal activity degree. The scale classs perceptual experience of effort Aim for 11-17 on the graduated table depending on the manner of exercising.

2.6.4 Balance Training

Exercise plans that include balance preparation have been shown to better public presentation in clinical trials of seniors with mobility jobs and functional damage. Tai Chi has been shown to cut down falls in healthy seniors. Other balance preparation exercisings include tandem walking, standing yoga, stepping over objects and standing on one leg.

2.6.5 Flexibility Training

Poor flexibleness is associated with aging and disablement. There is no grounds that flexibleness plans entirely, or physical therapy plans focused on scope of gesture and stretching entirely, have any important impact on disablement. Improvement, nevertheless, is seen in active scope of gesture in frail seniors who undergo high strength progressive opposition preparation.

2.7 Aged Barriers to exert

Karen A ( 2004 ) have a research indicate the ground about aged non prefer do exercise, Health, environment and cognition is three chief ground explain aged exercising behaviour. O’Neill and Reid found that 87 % of the aged have at least one barrier to forbid exercise engagement.

2.7.1 Health

Elderly most often cite hapless wellness as the taking barrier to both physical activity and exercising. Cohen-Mansfield have probe of community-dwelling aged, wellness jobs and trouble emerged as the most common barrier to exercising. For illustration, many elderly said that “I have a bad back and arthritis” or “Exercise will give me a bosom Attack”

2.7.2 Environment

The physical environment can besides show as a possible barrier to exert attachment, environments with available and convenient resources can do the aged willing to exert. For illustration, pavements, Parkss, diversion centres, and fittingness installations, make it easier for people to be exercise. Otherwise, If don’t have adequate diversion installations near people home, they may non willing do exercising. Above contention indicate diversion installations and people exercise desire is direct proportion.

2.7.3 Knowledge

O’Neill and Reid provinces that “in the aged population, the deficiency of cognition and apprehension of the relationship between moderate exercising activity and wellness is an particularly relevant barrier, as many lived through a clip period when exercising was non valued or deemed necessary. Many aged feel they already receive adequate exercising in their activities of day-to-day living” Poor consciousness of the function of exercising in disease bar is seen merely among the aged.

2.8Hong Kong Leisure Service Provider

Leisure industry is really big market. Gibson and Wood ( 2000 ) depict it can divided three parts supplier including public sector, private sector and voluntary sector. Public and voluntary sector is non for net income. The organisations besides provide low cost or free leisure installations and plans for public. for illustration, LCSD, YMCA, PO LEUNG KUK. Their purpose is guarantee leisure for all. Private sector is doing a net income to fulfill public demand of leisure service. For illustration, Pure fittingness, Physical, California.

2.9 Hong Kong aged leisure wonts and diversion front-runner

Sing Leisure wonts and diversion favourite investigate ( 1995 ) , most popular recreational activities and leisure wont include close to place activities such as walking and jogging in the park and athletics activities ( swimming and badminton ) , Besides, in 1996, BRFSS consequence indicated older grownups particularly for walking was the preferable exercising mode. Aging population addition public demand for place locality provide more inactive unfastened infinite, for illustration, Leisure park which have quality of diversion installations have seting flower and trees and supply new aged equipment. Overall, the figure of recreational installations is fundamentally equal. However, people want extra populace installations such as swimming pool and athleticss centre.

2.9.1Aged psychological factor for be aftering the leisure installations

In my recent survey, How to pay attending to aged mental wellness ( 2007 ) analysis aged mental lessening with age and serious consequence senior assurance. Besides, they non easy to accept new things and larn new cognition, aged normally encounter unfamiliar thing easy to experience tired, down and annoyed. Above grounds describe whether authorities or societal sector be aftering diversion installations must be simple and easy to run. Besides, Dr Zhuo Liang zhen ( 1989 ) bargain aged will experience loneliness, Boredom and relationship cut off. Therefore, be aftering the installations should considerate the networking component.

2.9.2 Aged physiological factor for be aftering the leisure installations

Zhang Li Yi ( 2007 ) states that old people muscles begin weak, it makes the organic structure go narrow and acquire osteoporosis, besides easy to fall and break. So, the installations should be focus on train up senior musculuss. On the other manus, sing Leisure Habits and Recreation favorite and revised Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines Chapter IV survey, Elder people frequently have less sensitive vision, hearing and touch abilities. The installing of exercising installations should put signage, grips, bannisters, boss, and grab bars etc.

2.9.3 Recreational installations supply conditions

Depend on the study states that aged most favourite installations are Leisure Park, swimming pool and athletics centre. Due to shortage of land supply, Hong Kong authorities besides has limitation on recreational development. However, harmonizing to Leisure Habits and Recreation favorite and revised Hong Kong Planning Standards and Guidelines Chapter IV survey, it describe diversion stems from a basic human demand for activities which are indispensable to the mental and physical wellbeing of the person and the community as a whole, Recreation is accepted as an indispensable activity for which land must be allocated. In supply status, Open infinite such as leisure park must minimum of 20 hour angles per 100000 individuals i.e. 2m2per individual. Sport centre need per 50000 to 65000 residential population, standard swimming pool per 287 000 or 1m2H2O per 85person.


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