The intent of this paper to analyze the environment direction stairss and usage of assorted green engineering undertaken by the Chemical industries in India to cut down the harm caused by the assorted procedures to the environment and employees in the industry.
This subject is really important as the chemical industry in peculiar had come under a batch of fire for catastrophes like ‘Bhopal Gas Tragedy ‘ and more late the ‘Jaipur Mishap ‘ or ‘Fire at BOC Jaipur ‘ . Besides proper waste direction this sector can besides sometimes lead to choice betterment of concluding merchandise or important energy economy ( electricity and heat ) which can greatly cut down the operating cost therefore enabling the company to better its profitableness.
This paper besides includes a elaborate analysis of the Effluent Treatment set – up by Deepak Fertilizers and Petrochemical Corp. Ltd. for handling it ‘s wastewaters from assorted chemical workss at its Taloja Operations.
The chemical industry of India is one of the oldest industrial sector. It is valued at around 30 biilion US $ . It is the 3rd largest in Asia behind China and Japan and twelfth largest in the universe. It comprises of little, medium and big ( including MNC ‘s ) that produce every merchandise from petrochemicals to pharma merchandises and nutrient merchandises to toiletry. Out of the entire merchandises produced by the chemical sector ( 1/3 ) rd of it act as natural stuff for other chemical industries. The chemical industry accounts for approximately 13 % portion in the fabrication end product and around 5 % in entire exports of the state. The chemical industry contributes around 20 % of national gross by manner of assorted revenue enhancements and levies. The chemical industry produced around 8 million metric metric tons each of basic chemicals and basic petrochemicals.
Problems faced by the chemical sector:
The major job faced by chemical sector is pollution. Most of the chemical procedures are extremely fouling. In chemical industry most of the energy is derived from burning of fuels like coal, gas and oil. The uncomplete burning of these fuel causes the release of harmful gases like CO ( Carbon Monoxide ) , SO2 ( Sulfur dioxide ) , NO ( Nitrogen Oxide ) , NO2 ( Nitrogen Dioxide ) all of which cause respiratory diseases to the workers and if released in atmosphere cause acid rain. Besides CO2 which causes planetary heating and dust causation lung malignant neoplastic disease is released. Besides in assorted fertilisers industry HF ( Hydrogen fluoride ) which causes tooth and bone decay and hydrocarbons which cause rupturing of ozone bed are released.
The 2nd biggest job faced by today ‘s chemical industry is judicial of non – renewable energy. Chemical industry has ever been traditionally energy intensive industry. Most of the procedure in chemical industry like steam coevals, warming of procedure fluids requires, heat for transporting out assorted reactions requires enormous sum of energy.
Prevention stairss taken by chemical industry:
Most of the chemical industries in India follow terminal of pipe intervention method which means that the waste generated at assorted phases in the production procedure are treated to acceptable degrees by put ining appropriate waste intervention systems. The method of handling waste at the terminal of the pipe pollution does non mean to be the right solution in the long tally because of the undermentioned grounds:
Waste intervention requires significant intervention and allotment of budget to run into the operating costs
Waste may be used as a resource utilized instead than a loss in production activities.
Therefore in many chemical industries now – a – yearss the heat which usage to get away along with blowhole gases in the ambiance is being used to power the procedure or to bring forth steam which is considered the most of import public-service corporation of chemical procedures.
Besides the chemical industry has to adhere to the Five Point Framework provided by the Tiwari Committee:
Land and waste direction
Natural Living resources
Environmental instruction and awereness
The chemical industry chiefly follows the bid and command attack to environment direction and waste control. It relies on regulative instruments while some companies follow the economic attack which incorporates the economic instruments such as subsidies, charges and marketable licenses.
The regulative instruments include:
Standards are outstanding agencies of direct ordinance of environmental quality. They define the environmental marks and set up the allowable sums of concentrations of peculiar harmful substances that are released into the land, air and H2O.
Types of criterions:
Ambient environmental quality criterion: Highest allowable concentration of peculiar substances in air or H2O.
Effluent or emanation criterion: Legal ceiling on the entire measure of pollutant discharged from fouling beginning.
Performance criterion: Type of outflowing criterion that defines a public presentation step and allows the discharges and provides flexibleness to choose the best agencies that meets the criterion.
Product criterion: Legal ceiling on the entire measure of pollutants that can be discharged into the environment per unit of merchandise end product.
Process criterion: Standard limits the emanation of pollutants associated with specific fabricating procedure.
Licenses and Licenses: Granting and withholding of licenses and licences is another tool for control of pollution.
Corporate sustainability ladder: Measures the pro – action of the company to follow environment friendly policy. ( fig 1 in appendix )
Employee safety: Chemical industrial is potentially one of the most unsafe industries with all the high temperature and high force per unit area operations and toxic merchandises.
As a trough of chemical industry it is your moral duty to keep a safe environment workplace.
OSHA ordinances have to be followed purely which province:
Safety instruction of employees foregrounding importance of safety.
Training of workers leaving cognition of safety regulations & A ; steps.
Display of charts streamers and mottos saying importance of safety.
Safety competitions honouring sections and workers holding a clean accident free record.
Distribution of safety setup like guards goggles tablets places and likewise.
Periodic fixs of equipment and study of the workss.
Critical analysis of assorted procedure and operations.
Use of nomadic safety vehicles to advance safety amongst workers of distant topographic points.
Collection and spread of all of import information about accident and disciplinary actions ot prevent in future
A separate safety section to look after all these activities.
Use of media like Television ‘s, wireless ‘s, sketchs, seminars & A ; presentations. ( fig 2 in appendix )
Besides computations of TLV – TWA, TLV – STEL, TLV – C values should be done and should be less than the standard specified by the authorities.
TLV-TWA: Time-weighted norm for a normal 8-hour working day or 40-hour work hebdomad, to which about all workers can be exposed, twenty-four hours after twenty-four hours, without inauspicious effects. Excursions above the bound are allowed if compensated by jaunts below the bound.
TLV-STEL: Short-run exposure bound. The maximal concentration to which workers can be exposed for a period of up to 15 proceedingss continuously without enduring ( 1 ) unbearable annoyance, ( 2 ) chronic or irreversible tissue alteration, ( 3 ) narcosis of sufficient grade to increase accident proneness, impair self-rescue, or materially cut down worker efficiency, provided that no more than 4 jaunts per twenty-four hours are permitted, with at least 60 proceedingss between exposure periods, and provided that the day-to-day TLV-TWA is non exceeded.
TLV-C: Ceiling bound. The concentration that should non be exceeded, even outright.
Employees and machines have to be provided with safety devices like:
Energy efficiency: Energy is one of the most dearly-won constituent of any industry. Chemical industry being one of the most energy intensive industry, troughs have to come up with advanced stairss to pull off energy expeditiously so that the operating costs are controlled. For illustration in petrochemical industry natural gas is the natural stuff for fabrication merchandises like ammonium hydroxide, intoxicant and many plastics. When refinement of natural gas takes topographic point C dioxide is released as a by – merchandise. Carbon dioxide can be sold to carbonated drinks fabricating or it can be used as coolant for dry ice infrigidation. Besides the heat being released with vent gases in the ambiance can be used for heating the provender stuffs into an equipment by an equipment known as heat money changer therefore accomplishing a dual intent by a individual equipment and significantly cutting the cost.
Case survey on Deepak Fertilizers ETP:
Deepak Fertilizers and Petrochemical Corpn. Ltd. :
Deepak Fertilizers and Petrochemicals Corp. Ltd. ( DFPCL ) is one of the largest manufacturers of industrial chemicals, Sulphur Bentonite & A ; Nitro Phosphates in India. DFPCL is merely maker of Iso Propyl Alcohol in India. It is the largest maker of Technical Prilled Ammonium Nitrate in India. DFPCL ‘s fabrication works is located at Taloja, Raigad. It is accredited with the esteemed ISO 9001:2000 and OHSAS 18001:2007. The entire sale for agri – concern stood at Rs. 576.8 crores and entire gross for chemical sections stood at Rs. 811.49 crores in 2008 – 09. The net net income for the twelvemonth 2008 – 09 was Rs. 148.7 crores. The merchandises manufactured by DFPCL are:
Agri – Products and services
Nitro Phosphate fertilisers
NPKs, Water soluble, Micro – foods and Bio – mixes ( outsourced merchandises )
Farmer consultancy Services through Mahadhan Saarrthie Centre.
Produce direction ( fruits and veggies )
Low denseness Prilled Ammonium Nitrate
Ammonium Nitrate Solution
High denseness Prilled Ammonium Nitrate
Concentrated Nitric Acid
Strong Nitric Acid
Dilute Nitric Acid
Iso Propyl Alcohol
Effluent Treatment Plant:
The wastewater intervention works is designed to handle the wastewater coming from different countries of the works. The intervention of different wastewaters varies with the type of wastewater.
2. Beginnings and Quality of Effluent:
The wastewater consisting from assorted subdivisions of works mainly comprises of floor lavations, spillages, scrubbed spiritss etc. The wastewater can chiefly be classified into two types: those incorporating nitrogen-bearing pollutants such as ammonical N and nitrate N and those incorporating phosphate pollutants.
The Ammonium Nitro – Phosphate works and Tank Farm country are the major beginning of pollution incorporating pollutants such as phosphates, ammonical N and nitrate N. On the other manus Ammonia ( NH3 ) , LDAN ( Low Density Ammonium Nitrate ) and WNA ( Weak Nitric Acid ) workss discharge ammonical N and nitrate N.
The Raw Effluent Quality provided by DFPCL is:
NH4A – Nitrogen
NO3 – Nitrogen
4 – 11
4 – 8
4 – 10
6.5 – 8
4 – 8
3. Natural Materials and Utilities Required:
a. Natural Materials:
Specified Raw Effluent Quality and measure.
Acerb Soda 46 % as Acerb Lye.
Acid ( 96 % H2SO4 )
Electric Power – individual and three stage
The Treatment installations provide entail a figure of unit operations enumerated below:
Physio – Chemical Treatment
Physio – Chemical Treatment:
The wastes from ANP works and armored combat vehicle farm country are combined together in bing keeping armored combat vehicle CT – 1. These wastes are treated for remotion of phosphates. The natural wastewater is foremost pumped to Reaction armored combat vehicle – 1 where MOL is added to raise and keep pH at 9.
The reacted waste so enters clariflocculator where in Ca phosphates precipitates are settled.
The clear wastewater watercourse from clariflocculator so overflows into Reaction tank – 1.
Other nitrogen-bearing works wastes viz. Ammonia works floor lavations, NH3 works waste, LDAN works and WNA works waste are collected together in keeping armored combat vehicle CT – 3 from where they combine with partly treated waste in Reaction tank – 2A. Here acerb sodium carbonate solution is farther added to raise the pH to 11. The pH corrected waste is so pumped to NH3 stripper which is similar to a standard chilling tower. At a pH of 11 most of ammonium ion are present as free NHA3 in dissolved province in waste H2O. The waste is pumped to exceed of stripper tower into a distribution system located below the induced bill of exchange fan. This distribution helps in keeping unvarying flow of H2O over full cross subdivision. The infinite below the distribution is packed with PVC tubings. These tubings help to interrupt waste H2O into little droplets therefore increasing surface country which helps release of ammonium hydroxide gas. The IP fan at the top of the tower draws up air through the tower rip to the falling waste H2O and ammonium hydroxide rich air is exhausted from reduced NH3 degree ( around 80 % remotion is expected in stripper 1 ) is so allowed to flux to Reaction armored combat vehicle – 2B where the pH is re – corrected for any bead that might happen in stripper – 1 back to pH of around 11. The waste is pumped to present – 2 NH3 which is similar in design to present – 1 stripper. In this phase balance NH3 is stripped out.
In this phase a stripping efficiency of 80 % is expected. The treated H2O collected in basin of stripper phase – 2 is pumped to RT – 2.
The waste H2O fluxing from the stripper is now ready for 2nd measure of the intervention. In this measure all nitrates broken down to harmless terminal merchandises. This is achieved by biological agencies. For denitrification measure, a two measure procedure has been provided there is a denitrification armored combat vehicle provided with sociables followed by clarifiers. From phase – 1 clarifiers outflowing flows to denitrification armored combat vehicle – 2 where residuary nitrate is broken down to nitrogen. This armored combat vehicle is followed by a 2nd phase Denite clarifier. The underflow phases from each phase of denitrification armored combat vehicle are recycled back to the several Denite armored combat vehicle. The biomass in denite armored combat vehicles are kept in suspension by agencies of low velocity fomenters. The fomenters are located in such a mode that full contents are agitated. MeOH is provided as Carbon beginning. This is provided as methanol waste ( fusel oil ) from methyl alcohol works.
The outflowing armored combat vehicle from Denite classifier – 2 flows to smoothing armored combat vehicle NT – 1 where O2 is introduced from air to increase the DO degree to around 4 – 5 mg/l. At the same clip N2 dissolved in wastewater is stripped out.
Chemical sludge precipitating from the clariflocculator underflow is taken to centrifugate pump, from here sludge is pumped to centrifugate provided ( 1 working and 1 standby ) . The female parent spirits from extractor flows by gravitation back to procedure while bar is collected in streetcar and disposed ( sold ) off.
The surplus of sludge from two denitrification armored combat vehicles is withdrawn from clarifier underflow and sent to sludge drying beds.
5. Explanation of assorted phases involved in procedure:
Physio – Chemical Treatment:
As can be seen from above tabular array subdivision – 2, outflowing watercourses emanating from assorted workss have different composing. Some of these components can non be treated biologically but are readily applicable to chemical intervention. This calls for segregation of waste H2O.
The waste Waterss from ANP works and armored combat vehicle farm country contain high concentration of phosphates apart from ammonical N and nitrate N. Phosphates are removed by chemical intervention and gravitation deposit.
The phosphates readily respond with hydrous calcium hydroxide to organize indissoluble C phosphates. This precipitates, along with the subsiding solids, are represented by gravitation deposit.
2 ( NH4 ) 3PO4 + 3 Ca ( OH ) 2 Ca3 ( PO4 ) 2 + 6 NH4OH
Once these contaminations are eliminated from the wastewaters, this watercourse can be mixed with the waste Waterss from NH3A , LDAN, and WNA works. The composite watercourse is so treated for remotion of nitrogen-bearing pollutants.
Ammonical N can be removed from H2O by volatilization of gaseous NH3 into the air. The rate of transportation can be enhanced by change overing most of ammonical compounds to gaseous NH3 at high pH.
In waste H2O ammonium ions exist in equilibrium with ammonium hydroxide as represented by following equation:
NH3 + H2AO NH4+ + OH-
At a pH of 7 ammonium ions ( NH4+ ) in true solution are present. At a pH of 12, ammonium hydroxide exists in solution as a dissolved gas. In scope of pH of 7 to 12, ammonium ions and ammonium hydroxide gas co – exist. As pH is increased above 7 equilibrium shown in above reaction is shifted to the left in favour of NH3 gas which can be removed from liquid, by aeration. The sum of base required to modulate the pH is governed by initial pH.
After ammonium ions have been converted to ammonia gas there are 3 basic factors that will impact the transportation of NH3 from waste H2O to environing ambiance:
The surface tenseness of air H2O interface.
The driving force ensuing from difference in NH3 concentration in H2O and the environing air.
Temperature of waste H2O.
The aim of biological intervention is to take O devouring affair from waste H2O and cut down, oxidise or stabilise it to want grade for safe disposal of wastewater into having watercourse.
In a biological procedure BOD represents nutrient for micro – being. This nutrient will be attacked by heterogenous and changing mass of micro – beings, all of which occur in natural organic structure of Earth and H2O. Both works and carnal signifier of micro – being are required to make this work and comparative figure will change depending on responding conditions. The matrix of micro – beings and extracellular merchandises is referred to as biological sludge.
The first merchandise of reaction is cellular affair which under equilibrium conditions is thought as surplus of sludge. In the procedure of surplus of nutrient, the beings will turn and multiply. This addition in population is synthesis portion of reaction. While parts of reactants are converted through synthesis to biological civilization, another portion is wholly oxidized to stop merchandise. The aerophilic reaction produces CO2, HA2O and NH3. It is through this latter reaction that micro – beings gain their energy for bing.
Food + Micro – beings + O2 Cellular affair + Energy + CO2 + HA2O
The above reaction can be accomplished both aerobically and anaerobically. The pick between the procedures is determined by type and complexness of the procedure H2O and the coveted terminal merchandises.
The waste H2O after NH3 denudation is left with nitrates which need to be destroyed prior to dispatch of H2O. Here once more biological intervention is found to be feasible.
Biological denitrification can be defined as a procedure by which micro – beings cut down nitrate ions to nitrogen gas. A comparatively big no. of bacteriums can carry through this including Achromobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Enterobacter, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Paracalobactrum, Pseudomonas spirallum. These bacteriums accomplish nitrate decrease by a procedure known as nitrate dissimilation whereby nitrates or nitrites replace O2 in respiratory procedure of beings under anoxic conditions. This being can utilize either nitrates or O as terminal negatron acceptor while oxidising organic affair is termed as heterotrophic bacteriums. This procedure occurs through series of complex reactions catalyzed by enzymes.
First nitrate is reduced to nitrite through transportation of two negatrons from the substrate ; bring forthing energy for all synthesis in 2nd measure nitrite is reduced to N2. This two measure procedure is termed as dissimilation. General reaction is:
NO3- + organic affair + Microbes N2 + H2O + CO2
As seen from above reaction a C beginning is required for reaction. Most godforsaken H2O by the clip they reach denitrification phase is lacking in carbonous affair. Therefore in most instances methanol, due to its easy biodegradability is added as C beginning.
This can be represented by following reaction
Nitrate to Nitrite: 6NO3- + 2CH3AOH 6NO2- + 4H2O + 2CO2
Nitrite to Nitrogen: 6NO2- + 3CH3AOH 3N2 + 3H2O + 3CO2 + 6OH-
In pattern 25 to 30 % of sum of methyl alcohol required for energy is required for synthesis.
6. Concluding Effluent Quality:
6.5 – 8
NH4- N, mg/l
Less than 50 mg/l
NO3- N, mg/l
Less than 25 mg/l
Less than 20 mg/l
Less than 250 mg/l
Less than 100 mg/l
Suspended solids, mg/l
Not more than 30 mg/l
5. Cost Benefit Analysis:
The entire cost of operating this works sing the cost of the natural stuffs, public-service corporations mentioned above and besides sing the extra adult male power to be employed to keep this ETP comes to about Rs. 7 Crores.
If we calculate the impact of net incomes on history of this extra cost of ETP works so we can see the undermentioned consequences:
Entire Revenues = 576.8 + 811.49 = Rs. 1388.29 Crores.
Net incomes ( With ETP ) = Rs 148.7 crores.
Net Net income Margin to the Company ( With ETP ) = ( 148.7/1388.29 ) *100 = 10.71 %
Net incomes ( without ETP ) = Net incomes ( With ETP ) + 7 Crores ( because you would non hold to incur the costs for runing ETP if you do n’t hold an ETP )
Net incomes ( without ETP ) = Rs 155.7 crores.
Net Net income Margin to the Company ( Without ETP ) = ( 155.7/1388.29 ) *100 = 11.21 %
From the above computations we can see that the net income border for the company under consideration is acquiring impacted merely by 0.5 % ( 11.21-10.71 = 0.5 )
So by paying 0.5 % more DFPCL is acquiring a sustainability certification from the ministry of environment and woods.
Besides DFPCL has really secured a long term place in the industry as in the close hereafter there is traveling to be a irresistible impulse for all the fertiliser companies to put up an ETP of their ain owing to increasing pollution degrees in land, H2O and air because of fertiliser industries.
Besides, as the clients get educated they will recognize the importance of sustainable support and will utilize the merchandises which do non do injury to the environment. Therefore under such state of affairss companies like DFPCL would profit as they make such merchandises.
Hence, the sustainability steps undertaken today would go a selling advantage for tomorrow for companies like DFPCL.