History And Theory Of Environments Cultural Studies Essay

Planing a “ Space Colony ” to suit a large figure of people was my first experience in University. I decided to make some research and happen information about group lodging. For such a short clip assignment I relied on my basic cognition and tried to develop them. Because of the limited size of the site I did n’t desire to hold curve lines non to blow any little country hence I started looking for a simple signifier with angular geometries. The parking which covered half of the site country was the first issue of my design because I had to maintain it. The other half of the site was precisely on shrubs which I personally did n’t desire to destruct even a little portion of it. So I needed to construct my Space Colony on top of the Parking. To suit three 100 people in different room types I needed to hold multiple beds. The simplest geometrical signifier with clear lines for my site was rectangle. My first studies were merely some rectangle regular hexahedrons with different sizes which were put on together without following any architectural construct but they remind me the signifier of “ Ziggurat ” . I tried to set the regular hexahedrons on each other in order to do a edifice resembling to Ziggurat. One of the important elements of Ziggurat was the shrine at the top of it ( the last degree in Ziggurat ) which was functionally different from other degrees. In my design I put the smallest regular hexahedron on top which was the public country of my pupil adjustment such as eating houses, libraries and a computing machine lab. Security was one of the practical maps of Ziggurats and the entree to the top shrine was provided by stairwaies which were controlled by guards. I thought that security should be one of the functionalities of my design every bit good because I was traveling to plan a topographic point for on campus pupils. In fact supplying security for the abode was wholly related to my design. Because of this basic similarities Ziggurat became my case in point. Therefore I tried to seek the edifices resembling zikkurat to happen their architectural specifications.

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The Brutalist motion flourished in 1950s by English designers Alison and Peter Smithson. Le Corbusier ‘s post-world war II designs, Unite d’HabitationA in Marseille and Chandigarh in India in which he used natural concrete to construct them had a large influence on this motion of architecture. The term “ natural concrete ” from the Gallic “ beton brut ” became more common when Rayner Banham – British architectural critic – used it in the rubric of his book, The New Brutalism in 1966.

Brutalism was established when communities were looking for cheap building and low cost designing system as they were economically depressed after World War II. Many Brutalist manner edifices with large budgets were besides designed by designers who respected the honestness, anti-bourgeois and nature of the manner.

2.1. Definition of Brutalist Architecture

There is no clear account for the theory of Brutalism and in fact the definition which has described by coevalss is based on single averment. For case what made Alison Smithson to specify the Soho design as Brutalist, was the ‘exposed construction ‘ nevertheless in another article Alison and Peter Smithson believed in ‘reverence for stuff ‘ as one of the feature of Brutalism. But Reyner Banham, who was a fecund architectural critic and author believed in four specifications for Brutalist edifices:

Formal discernability of program.

Clear exhibition of construction.

Evaluation of stuffs for their inherent.

Clear exhibition of services.

2.1.1 Legible PlanC: UsersHengamehDesktopBrutalist PhotosHunstanton School.jpg

What is wholly seeable in the construction of Hunstanton ( jpg… ) and the Soho house as a Brutalist architecture, designed by Smithsons is the formal program with axial symmetricalness. Architects used insistent angular geometries form to bring forth a simple signifier in this motion.

My edifice was formed with different size of rectangular regular hexahedrons runing from bigger in the first floor to smaller at the top ( jpg… ) .C: HengamehUniversityARBE2203-History 2Assignment1PhotosText PhotosRhythm-Model.jpg

I have really followed this specification of Brutalist architecture and I believe this will supply a simple use for the dwellers of the edifice particularly for public edifices such as schools, universities and pupil adjustment.

Degree centigrades: UsersHengamehDesktopBrutalist PhotosFirst Floor plan.jpg

2.1.2 Exposed Structure and Servicess

Structure and services in Brutalist architecture were two elements which were left exposed. Although many critics thought this attack is anti-aesthetic but the innovators of the motion Alison and Peter Smithson believed that ‘truth to stuffs ‘ is the basic rule of the motion ( jpg… ) . So many designers subsequently followed this rule to demo their regard to the honestness, anti-bourgeois and the nature of the manner.

Degree centigrades: UsersHengamehDesktopBrutalist Photos250312139_3bae938d60_o.jpg hypertext transfer protocol: //www.imagineschooldesign.org/typo3temp/pics/d856f4c351.jpg

Exposure of services was one of the similarities of my design to Brutalist. However it was merely a ocular similarity. The ground why I decided to hold exposed services was non to demo my regard to Brutalism, it was because I thought that for the edifice like on campus adjustment with 300 occupants it must be really hard to pulverize the walls, ceilings or floors to repair the pipes, overseas telegrams and other services. Hence I left them exposed to supply a better entree when they need care.

2.1.3 Durability of MaterialsC: HengamehUniversityARBE2201- Architectural Design 2AAssignment1Group House 3D1.jpg

Although non all the Brutalist edifices like Smithson ‘s private house were made of concrete but it was the common stuff of this motion as Le Corbusier used the term beton brut to explicate the stuff he used in many of his Brutalist designs. As holding a unsmooth, blockish frontages were one of the qualities of Brutalist architecture, concrete could be a good solution to accomplish this end. By sing the sustainability of the edifice I chose concrete as the chief stuff of my design ( jpg… ) because it is a good thermic mass and it does n’t age in nautical clime like Newcastle. It was besides a good stuff to maintain the texture of the site as it was surrounded by two edifices which were made of concrete.

Similarities and Differences to Other Motions

Brutalism which formed after Functionalism has some specification that makes these two motions similar as they were both the subdivisions of Modern Architecture. What we can see in both motions are the mass-production designs in which Brutalism was criticized as a ‘pile of concrete ‘ ( jpg… ) . Use of concrete columns was common component of edifices in both motions.

Degree centigrades: UsersHengamehDesktopBrutalist PhotosBrutalist3 photos.jpg

There were besides some differences between Brutalism and Functionalism. Architects of Functionalism believedA in Louis Sullivan ‘s motto which said ‘Form Follows map ‘ and the edifices normally formed by horizontal lines with composing of freed frontage and free inside programs. While the chief elements in the signifier of the Brutalist edifices are exposed constructions without interior coatings ( jpg… ) .

Degree centigrades: UsersHengamehDesktopBrutalist Photos250304308_1ed6e83f78_o.jpg

Brutalism and Campus Buildings

In the late 1960 many North American ‘s universities started to spread out their edifices. As a consequence many Brutalist construction were built for university campuses in Canada and America. Some of the best illustrations of these edifices are the Yale Art and Architecture Building and the University of Massachusetts designed by Paul Rudolph in 1958 ( jpg… ) . As I was planing an on campus pupil adjustment I could happen a functional similarity between my design and these campus edifices which were the good illustrations for presenting the Brutalism motion.

Degree centigrades: UsersHengamehDesktopBrutalist PhotosBrutalistYale art and architecture.jpgC: UsersHengamehDesktopBrutalist PhotosBrutalistUniversity of Massachusetts.jpg

Branching to Specific of Design

The Brief: to happen out the type of the edifice which the client is bespeaking. For illustration if it is residential or commercial. The client ‘s theory and doctrine or even the civilization. The budget and the client ‘s demands to get down the procedure of planing.

Context: Is non merely a edifice or an architectural construction. To make a originative design I need to seek through history, art, political relations, economic system, civilization, faith and etc…

Concepts: Practical or abstract thoughts that all of a sudden comes to my head or the thing you have inspired by and this wholly depends on my experiences in planing.

Site: I believe that the site for designers is like a canvas for a painter. Site is a really little sample of a large environment with peculiar specification due to its location. To understand the specification of this small sample I need to seek the bigger environment in which my sample is located.

Plan: Planing a program and its orientation most of the clip is affected by the location of the site, the map of the edifice and the client ‘s demands.

Section: anti aesthetic monolithic construction with a mixture of solid, heavy and bare elements which inspires honestness.

Elevation: A monolithic, solid construction with the texture of wooden signifiers. The texture of the lift is designed in a manner that you can easy bespeak the nature of the countries which is concealing behind it.

Materials: Although the interior decorators presents are looking for new light weight stuffs and prefabricated constructions which has its ain logic, I still believe the pick of the stuff is depended on the signifier, map, geographical location and the map of the edifice. Sustainability and the aesthetic rules should non be forgotten.

Sun Control: Sun is non merely supplying visible radiations for the edifice ; it can besides be a natural beginning of energy to supply heat. Sun control is the most of import issue to plan a sustainable edifice. The orientation of the edifices, supplying gaps and overhanging roofs where they are needed are some of the facts which should be considered by designers.



As Rayner Banham wrote in one of his essays in 1955 Brutalism is the alone art motion which is an innovation of Cubism and Futurism. We can non get down analyzing about Brutalism without consideration how this motion affected on architectural ideas and linguistic communication of communicating between critics and designers.

In another paragraph he mentioned topology as an of import subordination of architecture nevertheless geometry is the maestro ordinance. But in Sheffield undertaking designed by Smithsons this subject has been reversed and topology has become dominant and geometry is the subsidiary. This makes Sheffield as an utmost point reached by any Brutalists.

Banham besides asserted that the axiality of Hunstanton designed by Smithsons is non built-in by the Brutalist and he has modified the definition of Brutalism every bit memorability as an Image, Clear exhibition of Structure and Valuation of Materials.

Although Brutalism had a large figure of advocates such as Reyner Banham, Theo Crosby and Philip Johnson who believed Brutalism as a extremist bend of architectural motion after universe war period but it damaged its repute by doing confusion for intellectuals about new Brutalism. Banham believed that the utmost dishonor of this motion were the legion edifices with concrete surfaces which used Le Corbusier ‘s term of natural concrete as an alibi for low cost stuff. Brutalism was mostly dead by the mid 1980s


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