This literature reappraisal is merely intended to find the degree of cognition, importance and credence of green and energy efficient lodging, from the position of the house purchasers. Some of the relevant information and definition discussed were included. This chapter besides explains the elements of edifice design, stuffs, contraptions, and landscape gardening.
Green residential belongings is known as economically low-cost, technologically efficient, environmentally healthy, and high public presentation edifice. Green lodging provide healthy and comfy environments for the residents. The edifice should be constructed with comfy layouts and utilize atoxic stuffs and engineerings with proper airing and filtration. Green edifices are sited, designed, constructed, and operated to heighten the wellbeing of their residents, and to minimise negative impacts on the community and natural environment ( Eric, 2008 ) .
Harmonizing to 2006 Energy Information Administration information, commercial and residential edifices account for 48 per centum of energy consumed, 76 per centum of electricity used, and 15 per centum of the entire H2O consumed. Buildings besides use 50 per centum of the universe ‘s natural stuffs, ( Attmann, 2010 ) . Peoples from all over the universe have been rushing up in deriving a better understanding towards the clime alterations and nursery consequence in Earth ‘s ambiance, which has going more critical.
Energy efficiency means the accomplishment that could cut down the usage of energy and besides cut down the nursery gas emanations. Reduced energy could cut down the fiscal cost and energy cost. Renewal energy is energy that was produced from natural resources which are green and efficient. For illustration, Sun, air current, mini-hydro, and workss.
Residential edifices could be fixed with photovoltaic [ PV ] panels to obtain the solar power from the sunshine. The solar panel could be fixed on the roof
In making a green edifice, the chief consequence is sustainable design and edifice stuff. Sustainability is used as a general term to depict technologically, materially, ecologically, and environmentally stable constructing design in architectural.
Harmonizing to the Budget 2010, the Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak had said that the Malaysia authorities has set up a RM1.5 billion fund for the intent to promote the development of more green undertakings and the usage of green engineering. This fund will offer soft loans to companies that employ the green engineering. Furthermore, the authorities will bear 2 % of the entire involvement rate and the edifice proprietor will be granted revenue enhancement freedom if they obtain the GBI in within 2009 and 2014.
2.2 Green Building Index ( GBI )
In Malaysia, Green Building Index ( GBI ) is the evaluation tool used to rate a green edifice to advance green life. This evaluation system was developed by PAM ( Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia / Malaysia Institute of Architects ) and ACEM ( the Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia ) . Greenbuildingindex Sdn Bhd ( GSB ) militias all rights on the Green Building Index and GBI.
The Green Building Index is developed based on the tropical ( hot and humid ) conditions, substructure and economic development, cultural and societal demands in Malaysia. This evaluation tool purposes to raise the consciousness among the designers, developers, applied scientists, contrivers, interior decorators, contractors and the populace about the environmental issues and their duties on it.
The environmental evaluation system is created to specify green edifices by set uping a criterion of measuring, promote structured whole edifice design, recognize and wages environmental leading, cut down the environmental impact, guarantee new edifices remain relevant in the hereafter, and guarantee existing edifices are refurbished and upgraded decently to stay relevant.
2.2.1 Green Building Index Organization
In February 2009, Greenbuildingindex Sdn Bhd was incorporated to administer the GBI accreditation and preparation of GBI Facilitators and Certifiers. The Green Building Index organisation is divided into three degrees, which consists:
GBI Accreditation Panel ( GBIAP )
An independent commission consists of senior edifice professionals to modulate the GBI evaluation system.
To position and award the GBI evaluation to qualified undertakings.
Involve in every measure of the evaluation systems development
Ensure the evaluation system is to the full tested and compliant to the local and international criterions.
Appraisal and Accreditation
To execute the elaborate appraisal and accreditation of edifice undertakings that is submitted to the GBI Accreditation Panel for GBI Certification.
GBI Project Development
To supply services to guarantee edifice undertakings could accomplish GBI accreditation.
The usage of Green Building Index is encouraged on all undertakings to measure and better their environmental properties. A certified green edifice would be reassessed every three old ages to keep the enfranchisement. Mentioning to the tonss achieved, the edifices will be awarded with one among the four types of evaluations: Certified, Silver, Gold, and Platinum.
2.2.2 GBI Rating System
The residential and commercial viridity belongingss will be evaluated under the GBI evaluation tool based on the six chief standards as below:
Energy Efficiency ( EE )
Improvement in the energy ingestion by cut downing the solar heat addition through the edifice, roll uping natural lighting, following the best patterns that include the usage of renewable energy, and guarantee a proper testing, commissioning and have regular care.
Indoor Environment Quality ( EQ )
Attain good quality public presentation in indoor air quality, acoustics, ocular and thermic comfort.
Uses the low volatile organic ( VOC ) compound stuffs, quality air filtration, suited air temperature, motion and humidness.
Sustainable Site Planning and Management ( SM )
Choosing suited sites with planned entree to the public transit, community services, unfastened infinites and landscape gardening.
Carry out proper building direction, ramp H2O direction and cut down the harm on bing substructure.
Materials and Resources ( MR )
Promote the usage of environment friendly stuffs taken from sustainable beginnings and recycling.
Enforces proper building waste direction with storing, roll uping, and re-use of the recyclables and building formwork and waste.
Water Efficiency ( WE )
Invention ( IN )
Advanced design that meet the aims of GBI.
2.3 Green Building Design
It is evident that architecture has a direct duty on making the green edifice. The design nonsubjective itself should be based on sustainability, ecological, and public presentation standards instead than tendencies and beauty. Jonathan ( 2008 ) , states that green design, or green edifice, refers by and large to utilizing sustainable methods and stuffs in the design and building of new belongingss. Green constructing frequently related to the renewable resources, e.g. , utilizing sunlight through inactive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and utilizing workss and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and for decrease of rainwater run-off.
As referred to Krishnan ( 2004 ) , green and energy efficiency residential belongings shall include size, sustainable stuffs and engineerings, ecological stuffs and engineerings, sustainable resources, resource ecology, environmental ecology, resource public presentation, and environmental public presentation.
Smaller houses are economically executable, efficient, and necessitate low care. This is because of their compact size and uses less material. As the effects, they need less energy, and bring forth less waste.
Residential edifice shall be build with reclaimable and economical stuffs and high engineerings. Architects should besides see elements that are easy demolished and reused or recycled at the terminal. Buildings that can be refurbished, or remanufactured, including salvaging stuffs and engineerings from disposal and renovating, mending, reconstructing, or by and large bettering the visual aspect, public presentation, quality, functionality, or value.
As mentioned by Krishnan ( 2004 ) , the stuffs and engineerings for a green constructing shall incorporate of low-emission and no pollutant elements with low fabrication impacts. The ecological stuff should non do from toxic chemicals.
Other than that, he besides mentioned that the green residential edifice shall trust on sustainable resources, such as energy and H2O. Residential should non be designed in barricading country. Furthermore, the edifice should be accessible to public transit ( and bike way ) to diminish vehicle usage, to salvage energy, and cut down air pollution. The residential houses should be constructed in the right topographic point and in the right manner. The dirt type and resource usage, such as H2O, energy, landscape, and waste direction must be taken into consideration before the edifice is designed and constructed.
The designers are responsible to plan a edifice which are environmentally friendly and does non damage the ecosystem. A good drainage system should be conveyed expeditiously to guarantee the H2O is conducted swimmingly to waterways through pipes systems. Design should assist to diminish the H2O use and supply water-efficient landscape gardening.
Green edifice should execute as economic, ecological, and environmental subscribers by assorted ways. The edifice stuff and technological constituents of the edifice should be used in a manner to diminish the environmental impact of the edifice such as absorbing the UV Sun beams and CO2 emanation to the ambiance. From Chwieduk ( 2003 ) , he had mentioned that the extraction of natural stuffs and production of edifice stuffs and systems can do environmental pollution.
A green residential edifice should be functionally, physically, and socially adaptable to the environment and acted harmonizing to the environment alterations.
2.4 Building Materials
Green edifice stuffs shall dwell of stuffs from the Earth and is environmentally friendly. Materials used for green edifice should be healthy, energy efficient, H2O efficient, nontoxic, and reclaimable. By taking the accurate stuffs for the edifice, we could salvage up the usage of energy of illuming, warmer, ice chest, H2O, etc. The peculiar green belongings shall dwell of merchandise that, ( Wilson, 2006 ) :
Do non let go of important pollutants into the edifice
Block the development, debut, or spread of indoor contaminations.
Remove indoor pollutant
Warn residents of wellness jeopardies in the edifice
Improve visible radiation quality
Help command noise
Therefore, in building green edifices, there were several stairss taken in the procedure of choosing the accurate or suited stuffs. The criterions of merchandise choice procedure including: ( I ) identify material classs ; ( two ) identify constructing stuff scope ; ( three ) gather the proficient information ; ( four ) reappraisal of submitted information ; ( V ) evaluate the green stuffs ; and ( six ) select and papers.
Part of stuffs to be considered in the residential edifices included the concrete, metals, wood, plastics, thermic and wet protection, doors, Windowss, coatings equipment, trappings, particular building, mechanical ( plumbing, warming, airing, air conditioning ) , and electrical.
Internationally, there were assortments of green constructing evaluation plans to mention to the green merchandise and system criterions. For illustrations, Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) , General Services Administration ( GSA ) , Energy Star, Home Energy Ratings Systems ( HERS ) , Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Green Building Rating System ( LEED ) , etc.
“ Because many edifices stand for at least 50-100 old ages, and some last for centuries, it is indispensable to acquire them right the first clip. ”
State of the universe 2004.
2.5 Green Residential Building System
2.5.1 Renewable Energy System
Renewable energy is the type of energy that produces or gained from resources that is regenerative and would non wash up. Renewable energy was such as the Sun, workss, and air current.
Solar Power ( photovoltaics )
By utilizing the solar panel ( photovoltaic [ PV ] panels ) we may change over limitless sunshine into electricity. As the supply of sunshine is free, we may salvage up a batch of cost. Dr Hwa ( 2010 ) had said that the execution of this new engineering could salvage money in the energy cost and cut down the emanation of GHG, although by seting it would be money.
The air current energy is created by the conditions. In California, air current turbine is used to bring forth electricity. But location of the air current turbine affects the procedure of bring forthing energy. A smaller size of air current turbine can be fixed at the house depending on the location.
Microhydropower ( mini dike )
Microhydropower is a little generator with little turbines that produces electricity from the running H2O. This could be fixed if the residential were located near a fluxing river.
2.5.2 Energy Efficiency System
It is a stuff that has the ability to cut down or forestall the transmittal of heat or sound or electricity ( Wordweb ) . The effectivity of insularity is measured in footings of the R-Value. The higher the R-value, the greater the effectivity of the insularity. ( Eric Corey, 2008 ) .
By utilizing daylighting, we could cut down the usage of electricity for visible radiations. We may acquire it through the rooftop window which is known as fanlight. Another manner of acquiring the daylighting in the house is by utilizing the solar tubing which bounces the light interior around the tubing and make a bright fanlight interior.
An energy efficient constructing design could include with a type of fluorescent lamp which is compact fluorescent ( CFL ) bulbs. CFL bulbs green goods less heat and last 10 times longer. Besides that, repairing the tenancy detector at the topographic points that you might bury to turn off the visible radiations would besides salvage up the electricity usage. Occupancy detector turns on the visible radiation when there is a individual come ining the topographic point and switches off after a set of period of no motion.
Energy efficient Windowss
Windows provide sunshine, position, airing, and solar warming to the place. In fact, more than 10 per centum of air conditioning leaks out from the window. Window with tinted window movies would assist to barricade heat from the Sun. By put ining sunshades besides could cut down heat from the Sun into the place. Fiberglass and wood window frames gives the best energy efficiency.
2.6 Green Landscaping
Green landscaping affects the environment of a peculiar house. It would shadow your place, cut down the heat, energy usage, making O, and increases the value of the belongings. For illustration, by seting trees could shadow the house from the Sun heat and noises. Ho ( 2006 ) had said that, planted trees will act upon the velocity of air currents and supply shadiness from the Sun, therefore it will diminish the heat loss or addition to edifice.
* ( Stormwater direction, terraces, paseos, and private roads, fencings, swimming pools, pots )
To understand this research, we need to understand and hold the cognition of green and energy efficiency residential edifices. Hence, this chapter explained exhaustively on the points included in the green residential belongings.