Financial Statement Analysis Tesco Sainsburys Economics Essay

The nutrient and imbibe retail sector is the largest industry in the United Kingdom, given employment for more than three million people. UK retail gross revenues are around ?330bn, the 3rd largest in the universe, after the USA and Japan. The retail sector generates 8 % of the GDP of the UK, and 5.3 % of GVA. “ There are 450,000 stores in the UK owned by 300,000 endeavors, including 9 % ( 190,000 ) of all VAT-registered concerns. Following strong growing in recent old ages, internet gross revenues presently account for merely about 9 % of entire gross revenues. Definitively, UK retail is one of the universe ‘s most competitory and advanced industries ” . ( Department for concern invention & A ; Skills, 2012 )

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The study below provides an penetration into the supermarkets companies, Tesco and Sainsbury ‘s, with accent on its external environment analysis and company ‘s analysis of resources, competency and civilization.

Fig 1: Share of Leading Players in UK Food Retail Market

Fig 1: Share of Leading Players in UK Food Retail Market

PESTEL Analysis

The PESTEL model below analyses the dynamic and unpredictable environment in which Tesco and Sainsbury ‘s operates by placing the forces that have the most impact on their public presentation:


The debut of China to the WTO has encouraged the free flow of foreign trade through the acceptance of all barriers advancing Western companies, including Tesco, to do manner for more profitable market in the universe covering more than 1.3 million people ( Straits Times, 2010 ) . In 2009 a contract was signed by Tesco to set up a figure of companies for the spread of commercial Centres in China.

Sainsbury can acquire into the markets of emerging corporations by joint ventures or partnerships to research these new markets, in malice of it have no schemes on the hereafter to make. ( Rigby, 2008 )


Economic factors should ever be measured for Tesco and Sainsbury, as they reflect straight on the purchasing behavior of clients. Though the UK economic system into recession officially confirmed in 2008, the authorities reduced involvement rates facilitated to minimise new additions in unemployment in 2009 ( Euromonitor, 2010 ) .Due to this, the buying power of clients is back on a steady addition, as they are more unafraid in their current fiscal status. ( Keynote, 2010 ) .

On the other manus, the positive side of the recession is that clients have reduced sum of times that eat out so the clients eat more at place that offers chances for nutrient retail merchants such as Tesco and Sainsbury addition production ( Guardian, 2010 ) . It should be noted that the food markets is the last thing clients decrease. The per centum of entire outgo on food markets has increased well in recent old ages, as shown below ( Euromonitor, 2010 ) :

Fig 2: UK Spending on Food as % of Overall Consumer Spending 2004 to 2008

Fig 2: UK Spending on Food as % of Overall Consumer Spending 2004 to 2008


A survey of the UK population demonstrates that there are more retired persons than male childs ( Herald Scotland, 2010 ) . The aging dwellers is negative for food markets retail merchants and that older people tend to eat less and are less likely to travel to the store to purchase compared to younger people. Though the degree of cyberspace literacy falls over the age of 65 old ages in the dwellers ( Turban et al. , 2001 ) , yet it has been estimated that the ripening of the population is on-line shopping more suited.


The public presentation of supermarkets is affected by the usage of the Internet through retail nutrient online, which is presentation a stable addition. The Internet subscriptions have increased by over 50 % and it is expected that the Internet is being used by 70 % of the dwellers in the UK ( Office for National Statistics, 2010 ) .

Loyalty plans are besides being established through information engineering that discourage clients from altering to rivals ( Sun, 2009 ) .


Because consumer consciousness about the C dioxide of the company ( Wood, 2009 ) , Tesco and Sainsbury have added information about C dioxide in dairy merchandises, murphies and orange juice, and the aim is spread outing to the elements staff of life and merchandises that is non nutrient in 2010 ( Tesco, 2010, Sainsbury 2010 ) .

Tesco has submitted the Greener Life Plan to give clients recommendation on environmental subjects, including how to diminish nutrient waste and C dioxide in the readying of repasts ( Yuthas, 2009 ) .

Tesco is besides honoring clients with points in the GreenClub card for recycling the bags, recycling nomadic phones and aluminum can. ( Tesco, 2009 ; Datamonitor, 2010 ) .


The last addition of the VAT ( 20 % ) has affect to the non-food sectors of Tesco, such as vesture. ( GOV.UK, 2012 )

Due to the reform of the low wage committee study ( National Minimum Wage, 2009 ) , the lower limit pay has increased by a 15.5 % so Tesco ‘s and Sainsbury ‘s operation costs have increased.

Altman ‘s Z tonss

The Altman Z-Score is a simple method that analysed the company ‘s fiscal strength. What tell us this method is the opportunities of failure established by a combination of fiscal ratios. The theoretical account was created in 1960 by Edward Altman, a professor at New York University. ( Rankia, 2007 )

Z-score above 3: The company has no opportunity of bankruptcy and is considered safe.

Z-score between 2.7 and 2.9: It ‘s in precautional country. It should be a really elaborate analysis before come ining the company.

Z-score between 1.8 and 2.7: Alert zone. If fiscal conditions do non alter rapidly, it is really likely that the company travel into bankruptcy in the following two old ages.

Z-score less than 1.8: Bankruptcy is at hand. The fiscal hazard is at the maximal degree.


X1= Working capital/Total Assetss

2009: X1= 13479-17595/45564= -0.090

2010: X1= 11765-16015/46053= -0.092

2011: X1= 11438-17731/47206= -0.133

X2=Retained Earnings/Total Assetss

2009: X2= 2166/45564= 0.047

2010: X2= 2336/46053= 0.050

2011: X2= 2671/47206= 0.056

X3=EBIT/Total Assetss

2009: X3= 3169/45564= 0.069

2010: X3= 3457/46053= 0.075

2011: X3= 3811/47206= 0.081

X4=Market value of equality/Total Liabilitiess

2009: X4= 7895.3M*3.582/32658= 0.87

2010: X4= 7985M*4.255/31342= 1.084

2011: X4= 8046.5M/30583= 1.05

X5=Sales/Total Assetss

2009: X5= 53898/45564= 1.18

2010: X5= 56910/46053= 1.23

2011: X5= 60931/47206= 1.29

Z mark: 1.2 * X1 + 1.4 * X2 + 3.3 * X3 + 0.6 * X4 + 1.0 * X5

2009: 1.2*-0.090+1.4*0.047+3.3*0.069+0.6*0.87+1.0*1.18= 1.89

2010: 1.2*-0.092+1.4*0.050+3.3*0.075+0.6*1.084+1.0*1.23= 2.1

2011: 1.2*-0.133+1.4*0.056+3.3*0.081+0.6*1.05+1.0*1.29= 2.1

Tesco has improved somewhat the fiscal state of affairs as it is shown in the Z mark consequence. It has increased from 1.89 in 2009 to 2.1 in 2011. 2.1 is a better state of affairs for the company but it still necessitate to better because with a consequence of 2.1 in the Z mark Tesco is in a hazardous state of affairs. Tesco should increase this figure until acquire at least about 2.8.

Sainsbury ‘s

X1= Working capital/Total Assetss

2009: X1= 1591-2919/10033= -0.132

2010: X1= 1852-2793/10855= -0.087

2011: X1= 1721-2942/11399= -0.107

X2=Retained Earnings/Total Assetss

2009: X2= 289/10033= 0.029

2010: X2= 585/10855= 0.054

2011: X2= 640/11399= 0.079

X3=EBIT/Total Assetss

2009: X3= 673/10033= 0.067

2010: X3= 710/10855= 0.065

2011: X3= 851/11399= 0.075

X4=Market value of equality/Total Liabilitiess

2009: X4= 1738.5M*3.13/5657= 1.01

2010: X4= 1821.7M*3031/5889= 1.02

2011: X4= 1921M*3.51/5975= 1.13

X5=Sales/Total Assetss

2009: X5= 18911/10033= 1.88

2010: X5= 19964/10855= 1.84

2011: X5= 21102/11399= 1.85

Z mark: 1.2 * X1 + 1.4 * X2 + 3.3 * X3 + 0.6 * X4 + 1.0 * X5

2009: 1.2*-0.132+1.4*0.029+3.3*0.067+0.6*1.01+1.0*1.88= 2.59

2010: 1.2*-0.087+1.4*0.054+3.3*0.065+0.6*1.02+1.0*1.84= 2.637

2011: 1.2*-0.107+1.4*0.079+3.3*0.075+0.6*1.13+1.0*1.85= 2.725

Sainsbury ‘s has been in a hazardous state of affairs over the past 3 twelvemonth although has better the fiscal state of affairs twelvemonth by twelvemonth. If Sainsbury ‘s continues increasing this consequence it will be in the precautional country by 2013.

Z mark Tesco – Sainsbury ‘s

Tesco Sainsbury ‘s

2009 1.89 2.59

2010 2.1 2.637

2011 2.1 2.725

As it is shown in the tabular array, Sainsbury ‘s has a better fiscal state of affairs and besides did a better betterment over the old ages but it is need to see the differences between these companies. Tesco and Sainsbury ‘s are companies of different sizes and there are large differences in their figures so it is non a just comparing but it can be utile as usher of how is the state of affairs of each company.

FTSE graphs

Harmonizing to Mark Kolakowski ( 2012 ) , “ There are several Financial Times Stock Exchange, or FTSE, indexes. The most commonly-quoted is the FTSE 100, originally developed by theA Financial TimesA newspaper and which includes the 100 largest companies by market value on the London Stock Exchange. ”

In the undermentioned graph it is shown the development of Sainsbury ‘s and Tesco ‘s portions of the last three old ages and besides it is compared with the FTSE 100 index.

Performance comparing: 10/12/2009 – 09/12/2012


Percentage alteration





J Sainsbury plc

+7.69 %





FTSE 100

+12.78 %






-19.63 %





( Sainsbury ‘s, 2012 )

Share Evaluation tool

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Net incomes per portion:

Net net income for the twelvemonth / figure of ordinary portions in issuex100

2009: 2138000000/7895344018×100 = 27

2010: 2336000000/7985044057×100 = 29

2011: 2671000000/8046468092×100 = 33

Net incomes per portion:

Net net income for the twelvemonth / figure of ordinary portions in issuex100

2009: 289000000/1738500000×100 = 16.6

2010: 585000000/1821700000×100 = 32

2011: 640000000/1921000000×100 = 33

Price/Earnings ratio:

Market monetary value per portion / EPS

2009: 3.582/0.27 = 13.27 old ages

2010: 4.2955/0.29 = 14.67 old ages

2011: 3.981/0.33 = 12.06 old ages

Price/Earnings ratio:

Market monetary value per portion / EPS

2009: 3.13/0.166 = 18.85 old ages

2010: 3.331/0.32 = 10.41 old ages

2011: 3.51/0.33 = 10.64 old ages

Gearing Ratio:

Long term liabilities/Share capital + militias + long term loans x100

2009: 12391/12906+12391×100 = 48.98 %

2010: 11744/14681+11744×100 = 44.44 %

2011: 9689/16623+9689×100 = 36.82 %

Gearing Ratio:

Long term liabilities / Share capital + militias + long term loans x100

2009: 2738/4376+2177×100 = 41.78 %

2010: 3096/4966+2357×100 = 42.27 %

2011: 3033/5424+2339×100 = 39.07 %

Interest Screen:

NPBIT / Interest payable

2009: 3169/562 = 5.64 Timess

2010: 3457/690 = 5.01 Timess

2011: 3811/614 = 6.2 Timess

Interest Screen:

NPBIT / Interest payable

2009: 673/128 = 5.25 Timess

2010: 710/111 = 6.4 Timess

2011: 851/126 = 6.75 Timess

( Assessment 1, 2012 )

The investing ratios show that both are goods companies to put on. From 2009 to 2011 Sainsbury ‘s has improved more than Tesco although in the last analysed twelvemonth ( 2011 ) the stockholders will gain the same sum of money per portion in both companies.

Another point to see is the figure of stockholders of each company because it will impact to the earning per portion. By the manner Sainsbury ‘s has less stockholders and sing the fact that in 2011 the earning per portion was the same as Tesco ‘s, it might be better to put in Sainsbury ‘s. ( Assessment 1, 2012 )

The economic downswing has been brought to visible radiation with the aid of the undermentioned GDP growing graph since 1989 ( Mintel, 2009 ) :

Fig 3: UK GDP Growth 1989-2009

Fig 3: UK GDP Growth 1989-2009


After three back-to-back periods of falling gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) , the UK ‘s economic system grew by 1 per cent during the 3rd one-fourth of 2012.A

The services sector accounted for the whole of the economic system ‘s growing in this period. A 0.2 per centum point part to quarterly GDP growing from higher production sector end product – the first positive part in the sector since the 3rd one-fourth of 2010 – was offset by a negative part of 0.2 points from building.

Growth of 1.0 per cent in the 3rd one-fourth is the strongest since the 3rd one-fourth of 2007. The strength in the one-fourth nevertheless can partially be attributed to the loss of a on the job twenty-four hours associated with the Diamond Jubilee bank vacation which subdued end product in the 2nd one-fourth, ensuing in growing being calculated from a lower base. In add-on, hosting the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics may besides hold had an impact on growing, particularly as ticket gross revenues were accrued to the one-fourth when they were used instead than the period when they were purchased. It is estimated that ticket gross revenues added 0.2 per centum points to GDP growing in the 3rd one-fourth.

Real GDP in the 3rd one-fourth of 2012 was unchanged from its degree a twelvemonth earlier, even with the benefit of the Olympic and Paralympics ticket gross revenues. ( UK Statisticss, 2012 )


Once realized the above analysis, it possible to reason that continues to take Tesco and Sainsbury continues to better its state of affairs in the extremely volatile retail section, where companies are forced to prosecute cost leading and distinction schemes. Tesco has been able to accomplish this with the aid of a system of supply concatenation direction simple and fast and the strategic usage of information engineering. Meanwhile, Sainsbury ‘s is strongly focused on nutrient, and this is the premier ground why clients visit its shops.

The nucleus competences of Tesco have been integrated with the concern environment ; so, it augurs a positive hereafter for the company.


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