Overview of Garment Manufacturing technology – Concentrating on cutting equipment [Document Subtitle] Abik Hirawat garment |? garm? nt| noun an item of clothing. ORIGIN Middle English : from Old French garnement ‘equipment,’ from garnir ‘equip’ (see garnish ). Garment refers to any covering for the human body that is worn. Garment making is one of the basic content of fashion designing. . There are 2 types of garments. One is Woven garments. Another is Knitted garments Shirts, trousers, sarees, bed spreads, blankets, towels and made ups are Woven. T-shirts, sweatshirts, undergarments, pyjamas and socks are Knits.
Woven fabrics are made in hand looms, power looms and mill made. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. | Garment Manufacturing Process Overview Garment manufacturing processes include all activities from the point when textiles are received at the factory, to when retail-ready garments are shipped to the distributor. Some processes—such as fabric relaxing, cutting, and sewing—occur in the manufacturing of all garments. Other optional processes may also be performed as specified by the customer, including such things as embroidering, screen-printing, and laundering.
Depending on the size of the manufacturing facility, some garment manufacturers choose to subcontract those optional processes. This is the Basic Production Flowchart of a Garment. In advance some of the process can be added or removed. | Receive Fabric * Garment factories receive fabrics from overseas textile manufacturers. * Material is temporarily stored in a warehouse until needed for manufacturing. | | Fabric Relaxing * Fabric bolts are unrolled to allow material to relax and contract. * Fabric relaxing minimizes shrinkage during washing. | Spreading, Form Layout, and Cutting * The fabric is cut into uniform plies and spread onto the cutting surface. * Forms are then laid out on the top of the spread, and the fabric is cut to the pattern shapes. * Cutting is performed manually or using a computerized system. | | Embroidery and Screen Printing * Optional customer-requested services may be performed to put logos or other embellishments on garments. | | Sewing * Garments are sewn in an assembly-line manner, with the garment becoming more complete as it progresses down the sewing line. * This step is labor-intensive. | Spot Cleaning and Laundry * Cosmetic flaws, stains, or other spots identified on an assembled garment may be cleaned using steam, hot water, or chemical stain removers. * Customers may require a garment to be fully laundered after it is sewn and assembled. | | Ironing * Each garment is manually pressed and then folded prior to packaging. | | Packaging and Shipping * Garments are tagged, sized, and packaged according to customer specifications and then shipped to client distribution centers. | Cutting fabrics Once the marker is made, pattern pieces must be cut out of the specified fabric, a process called “cutting. Currently, several cutting techniques exist, ranging from low- to high-tech. Here, cutters guide electric cutting machines around the perimeter of pattern pieces, cutting through the fabric stack. Computerized cutting systems are achieving more widespread use as technology costs decrease and labour costs rise. Cutting blades are sharpened automatically based upon the type of fabric being cut. Cutting Sequence of Garment Fabric during Garment Manufacturing There is a process or sequence which is strictly followed in the cutting section of a garment manufacturing industry.
Sequence in Cutting Room: Marker Making v Fabric Spreading v Placing Marker Paper on to the Lay v Fabric Cutting v Numbering v 100% checking & Parts Replacing if needed. v Shorting & Bundling v Input to Sewing Room. Types of Cutting: Fully manual: * Hand operated scissor Manually operated power knife: * Straight knife * Band knife * Round knife * Die cutting * Notcher * Drill Computerized methods of fabric cutting: * Computer controlled knife cutting * Cutting by Laser beam Types of Cutting Machine| Features| Limitations| Scissors| * | |
Straight Knife| | * Blade deflection occurs so quality may be hampered * Skill hand required. | Band KNife| 1. This machine worked as saw mill technique. 2. Not possible to cut fabric directly from lay. 3. Block pieces of fabric required in bundle form to cut by this machine. 4. Blade moving vertically through a flat working table. 5. Machine remains stationary and fabric is moveable. 6. Specially used to cut small parts more accurately. | 1. Fabric wastage is high. 2. Work load high. 3. Push cutting needles in better vision but is more dangerous. | Round knife| | | Die cutting machine| | | Notcher| | |
Drill machine| | | Computer controlled cutting knife| | | Laser cutting machine| * easier workholding and reduced contamination of workpiece * Precision may be better, since the laser beam does not wear during the process| * the capital cost of such machines is much higher * The main disadvantage of laser cutting is the high power consumption| References : 1. http://articles. textileclass. com/working-principle-of-straight-knife-as-cutting-accessories/ 2. http://www. textileschool. com/School/Apparel/ApparelManufacturing. aspx 3. http://www. textileschool. com/School/Apparel. aspx 4.