Fundamental Principles Of Architecture Ages Cultural Studies Essay

“ The Greeks lay out their forums in the signifier of a square surrounded by really broad dual colonnades, decorate them with columns set instead closely together, and with entablatures of rock or marble, and concept walks above in the upper narrative. But in the metropoliss of Italy the same method can non be followed, for the ground that it is a usage handed down from our ascendants that gladiatorial shows should be given in the forum. ”

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Therefore allow the intercolumniations round the show topographic point be pretty broad ; unit of ammunition about in the colonnades put the bankers ‘ offices ; and have balconies on the upper floor decently arranged so as to be convenient, and to convey in some public gross.

The size of a forum should be proportionate to the figure of dwellers, so that it may non be excessively little a infinite to be utile, nor look like a desert waste for deficiency of population. To find its comprehensiveness, split its length into three parts and assign two of them to the comprehensiveness. Its form will so be oblong, and its land program handily suited to the conditions of shows. ( Vitruvius, 1914, pg: 151-152 )

Figure 3.1.1.1: Forum Plan[ 1 ]

3.1.2. Basilica

Basilica was the public edifice and it was located at the forum of the metropolis. After the Ancient Age most of the basilica transformed a church whole the universe. At the Ancient Age Vitruvius wrote that about Basilicas:

“ Basilicas should be constructed on a site bordering the forum and in the warmest possible one-fourth, so that in winter concern work forces may garner in them without being troubled by the conditions. In comprehensiveness they should be non less than one 3rd or more than one half of their length, unless the site is of course such as to forestall this and to compel an change in these proportions. If the length of the site is greater than necessary, Chalcedon porches may be constructed at the terminals, as in the Julia Aquiliana. ” ( Vitruvius, 1914, pg. 153 )

Figure 3.1.2.1: Basilica Plan[ 2 ]

3.1.3. House

In the beginning of the history people have been populating someplace. In Ancient Greek Age they lived houses like us. Vitruvius wrote that about House:

“ The Greeks, holding no usage for atriums, do non construct them, but make passage-ways for people come ining from the front door, non really broad, with stallss on one side and ushers ‘ suites on the other, and shut off by doors at the interior terminal. ” ( Vitruvius, 1914, pg. 176 )

3.1.4. Temple

Temple is the more of import edifices of all the clip. Peoples ever have a gods/goddesses all these heathen ages. For this ground every temples of these age are different. We must give cite an Ancient Greek Age architecture: Vitruvius once more:

“ A temple will be peripteral that has six columns in forepart and six in the rear, with eleven on each side including the corner columns. Let the columns be so placed as to go forth a infinite, the breadth of an intercolumniation, all unit of ammunition between the walls and the rows of columns on the outside, therefore organizing a walk roun the cella of the temple, as in the instances of the temple of Jupiter Stator by Hermodorus in the Portico of Metellus, and the Marian temple of Honour and Valour constructed by Mucius, which has no portico in the rear. ” ( Vitruvius, 1914, pg. 99 )

Figure 3.1.4.1: Different temple programs[ 3 ]

3.2. Structure Elementss of the Antique Greek Age Period

This chapter research about Structural Elementss of The Antique Greek Age Periods. Structural elements used to supply to make a opening countries in Grecian Architecture.

T. Roger Smith defines the feature of the gaps in Grecian Architecture in his book “ Grecian Architecture and Grecian Sculpture ” ( Smith & A ; Redford, 1892, pg: 46 )

“ The most of import feature of the gaps in Grecian edifices is that they were flat-topped, covered by a header of rock or marble, and ne’er arched. Doors and window gaps were frequently a small narrower at the top than the bottom and were marked by a set of castings, known as the architrave, on the face of the wall, and, so to talk, bordering in the gap. ”

Columns are the basic structural elements in the Antique Greek Architecture. T. Roger Smith wrote about columns in his book “ Grecian Architecture and Grecian Sculpture ” ( Smith & A ; Redford, 1892, pg: 46 )

“ These characteristics, together with the superstructure or entablature, which they customarily carried, were the outstanding parts of Grecian architecture, busying as they did the full tallness of the edifice. The development of the orders ( which we have explained to be truly cosmetic systems, each of which involved the usage of one kind of column, though the term is invariably understood as intending simply the column and entablature ) is a really interesting topic and illustrates the acuteness with which the Greeks selected from those theoretical accounts which were accessible to them, precisely what was suited to their intent and the accomplishment with which they altered and refined and about redesigned everything which they so selected. ”

Figure 3.2.1: Five Orders[ 4 ]

In add-on to the columns walls are of import for construction of Antique Greek Architecture. They supported to columns.

“ The building of the walls of the Grecian temples rivaled that of the Egyptians in truth and beauty of craft and resembled them in the usage of solid stuffs. The Greeks had within range preies of marble, the most beautiful stuff which nature has provided for the usage of the builder ; and great choiceness of surface and high coating were attained. Some interesting illustrations of hollow palisading occur in the building of the Parthenon. The wall was non an component of the edifice on which the Greek designer seemed to brood with pleasance ; much of it is about constantly overshadowed by the lines of columns which form the chief characteristics of the edifice. ” ( Smith & A ; Redford, 1892, pg: 44 )

3.3. Decoration Elementss of the Antique Age Time periods

T. Roger Smith wrote about Decoration Element of the Antique Age Periods in his book ;

“ Grecian decorations have exerted the same broad influence over the whole class of Western art as Grecian columns ; and in their beginning they are every bit interesting as specimens of Greek accomplishment in accommodating bing types and of Grecian innovation where no bing types would function. ” ( Smith & A ; Redford, 1892, pg: 49 )

3.4. Assorted Structural and cosmetic Elementss of the Antique Age Periods Caryatid Columns

Caryatid Columns are structural elements like the other columns but they besides are a sculpture.

T. Roger Smith wrote in his book “ Grecian Architecture and Grecian Sculpture about Caryatids:

“ In the later and more juicy manner of the Ionic temples we find sculpture made into an architectural characteristic, as in the celebrated statues, known as the caryatids, which support the smallest portico of the Erechtheum, and in the enriched columns of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus. ” ( Smith & A ; Redford, 1892, pg: 51 )

He besides defines caryatids at the same book:

“ The columns are replaced by standing female figures, known as caryatids, and the entablature rests on their caputs. This device has often been repeated in antediluvian and in modern architecture, but, except in some comparatively vague illustrations, the graven columns of Ephesus do non look to hold been imitated. ” ( Smith & A ; Redford, 1892, pg: 35 )

Figure 3.4.1: North-West View Of The Erechtheum, In Time Of Pericles[ 5 ]

4. Contemplation OF ANTIQUE AGE ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS TO TODAYS BUILDINGS

This Chapter explain the contemplation of Antique Age Architectural Elements to todays Architecture. Before present century we must look yesteryear. First half of nineteenth Century Revivalism was the dominant architectural manner. Revivalism is the use historical edifice and it create antique edifice once more. On the other manus Cast Iron Age was started at the nineteenth Century. This manner used a new engineering but it had a connexion with past. But with get downing to modern manner, Architecture ignore to copy past and make its original edifice. Walter Goupies, Le Corbusier, Miss Van Der Rohe are the outstanding creative person of this manner. But after de Modern Style, a new manner named Post-Modernism was born.

“ Architectural imaginativeness seemed to split itself between an amplification of a futuristic technological symbolism, prevalent in the work of European designers like Norman Foster, Richard Rogers, and Renzo Piano, and a return to either historical beginnings or abstract formalism. However, there was in the architectural discourse of the late sixtiess a sense “ of rupture and discontinuity, of crisis and generational struggle. ” In the work of Venturi, Charles Moore, and many other known and unknown designers, there is a populist onslaught on the thought of “ architecture as art, ” a “ vigorous, though. . . mostly noncritical effort to formalize popular civilization ” and go at last organically attached to a client of democratic beginnings ” ( Larson, 1993, pg. 59 )

4.1. Examples of Post-Modern Architecture

In this chapter will demo illustrations of postmodern architecture and will give information about these edifices and their architectures. Thankss to these paths we can understand theoretic background of Post-Modernism.

If we look the edifices of some post-modern architecture we can understand relationship between post-modernism and past and we can besides understand that post-modernism is the neo-eclectic architecture.

4.1.1. Piazza vitamin D ‘Italia, Charles Moore

In this Building ( Figure 4.1.1.1 ) Charles Moore tried to make an sarcasm. For this ground he use steel columns, and it is non a structural elements. It is merely cosmetic elements. And besides Moore usage H2O autumn like an ancient times cosmetic elements but he utilize his ain face to make an sarcasm. This edifice likes a montage edifice for this ground.

Figure 4.1.1.1: Piazza d’Italia, Charles Moore ( with Perez Architects ) , New Orleans.[ 6 ]

4.1.2. Sainsbury Wing of the National Gallery, Robert Venturi

Robert Venturi one of the outstanding Post-Modern Artist. He wrote in his book Las Vegas Strip to chief theory of the Post- Modern Architecture. In thie edifice ( Figure 4.1.2.1 ) he utilize a modern column and decorations like an antique age architecture in his National Gallery Buildings in London. On the other manus Columns is non a classical order in this edifice. He utilize this manner because of it ‘s an extra edifices of National Gallery and he tried to make a communicating between extra edifice and chief edifice.

Figure 4.1.2.1. : Sainsbury Wing of theA National Gallery, Robert Venturi, A London ( 1991 )[ 7 ]

4.1.3. Town Hall, Philip Johnson

One of the most manner changeble architecture Philip Johnson make a modern edifice ( Figure 4.1.3.1 ) but he influence from antiqu age temples. Modern columns and modern pediments are the meaning of this. But on the other angle he created a modern clip edifice, centre of the these edifice.

Figure 4.1.3.1. : Town Hall, Philip Johnson[ 8 ]

4.1.4. Portland Building, Michael Graves

Micheal Graves is one of the extraordinary Post-Modern Architecture. His edifice ( Figure 4.1.4.1 ) we can see he uses a cosmetic elements which belongs to Antique Age. But they are merely cosmetic elements. They are non structural elements.

Figure 4.1.4.1 Portland Building, Michael Graves[ 9 ]

5. Decision

From the beginning of the history people needs to a closed are to populate. Sometimes this is a cave, sometimes this is a skyscraper. Architect has been change geographics to geographics and age to age.

Post-Modern Architecture and its effects continue to populate present clip. It was born against to the Modern Movement and one twenty-four hours a new motion will come and kill the Post-Modern Movement.

But on the other manus engineering is changed and a new possibilities born and Post-Modern Architecture utilize them. But on the other manus This Architecture uses its heritages. For this ground A±n my sentiment Post-Modernism has a neo-eclectic manner and its background depends to Popular Culture. It wills non decease easy but it can non make an original edifices.

Post Modern Architecture usage Antique Age Elements and manner because the motion said that: “ Everything has created earlier, there is no new to make ” . In my sentiment it is non a true annoyer. There will be new ever and everlastingly. Although we can non disregard to utilize past but on the other manus we can non asylum the dorsum of yesteryear.

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