The chief aim of this study is to suggest a sustainable solution to pull off Singapore ‘s municipal solid waste generated in a local population stakeholder point of position. Upon reexamining the current state of affairs, it was found that the liability of the attack is the trust of the lone landfill in Singapore which is expected to last for another 33 old ages. As such, a series of options carry throughing the concerns of the local population were proposed.
Existing incineration workss were proposed to be replaced by a combination of engineerings such as anaerobiotic digestion and combined pyrolysis and gasification. These workss will be located at the offshore landfill, therefore making a self-sufficient “ Energy Hub ” situated at Pulau Semakau. It is proposed for consumers to raise consumer consciousness of externalized costs and the end for fabricating companies to bring forth merchandises with long last ability of upgrading alternatively being disused.
Beginning decrease and recycling strategies aiming the 3 chief wastes ( Plastic, Paper and Metallic elements ) were besides proposed. Monetary inducements were proposed to promote consumers to convey recycled bags to cut down the use of plastics. For paper, newspaper holders were suggested to be installed on public conveyances to put unwanted newspapers. Prolonging the period of owning of auto to 20 old ages was besides recommended to cut down metal use. To back up recycling, more recycling bins can be placed in public topographic points and more hard currency benefits can be given to public who are willing to take portion. Ultimately, the above methods are suggested to travel towards a clean and pleasant environment for the local population to shack in.
GWP – Global Warming Potential
MSW – Municipal Solid Waste
CO2 – Carbon Dioxide
CO – Carbon Monoxide
CH4 – Methane
N2O – Azotic Oxide
Table of Content
Background of Singapore
Singapore is a little city state with a big population coupled with rapid industrialisation and economic growing. Having a entire mainland country of 647.5A km2, it is faced with limited infinite for landfill. The one-year coevals of municipal solid waste ( MSW ) from families and industries has increased steadily from 2.76 to 2.79 million dozenss in old ages 1996 and 2000 and eventually to an overpowering 6.90 million dozenss in 2011 ( Tay,2012 ) . Singapore has placed high accent to the decrease, recycling and recovery of waste stuffs. After which, the staying MSW is incinerated. However, incinerators have non been viewed positively due to their big coevals of harmful emanations and low efficiencies of bring forthing energy from waste.
Scopes and Targets
Tasked with the stakeholder sing the demands of the local population, there are a few apprehensivenesss that are within the range. The chief concerns are:
Health of the populace and smell in the state
Aesthetically appealing milieus for a comfy environment
Space restraints and the involuntariness to compromise residential infinite for waste direction programs
Preferably out of sight and out of head, not-in-my-backyard ( NIMBY )
Ultimately, the demands of the local population will be met every bit long as it is pleasant to populate in, with a safe and odour-free environment, coupled with assortment of occupations and low-cost lodging available. The engineering and statute law behind the proposed solution does non fall within the range. As Singapore intends to increase the population size to 6 million ( Bakhda, 2012 ) , it will ensue in a important rush in MSW generated. Therefore, the purpose is to make a sustainable and quality environment without compromising the growing of the state and accomplishing zero-landfill.
Appreciation of Situation
Regardless of the chosen method for nidation, there is a demand to understand the features together with the current and future tendencies of the waste generated. Based on Singapore ‘s 2011 waste statistics study, the top 5 waste types that makes up 76 % of the entire waste generated are paper/cardboard, metals, building dust, plastics and nutrient waste. Waste direction attempts can specifically aim these few countries.
The Waste Hierarchy is a list of attacks to pull off waste, arranged in order of penchant. Prevention is frequently viewed as the primary start point for a holistic waste direction hierarchal model. In add-on, it possesses the capableness to bespeak the grade of economic benefit and environmental protection potency that can be brought upon through such attempts. However, this system is non ever accurate in footings of prioritising undertaking. For illustration, recycling may be better option economically and environmentally every bit compared to beginning decrease given the bing promotions. By developing an effectual environmental direction system, the most cost-efficient options for sustainable development will be much more likely be identified. Even so, the hierarchy has been shown to be rather effectual in ranking pollution bar and waste direction undertakings and is still utile as a footing to better environmental public presentation. Therefore for this intent, the waste hierarchy will be employed ( George & A ; Frank, 2002 ) .File: Waste hierarchy.svg
Proposals and Schemes
The combination of pyrolysis and gasification engineering is proposed to replace the current incineration method. It can change over organic waste into fuel called Syngas which could be combusted and converted into electricity, providing the waste direction works with sufficient electricity to power itself and still be left with extra electricity to lend back the state. If inorganic waste is fed into a Pyrolysis or Gasification works, it would ensue in non-hazardous scoria which could be used as edifice blocks or route pavement stuffs.
Based on the LCA reappraisal, the proposed engineering was found to hold least impacts compared to other methods on planetary heating, therefore the effects on the wellness of the populace and planetary temperature is reduced. Furthermore, it has the lowest acidification potency, take downing down the happening of acid rain which might damage the edifices and do harmful effects to the local population. Furthermore, formation of smog is about undistinguished. Overall this engineering is non damaging to the local population in footings of wellness and smell and will besides profit the local population in cut downing the waste ( Khoo, 2009 ) .
Waste Energy Hub
Anaerobic digestion works and combined pyrolysis and gasification works are planned to be located on Pulau Semakau. The proposed program is to make a self-sufficient waste island where waste can be converted into electricity which in bend will prolong the production of the workss. As incineration is harmful towards the local population by bring forthing GHG, phasing out incineration works and replacing it with the above two engineerings are recommended. Furthermore, this rhythm program is located offshore, and will non impact to the well-being of the local population. Waste from other states can besides be supplied to the island to be removed and gross can be earned. The categorization of waste above contributes towards the big proportion of MSW in Singapore. Both anaerobiotic digestion works and combined pyrolysis and gasification works have the capablenesss of change overing waste into fuel such as biogas and syngas severally. Biogas and syngas can be converted into electricity which will power both engineering workss.
Cost externalisation is a socio-economical term depicting how a concern maximizes its net incomes by offloading indirect costs and enforcing unwanted effects to a 3rd party. In this instance, the 3rd party refers to the local population and the environment. Such illustration due to the industry of a merchandise includes resource depletion, clime alteration, and wellness jobs. However, it must be understood that this effects are unseeable and by the clip it is felt, it is already excessively late. Raising consumer consciousness of externalized costs is one of the ways to increase force per unit area on many companies to reform their concern patterns so that they will bring forth fewer costs and more benefits.
Obsolescence is the province when a merchandise, service or pattern is no longer wanted even though it may still be in good working order. Primarily it is sub-divided into 2 countries which is planned and perceived obsolescence. In planned obsolescence, merchandises are designed to be no longer functional after a certain period of clip. It so pushes buyers to purchase earlier if they still want a functioning merchandise. The latter on the other manus occurs when a new product/technology is released to excel the old. It so psychologically convinces people to prefer the use of the new engineering, driving people to purchase them and therefore ensuing in wastage. Merchandises that are long enduring with the ability of upgrading alternatively of being wholly replace, is what is sought after by the people and finally should be the end of fabrication companies.
Beginning Reduction and Recycling
Beginning Decrease on Plastics
Political campaigns such as ‘Bring Your Own Bag Day ‘ can be implemented in supermarkets to cut down the use of plastic bags or else consumers will either be charged for every plastic bag used or be required to buy recycled bags from the shops. This will coerce consumers to convey their ain bags to salvage money. Retailers can besides implement another strategy whereby clients can acquire hard currency credits, particular price reductions or points to their shopping cards when they bring their ain bags. They will be able to utilize those points as discounts for their hereafter purchases. These two strategies have non been implemented widely in Singapore ; hence, it is besides important to make consciousness.
Consumers are besides encouraged to purchase the refills points if they are refillable. Reduced cost of refills can advance the demand for refillable points and will ensue in addition of gross revenues. This reduces the waste created by these containers which are bulky and hard to manage and besides reduces the demand of bring forthing them.
Beginning Decrease on Paper
A little basket/bin can be installed on board populace conveyances for riders to put their day-to-day newspapers. Other commuters can pick up the unwanted newspapers to read and put it back once more. This reduces the sum of unwanted newspapers and besides promotes recycling. The proposed solution enables other riders to bask reading and salvaging money at the same clip. As there is a focal point for the aggregation of unwanted newspapers at the terminal of the twenty-four hours, this is a direct and efficient manner for the aggregation of paper waste to be brought to recycling Centres. Alternatively, this could supply an extra beginning of incomes for the public conveyance operators and rag-and-bone adult male if the public conveyance operators sell the paper waste straight to them.
Beginning Decrease on Metallic elements
In Singapore, the auto ownership system works with the Certificate of Entitlement ( COE ) where it allows holders to have a auto for 10 old ages, after which they must trash or export the auto when it expires. This leads to a big demand in new auto production which uses a great sum of freshly produced metal. This is unsought in sustainability context. Widening the continuance of the plan to 20 old ages may cut down the demand for new autos, which in bend reduces the metal beginnings required for production.
Another issue is that current electronics do non hold long life spans ; hence, it is strongly proposed that makers should build merchandises which have longer life spans. This will assist cut down demand in new merchandises, salvaging on the Earth ‘s material resources.
It is observed that the major established branded makers have a direct relation with the consumers. Therefore, it is determined that when the electronic merchandises consumers purchased have defects, it will be executable that they return these faulty electronics to the makers alternatively of disposing them. This besides allows companies to roll up these points back and retrieve the stuffs. Cost economy can be achieved when this activity is carried out on a larger graduated table.
Recycling machines could be placed in supermarkets and assorted public topographic points where they will automatically sort the wastes. Furthermore, card points will be given to the occupants whenever they ‘return ‘ the wastes into the recycling machines. With the improved convenience and inducements, people will be more willing to recycle.
The ‘Throw less, Pay less ‘ plan can be implemented whereby public-service corporation subsidies are given when the sum of refuse thrown is below a bound. Automated detectors can be installed in HDB chutes to scan and weigh the refuse. This will promote people to do an attempt to cut down wastage. However, this may do illegal dumping to increase. To forestall this, the authorities can increase the punishments and mulcts on illegal littering.
To promote companies to be more involved in recycling undertakings, acknowledgment and awards can be given by the authorities for their support in recycling activities. For case, merchandises by companies that use reclaimable points can utilize governmental avenues for advertisement. This creates a bigger reclaimable market that is focused on effectual stigmatization and selling.
The proposed thoughts were suggested with the 3 countries of sustainability as the chief focal point and the cardinal concerns of the local population.
A self-sufficient waste island can be situated at Pulau Semakau to replace incineration workss with other engineerings like anaerobiotic digestion and combined pyrolysis and gasification workss. Both workss can separately bring forth biogas and syngas severally to be converted to electricity to self-sustain the production of the works. The purpose of this suggestion is to further economic growing and have an seaward focal point for the handling of MSW, which is out of the local population ‘s sight.
Using the waste hierarchy, beginning decrease and recycling are promoted. Schemes to promote consumers to convey recycled bag such as giving inducements to ease the outgo of their following purchase, helps to cut down the demand for plastic bags. Newspaper holder can be fixed on public conveyances to let unwanted newspapers to be read by other commuters, therefore cutting the use of paper. Furthermore, increasing the life span of the electronics or protracting the period of having a auto to 20 old ages can assist to take down the demand of new merchandises. Hence, this cuts down on the metal beginnings required. To back up recycling, more recycling bins can be placed in public topographic points and more pecuniary benefits can be given to public who are willing to take portion. Ultimately, the above methods are suggested to travel towards holding clean and pleasant life conditions with minimum environmental impacts, therefore supplying a win-win state of affairs for the other stakeholders as good.
Bakhda, S. ( 2012, October 05 ) . Singapore population on path to hit 6 million. Retrieved fromA hypertext transfer protocol: //news.yahoo.com/singapore-population-track-hit-6-million-100300198.html ; _ylt=A2KJNTsmhIJQ_3wAZG0o4gt.
George, T. , & A ; Frank, K. ( 2002 ) . Handbook of solid waste direction. New York: McGraw Hill.
Khoo, H. H. ( 2009 ) . Life rhythm impact appraisal of assorted waste transition engineerings. 29, 1892-1900.
Singapore Resources. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sec.org.sg/gogreen/recycling
Recycling Programmes. Retrieved from:
hypertext transfer protocol: //app2.nea.gov.sg/topics_recyclingprog.aspx
Tay, E. ( 2012, March 27 ) . Singapore waste statistics 2011. Retrieved fromhttp: //www.zerowastesg.com/2012/03/27/singapore-waste-statistics-2011/