Food Culture in Malaysia and Japan


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The turning, rise uping and processing of groceries seems to hold held a particular captivation since the 19th century. Food and drink industry has truly growing and traveling positively if comparison to the predating old ages, which is from the figure of eating house that opens twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. There is a huge assortment of eating houses with the different types of culinary art in Malaysia that stand foring different state and civilization by offers an exciting array of nutrient mercantile establishments, from fast nutrient to ticket dining and everything in between. Local nutrient entirely offers Malay, Cantonese, Szechuan, Indian and Nyonya culinary art while international nutrient covers the gamut from Nipponese to Middle-Eastern, Italian and American. Today, more people are excited to experiment and research each eating house that merely opened. Furthermore, due to the life style and tendencies, more people are eating out instead than cook at place. For case: Recently, more and more Nipponese eating houses have been opened around Malaysia. Every eating house attempts to convey up a new construct and originality to their trade name.

As the clip goes by, people are more selective presents. They would wish to take a good quality nutrient, with a good part, with a good stigmatization, and willing to pay with a sensible monetary value. There are some pupils are willing to pay high monetary value for one repast because they want to seek a new eating house or a new culinary art with a good quality of the nutrient. Thus, all eating houses have to seek their best to run into the clients ‘ outlooks. Besides that, they besides have to acknowledge every facet of their concern has an impact on client service because involve face to confront client contact and the supply in nutrient has turning twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. Each eating house has to hike them self to bettering client service that involves doing a committedness to larning what our clients ‘ demands and wants are, and developing action programs that implement client friendly procedures.

The author finds this issue interesting because nowadays people frequently ask the simple inquiry like “ Where are we traveling to eat? I love Nipponese nutrients particularly sushi. Where can I acquire a delightful sushi with ideal monetary value, good service and good topographic point to hang out? ” When people decide to take a Nipponese eating house, there are some factors that influence their determination devising, such as client ‘s emotion, satisfaction and trade name trueness. It is really of import to cognize client ‘s behaviour in order to construct a long term relationship. Therefore, the author has chosen the rubric “ An appraisal of Sushi Zanmai Malaysia popularity among university college pupils. ”

There are three different constructs of Nipponese eating house that owe by SuperSushi Sdn Bhd Company which are:

  • 1st Concept:Sushi Zanmai that began since in April, 1997, the echt conveyer-sushi eating house. There are several mercantile establishments of Sushi Zanmai which are in Sunway Pyramid, The Gardens, One Utama and Low-Yat.
  • 2nd Concept:Sushi Zen that began since in September, 2007, a insouciant kiosk-style Nipponese eating house.
  • 3rd Concept:Pasta Zanmai that began since in December, 2007, a Nipponese Casual Pasta Restaurant.

Within this short period, this company has developed the eating house really fast, from one construct into another construct.

The intent of this research is:

  • To place factors that influence people choosing Sushi Zanmai as a sushi eating house
  • To place current tendencies of Nipponese nutrient
  • To urge steps that could assist to better current status


1.1 Food Culture in Malaysia

Malaysia has a combined population of over 18 million people. Because of its cardinal location, between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Malaysia has traditionally been a meeting point for bargainers and travellers from both the East and West, it besides has produced a most diverse culinary thaw pot. As a consequence, Malaysia has a multicultural and multiracial population consisting of three chief group which are Malays, Chinese, Indians and legion autochthonal peoples. With such a changing cultural composing, it is no surprise that a great diverseness of faiths is prevailing throughout Malaysia.

In Malaysia, eating out is truly a gastronomic escapade. A blend ofcultural and cultural histories which make up Malaysia ‘s diverse population is reflected in the wide scope of influences and spirits found in Malayan culinary art. And each province in Malaysia has something to offer in footings of culinary delectations. For case: Penang, the celebrated in peddler stall oasis, where all the most delightful nutrient requires that merely costs every bit small as RM 3.50 per dish, such as Penang Char Kway Teow, Fried Oyster, Laksa, etc. Mallaca is besides place to Baba Nyonya nutrient, which served in quaint coffeehouse in historical store houses. Or in Kuala Lumpur, the most diverse offering of nutrients from all over the universe, such as Chinese culinary art, Indian culinary art, Nipponese culinary art, Thailand culinary art, Vietnamese culinary art, European culinary art, Arabian culinary art, etc.

With assorted beginnings, there are certain ingredients common to many dishes in Malaysia. Multiple assortments of rice and noodles, which are from local or imported from Thailand, Japan or India, are frequently used as a base. The Malays include a batch of seafood in their diet, like fish, calamaris, shrimps and pediculosis pubiss that used to demo up in Malay dishes. And most of Malayan dishes use fish sauce or fish paste because fish live is around the shores of Malaysia ‘s islands. Fresh herbs and roots are normally used to cook Malays food.A Indian and Thai curry spices with regional assortments are frequently used to make rich and spicy curry dishes. A dried spice is besides form an of import constituent of Malays cookery. Furthermore, in a metropolis of Malaysia which is Malacca was one of the great trading centres of the spice in the 15 century. And Coconut is another favourite ingredient which is besides common found in infinite dishes. For case: Santan ( the coconut milk ) , to do creamy curries. It is to add savoury sugariness of the dishes and to chill the fire of hotter spices.

Today, rice is the basic for about half the universe ‘s population, peculiarly in parts of China, India, Indonesia, Japan and Southeast Asia.

Harmonizing to historiographers, they believe that is was foremost domesticated in the country covering the foothills of Eastern Himalayas ( Northeastern India ) , and stretching through Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and Southern China. From here, it spread in all waies and human cultivation created legion assortments of rice.

Harmonizing to the International Rice Research Institute ( IRRI ) , based in Philippines, there are 120.000 assortments of rice worldwide. Over the centuries, there are three chief types of rice developed in Asia, depends on the content of the grain which is:

“ Amylase means an enzyme that breaks starch down into sugar ”

Rice has divided into three ( 3 ) which are long grain, medium grain and short grained assortments. In this instance, different populations, consumer different assortments of rice.

Foods through the twenty-four hours in Malaysia are three repasts a twenty-four hours and rice is about ever included, even at breakfast. For case,Nasi Lemak. A typical repast consists of rice served with soup, curries, and a few vegetable stir-fries and besides eaten fruit for sweet. A typical of Malay tiffin and dinner was all dishes are placed in the centre of the tabular array to be shared by all the diners and normally the Malay nutrient is frequently eaten with the custodies.

There are similar eating form within Nipponese and Malaysia, which the chief basic is rice and it is eaten with about every repast. The repast characteristics is rather same, such as the gustatory sensations of Sweet, rancid, spicy, bitter and salty. Like Chinese manner wheat noodles served in meat stock known as Ramen have become highly popular over the last century and Malayan like to devour noodles. Follow by seafood, as Japan is surrounded by sea every bit same as Malaysia ‘s islands. Therefore, When Nipponese culinary art comes to Malaysia, the nutrient itself easy accepted by Malayan.

1.2 Background of Nipponese Food Culture

The rice-centered nutrient civilization of Japan development follows the debut of wet rice cultivation from Asia more than 2000 old ages ago. The cultivation and ingestion of rice has ever played a cardinal function in Nipponese nutrient civilization. The tradition of Nipponese is normally rice served with seasonal veggies ; fish and other Marine merchandises reached a extremely sophisticated signifier in the Edo period ( 1600-1868 ) and remains the vivacious nucleus of native Nipponese culinary art. In the century and a half since Japan reopened to the West, Japan has developed an incredibly rich and varied nutrient civilization which includes non merely native Nipponese culinary art but besides many foreign dishes. Some adapted to Nipponese gustatory sensations and some imported more or less unchanged.

In the sixth century, debut of Buddhism to Japan became the official faith of the state and the feeding of meat and fish were prohibited. The first recorded determination forbiding the feeding of cowss, Equus caballuss, Canis familiariss, monkeys and poulet was issued by Emperor Temmu in A.D.675. Laws and emperor eliminate the feeding of about all flesh of animate beings and poultry because based on Buddhism are forbiding to killing.

In the fifteenth century, many of the nutrients and nutrient ingredients eaten by Nipponese presents, for case: miso, bean curd or soy sauce.

In the sixteenth century, the combination of Spanish and Lusitanian sauteing technique with Chinese method for cooking veggies in oil led to the development of tempura, the popular Nipponese dish in which seafood and many types of veggies with deep fried method.

In the early nineteenth century, the development in Edo, the debut of sushi has started. Today ‘s, most of people are familiar with that dishes. It made from vinegar rice top or combined with natural fish and shellfish. And during that clip, sushi was sold from stables as a bite nutrient, and that stables were become the starting motor of today ‘s sushi eating houses.

In the mid nineteenth century, many of new cookery and eating imposts were introduced where the most of import being eating the meat. Consider of Nipponese dish, Sukiyaki that consist of beef, veggies, bean curd and other ingredients cook at the tabular array in a soup stock of soy sauce, sweet interest and sugar was foremost served in Western manner eating houses. Another dish that popular during this period is Tonkatsu, means a deep fried staff of life porc scallops.

In the early twentieth century, utilizing Indian curry pulverization, Nipponese curry rice ( kareraisu ) became really popular dish which consisted veggies, meat or seafood with a midst curry sauce and served with rice.

In by and large at sushi eating houses, costumiers will sit at the counter and name out their order point to a sushi chef. Or sit at Conyever belt where the clients can catch little home bases in forepart of you, or name a particular order if you do non see what you want on the belt. Or clients can sit on tatami mats. And as like Chinese, Japanese besides ate with chopsticks to reassign the nutrient. The rice bowl is non held every bit closely to the oral cavity. Soups are consumed straight from the bowl and the lone dish eaten with a spoon is an unsweetened egg custard which known as chawanmushi.

There are several ways to depict the differ of Japan culinary art from other culinary art, First, part of the dish are little because it is to capture the diners attending with the freshness, natural spirit, the beauty of each dish, the ambiance and the whole repast. Second, the nutrient for a repast is served at one time, so diners receive their ain parts on single home bases and bowls alternatively of functioning household manner from big bowls in the center of tabular array. Third, Nipponese usage less oil which to stress the visible radiation and natural spirit of the nutrient.

And now, development of Nipponese eating house that opened more and more in Malaysia. It can be cause of the tendencies between among the Malaysia. There is similarity between Malaysia culinary art and Nipponese culinary art that makes Malaysia is easier to accept. Other ground is Malayan are rather unfastened minded with those civilization.

1.3 Food impacting consumers towards choice of nutrient

There are legion factors that affect consumers towards choice of nutrient, whether it is made by persons or other parties. Food picks are influenced by many interacting factors which are income, civilization, the concern about wellness, values, faith or even familial.

Many operational theoretical accounts have been developed to depict these influences that including The Lifestyle Model of dietetic wonts ( Pelto, 1981 ) , which attempts to explicate how these factors interact to ensue in specific nutrient behaviours.

Social Factors:

  • Food Production and Distribution System is responsible for the handiness of nutrients which differs from part to part and state to state. Food handiness influences and in bend is influenced by the socio-economic and political systems. These serve to command the production and distribution of nutrient in civilization.
  • Government policy may besides be involved with the buying power of consumers through plans such as the inadvertence of nutrient quality through safety criterions, nutrition labeling demands and other production plans ( Josling & A ; Ritson, 1986 )

Lifestyle Factors:

Income ( limits what nutrients can be purchased ) A® Occupation ( influences nutrient wonts in several ways, for case: the location of the occupation besides influence meal forms ) A® Education ( the position and self-fulfillment stage of nutrient usage are normally, through non ever dependent on higher degrees of instruction ) A® Nutrition Knowledge ( may or may non interpret into cognition based behaviour, and greater influence over what person eats than what the individual knows about nutrition ) A® Cultural individuality ( a distant heritage that has been modified or lost over the coevalss through socialization ) A® Rural-Urban ( topographic point of abode may impact which foods people eat ) A® Religious Beliefs ( depends on what faith, may hold a great impact on nutrient wonts or may hold no influence at all ) A® Health ( specific nutrients are frequently credited with wellness advancing qualities, such as ginseng in Asia ) A® Physiological ( age, gender, organic structure image, and province of wellness ) All of influence lifestyle factors are affects nutrient wonts.

1.4 Factors impacting popularity of Nipponese nutrient towards university college pupil

The selling mix is the set of selling tools which frequently summarized as the four Ps that the house uses to accomplish its aims in mark markets ( McCarthy, 2001 ) . And most selling professionals would state that the right selling mix is the 1 that maximizes clients ‘ satisfaction and consequences in the highest gross revenues or market portion.


It is defined as anything that can be offered to a market for attending, acquisition, usage or ingestion that might fulfill a demand or a privation.

Step one ; this merchandise emerges will come from an analysis of its strengths, failings, chance and menaces.

There are two categorization of merchandise:

  • Tangible merchandise A® Goods
  • Intangible merchandise A® Servicess

For a eating house, the goods are nutrient and drink mercantile establishments offered and the service is the client service. Consequently, it is logically to include services within the definition of the merchandise. ( David Jobber )

Measure two ; is a elaborate analysis of the mark market to measure the nature of the chance, what is its size and potency? How strong is the competition and how is it likely to germinate in the hereafter?

Step three ; is research into the demands of prospective clients, what is it that clients really want?

Harmonizing to Hamel and Prahalad, 1991, today, this goes beyond simply inquiring clients, what are the client looking for, but creatively seeking to detect demands that clients can non joint because the clients are incognizant of the possibilities offered by new engineerings and the altering environment.

Peoples will ever seek a eating house that offering first-class nutrient, particularly when the eating house have a good service, value and atmosphere. Peoples satisfy their demands and wants with merchandises. Therefore, the merchandise is the chief thing for a company because without merchandises there is nil to market or sell. And when a client decides to purchase a merchandise, the client will look for certain features. The client will desire to cognize how many different merchandises that offered by eating house, which one provides a more interesting nest eggs and what is included in the merchandise. Merchandise must hold the power to go forth a good feeling and involvement so the client will non waver to see the eating house for the 2nd clip.

Monetary value

It is defined as what the merchandise or service costs to the client or the sum that clients are willing to pay for a merchandise and service. In order manus, monetary value is the lone component in the selling mix that produces gross. And puting a monetary value for a merchandise is really of import.

“ Monetary value has a really strong impact on gross revenues volume and market portion ; empirical surveies ( reviewed in Tellis, 1988 ; and Sethuraman and Tellis, 1991 ) have shown that, for most merchandises, monetary value snap is well higher than advertisement snap. ”

The company will necessitate to put a monetary value that the client can afford and willing to pay and at the same it will assist the company to accomplish a good degree of net incomes. When a client asks about the monetary value of a merchandise, the client besides interested in cognizing is at that place any price reductions or particular publicities.

Therefore, no affair how good the merchandise, how originative the publicity or how efficient the topographic point or distribution, unless monetary value screens costs the company will do a loss. ( David Jobber, 2004 )

For case, if the monetary value is expensive, regular pupils will non be able to afford it and will believe to hold their repasts in other eating house. Nowadays, clients are concern about the monetary value of their nutrient and tend to compare the monetary value to another eating house. The client will measure whether the value of the merchandise is worth the sum that the client are paying, because clients are ever strongly influenced by monetary value.

“ Price frequently fulfills two maps at the same time: it reflects the forfeit that the purchaser must do in order to get the merchandise or service involved and it besides acts as a signal of the quality of the merchandise ( Monroe, 1990 ) ”

Another consideration is where pricing have the relationship between monetary value and sensed quality, because many people use monetary value as an index of quality.

Harmonizing to David Jobber, the more value a merchandise gives compared to that of the competition, the higher the monetary value that can be charged. Price should accurately identify to the value to the client. The forfeits that made by the client is in order to see the benefits of a merchandise, therefore from the eating house itself have to give the best for the client.

Topographic point

It is defined as topographic point or distribution as a set of mutualist organisations involved in the procedure of doing a merchandise available for usage or ingestion by clients. Or the company activities that make the merchandise available to aim clients.

The dimensions of topographic point are channels, mixture, location, stock list and conveyance. ( Borden, 1984 ) For case: Location, where client can obtain the merchandise so distribution channels are the key to this country. And in fact, many eating house companies believe that location has become the most of import factor to success.

Warnaby and Dominic, 2004 highlight the advantages of shopping in town centres. Therefore, the company will necessitate to happen ways to convey the merchandises to clients and do the merchandise easy to entree to the clients. For case: Convenience that is besides of import issue in nutrient mercantile establishment backing which the clip and velocity service is required, in order to fulfill the clients need and want.

Topographic point or distribution considerations play a major function in act uponing client motivations. In the selling of consumer goods, the function is to guarantee that the merchandise is available to the consumer when and where it is needed and in sufficient assortment and measure.


It is defined as the activities that communicate the virtues of the merchandises and carry mark clients to purchase or utilize the merchandises. Company need to be after promotional activities decently in order to make consciousness of possible clients. It is where advertisement and communications are used to promote clients ‘ consumption of the merchandise or service.

Promotion has several types of tools which are: Ad, Gross saless publicity ( price reductions, vouchers ) , Publicity, Word of Mouth, Personal Selling, Merchandising, Sponsorship and etc.

The chief ground why publicity is so of import is to pass on with persons, groups or organisations. Through publicity, the message like information about merchandises or services can be communicated to bing and possible clients.

Promotions can beef up trade name placement. A 1985 survey by Frankel and Co. and Perception Research Services found that, following exposure to adverts having publicities for a trade name, consumers sentiment of the trade name ( issues like quality, value and caring about clients ) improved by over 8 per centum compared to those exposed to merely trade name sell adverts.

In other words, it must hold the right installations and services ( merchandise ) and do them easy accessible to invitees ( topographic point ) with the proper sum of publicity and the right monetary value. ( David Abbey, 2003 )

Nipponese food-Korean nutrient

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Nipponese and Korean nutrients are popular and are made of similar ingredients. However, the nutrients have their ain gustatory sensation, formula and manner of feeding. Even though Korean nutrient and Nipponese nutrient seems to be similar, both of them have their fortes.

Nipponese nutrient and Korean nutrient seems to be similar because they use same ingredient. For illustration, both of them use onions, green onions, ruddy Piper nigrums, natural fish, and rice. Koreans and Nipponese enjoy eating natural chopped fish, which are sushi and sashimi. Sushis ingredients are boiled rice, and raw sliced fish and sashimis ingredient is merely as natural sliced fish. In add-on, Korean and Nipponese rice is the same.

However, Korean and Nipponese nutrient is non wholly same. Koreans tend to do nutrient spicier and saltier than Nipponese nutrient. The monetary value of Nipponese nutrient is higher than that Korean nutrient. When people eat a repast at a Nipponese eating house, they should pay tonss of money for their repast. For illustration, the basic nutrients like rice, sashimi, and some sea nutrient cost 35 dollars per individual. However, Korean basic nutrients, rice, chief fret, and tonss of side dishes cost merely ten dollars per individual. Nipponese fresh seafood has high valuable, so most people prefer traveling to a Nipponese eating house like Benihana. Nevertheless, it is expensive.

Every individual has his/her ain appetency, person want to eat Nipponese nutrient and the other privation to eat Korean nutrient. Both nutrients may look to be similar, because they are made of about same ingredients. However, each of them has their ain formula, gustatory sensation, and manner of feeding. Even though Nipponese nutrient is expensive, people like to eat Nipponese nutrient.

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