Research Articles are alone articles created by research workers in a command to demo their research and subsequent findings in a simple format useable by mark audiences. They are made up of a figure of cardinal design features, which combine to organize a comprehensive article. However, research workers do n’t ever take right research design features ; they may roll up informations in an inefficient mode or utilize a less so appropriate model on which to establish their research. This assignment examines two articles from station 2008 which focus on consumer-based trade name equity ( CBBE ) , and by foregrounding a figure of cardinal characteristics, the strengths and weaknesses the articles contain are easy identifiable and can so be corrected in the hereafter.
Research Design Characteristics
Research Objective ( s ) :
The intent of the research conducted, typically expressed in mensurable footings ; the purpose of what the research worker is trusting to carry through ( Zikmund, 2002 ) . It describes whether the research worker is constructing on bing theoretical accounts or suggesting new 1s, and aims to be every bit specific as possible.
It ‘s one of the most of import parts of explicating the Research Design, as it ‘s the ultimate end for making the research, and the research design must be based on trying to carry through these aims.
Theories are logical sets of propositions that are used to try to explicate and foretell relationships between events and phenomena ( Zikmund, 2002 ) .
They are the ideas behind the writer ‘s anticipations of what the results will be and the ground that peculiar hypotheses are predicted.
The statement of unproved propositions or guesss, that seek to explicate certain facts or phenomena, based upon the theories and limited experience of the writer. It should be unambiguous, simple and most of all, testable in order to be a good hypothesis. It can be descriptive ( focal points on a individual variable ) or relational ( concentrating on a relationship between multiple variables ) ( Amelink, Borrego, & A ; Douglas, 2009 ) ( Zikmund, 2002 ) .
It ‘s of import because it seeks to bridge the spread between theory and guess, and is closely linked to the research aims, i.e. ends of the writer.
Anything that may presume any numerical or categorical values, i.e. it is non set, it may alter in order to look at causing between multiple variables. We aim to see the relationship between variables and to depict and mensurate this relationship. Numeric variables can be either:
Categorical – Any variable with a distinguishable value, e.g. 1.00.
Continuous – Any variable with an infinite figure of possible values, e.g. Time, Hair coloring material.
Furthermore, they ‘re classified into four types:
Independent Variable ( IV ) – This variable is set at the research worker ‘s pick, and is expected to act upon the dependant variable in order to prove the hypotheses.
Dependent Variable – This variable is what research workers hope to explicate and foretell by altering the independent variable. I.e. it depends on the value of the IV to find a value.
Moderator Variable – A 3rd variable that alters the relationship between a dependant and independent variable when introduced by altering how strong the relationship is.
Interceding Variable – A variable which describes how the independent variable affects the dependant variable.
Sourced from: ( Baron & A ; Kenny, 1986 ) ( Zikmund, 2002 )
Control over Variables:
The variables can be controlled by research workers in an effort to pull strings informations or consequences, or they can be an antique station facto design, where the research workers have no control over the variables, such as studies or experimental surveies. The ex station facto design helps to understate prejudice introduced by the research worker, nevertheless the chosen method typically depends on the research design ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1997 ) .
A maestro program that specifies the methods and processs to be used in order to roll up and analyses the information found. The research aims of the survey are typically included in the design so that merely appropriate information is collected. They included assorted types such as:
Exploratory – Aims to supply penetrations and understanding to clear up and specify a job, e.g. how something works. It is typically done through both primary and secondary informations aggregation, so followed up with more conclusive research
Descriptive – Designed to depict features of the market, a population or a phenomenon. It is typically preceded by the preparation of really specific hypotheses, and is good planned. Again it tends to utilize both primary and secondary informations beginnings.
Causal – Specifically aims to find cause and consequence relationships among variables when the research job is already good defined. It is done utilizing experiments and use of variables.
Sourced from: ( Rofianto, 2011 ) ( Zikmund, 2002 ) .
Data Collection Method:
The manner in which information is collected, either through observation or communicating procedures such as studies. Both are typically done on samples of the mark population which aim to stand for the population every bit near as possible.
The information is split in to two types, Primary, intending the research worker has conducted their ain research and found the information ; and Secondary, where the research worker has sourced their information from other beginnings ( Zikmund, 2002 ) .
The Research Environment is where the research takes topographic point, e.g. under what conditions, and can be things such as field surveies ( e.g. studies ) and laboratory surveies ( experiments ) . Simulations can besides be used and are going more common ( Zikmund, 2002 ) .
The clip dimension for the research can be either cross-sectional, where the survey is carried out one time and represents a ‘snapshot ‘ or it can be longitudinal, where the survey is performed repeatedly over a period of clip leting alterations in variable to be seen, and perchance forms to be found ( Garcia-Rubio, Gonzales-Gomez, & A ; Guardiola, 2008 ) ( Zikmund, 2002 ) .
Article 1 – Tong & A ; Hawley ( 2009 ) , “ Measuring customer-based trade name equity: empirical grounds from the sportswear market in China. Journal of Product & A ; Brand Management, 18 ( 4 ) , 262-271.
This article sets out to analyze the consequence that consumer-based trade name equity has on the sportswear industry in China, more specifically the market for athleticss places. The research aims of the paper are so to use this research in practical ways for the trade names to spread out their markets.
A strength of the article is the strong model and theories it ‘s based upon, with many old surveies done looking at the CBBE theoretical account in changing industries, including the factors that determine CBBE. This was so adapted to accommodate the survey, but besides allowed comparing of consequences to antecedently found consequences.
Another strength was that the hypotheses are clearly stated, are easy testable and covered the research objectives good, whilst the research design allowed clear testing of the being and strength of the hypotheses, being both descriptive and causal.
Furthermore, the proving provided clear consequences, demoing which hypotheses were proven and disproven, whilst besides demoing grounds of correlativity between independent variables, leting sellers to place precisely what they need to make to maximize their CBBE.
The article nevertheless did hold some failings, foremost merely a choice age group was surveyed which is non a true representation of the population. The purpose of most studies is to acquire a snapshot of what the population ‘s consequences would be, and by restricting the age group this information becomes biased. Whilst the grounds that this is the biggest mark group for the athleticss shoe market may be true, it should n’t intend that other groups should n’t besides be surveyed.
Merely 304 studies were conducted, and whilst the goodness of fit theoretical accounts did propose it was important for the research, if more studies were conducted the opportunity of mistake is minimized farther, which may hold affected the consequences.
The survey was focused merely on shoe trade names which are arguably a really little portion of the sportswear industry and non needfully declarative of the sportswear market, where people may shop for a shirt for really different grounds to places ( e.g. preferring expression over comfort ) .
The surveyors besides offered confect as an inducement to finish the study, and by presenting this inducement they may hold raised the rate of informal studies, where people have merely completed the study every bit rapidly as possible without understanding the content.
These research methods do weaken the research done, and as such, future research should be conducted in order to better upon it.
The study should be expanded significantly to foremost cover a broad age group which would be more representative of the population, and besides should increase the figure of respondents which in bend minimises error.
It can besides be expanded to other merchandises and markets, and besides states in order to see if consequences within the sportswear industry are consistent, whether they match with other industries, and whether the consequences are dependable across the universe.
Last, longitudinal clip dimension studies could be used, where the individual is repeatedly surveyed after being given information refering the trade names to see if it affected their sensed trade name equity, e.g. by informing them that Nike shoes last longer than all the others, thereby set uping the sensed quality of Nike places, and seeing how this changes CBBE.
Article 2 – Billett, M. T. , Morgan, N. A. , & A ; Rego, L. L. ( 2009 ) . Consumer-Based Brand Equity and Firm Risk. Journal of Marketing, 73, 47-60.
This article examines what consequence consumer-based trade name equity has on systematic and unsystematic hazard of houses, including upside and downside tendencies in the market topographic point. This should so supply a footing for CBBE to be evaluated in a fiscal context and hence add value to a trade name as an plus.
The article had a strong footing on established theories and models which helps to supply justification for the research and besides supports its findings. It builds upon antecedently proven CBBE theoretical accounts and adds to them in a alone manner which aims to foster the research country.
Another strength was that the variables used were really expressed and had a big sum of proving to guarantee they were important, moreover since they took values from a big database a big sum of information was used which reduces mistake.
Furthermore, the hypotheses were clearly stated and tested efficaciously, giving clear grounds of the result of each and whether they were supported or non. This enabled the research worker to supply clear grounds of their findings.
The information was all based on secondary informations which is a failing as the research worker can non guarantee the goodness of the informations or how it was collected. Furthermore, they do n’t cognize the exact demographics of the informations used which stops them contracting down their consequences to cardinal demographical consequences.
Another failing was that the theoretical account was purely limited to US companies which publically trade. This is merely a little per centum of a world-wide market and it may be found that states such as Japan have really different weight placed on CBBE in finding house hazard.
This research could hold important effects on the manner that house hazard is measured including in an accounting context. However, much more research needs to be done before accounting rules are updated as the research was merely focussed on a little proportion of houses and lacked some cogency where sub-brands were concerned.
The research workers should look at spread outing their research to worldwide markets and to non-publicly traded companies to see how it compares.
Furthermore, they should look at roll uping primary informations and perchance utilizing experimentation to spread out on their current findings.