Examining The Problems Of Indigenization And Globalization Cultural Studies Essay

In this paper we will seek to understand the relationship between indigenization and globalisation by looking at how globalisation in its procedure Acts of the Apostless as a tool for homogenising certain ‘culture ‘ and lifestyle as ideal over others and frequently works chiefly through the market, media, music and other engineering. Second we will besides look into how globalisations try to reenforce itself through indigenization by accommodating certain popular local civilization which are selective and hence marginalized certain civilization over others in a society. Therefore, we will concentrate chiefly on societal, economic and cultural life of province and people in globalisation epoch and will be looking through the lens of societal scientific discipline position.For farther lucidity we will besides look at experiences of some states in Asia that are altering due to globalisation as an empirical grounds. In this paper I would wish to reason that globalisation and indigenization are interrelated and that globalisation is an economic thrust for net income maximization and hence in the procedure of puting up markets it creates homogenisation ; and indigenization of selective cultural manifestation which frequently leaves out other civilizations and creates tenseness within a pluralist society

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In societal scientific discipline discourse it is really hard to specify any term. Globalization, term beginning of construct can be seen as first used by Roland Robertson harmonizing to Malcolm Waters, which came at the background of countering Immanuel Wallertein theory that has a heavy base on economic system, Robertson suggested hence that globalisation is a phenomena both taking topographic point in human consciousness and civilization. For our present paper we will be looking at globalisation as an economic procedure chiefly driven by the so called developed or the western universe through international fiscal organic structures that finally challenges civilization. Globalization hence means a planetary economic procedure that controls international economic system and state province administration as trade and investing procedure produces turning interconnectedness between states. Hirst and Thomson ( 1999,8-10 ) said that interconnectedness between states frequently result in the signifier of states specialisations and the international division of labor. The importance of trade besides becomes progressively centralized which acts as the organisational rule of the system. They become internationally independent and socially discorporate, as market and production becomes genuinely planetary. Domestic policies becomes preponderantly international determinate. This creates a systematic mutuality as it is transform to be permeated by and for international. Therefore, globalise economic system posed a job to the domestic histrions in explicating its policies. Globalization harmonizing to Petra and Veltmeyer ( 2001,11 ) carries both descriptive and normative significances, descriptive as[ 1 ]globalisation mentioning to the broadening and deepening of the international flows of trade, capital, engineering and information within a individual incorporate planetary market. Prescriptive as globalisation involves the liberalisation of national and planetary markets in the belief that free flow of trade, capital and information will bring forth the best result for growing and human public assistance ( UNDP, 1992 ) . On one manus, there are bookmans like Keith Griffin ( 1995 ) who considers globalisation as inevitable and needs accommodation for both necessary and possible human development. On the other manus, there are some who view it as a category and non as a procedure, the web of establishments known as the planetary economic system is an ‘intentional and contingent, capable to the control of persons who represent an seek to progress the involvement of a new international capitalist category ‘ , this category consists of TNCs, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, etc and all these fiscal establishment organize a new system called ‘global administration ‘ . Barnet and Cavenagh ( 1994 ) term this as a ‘global fiscal web ‘ . Here the inquiry do non merely boils down to whether globalisation is inevitable or non as we need to be really critical on this issue but for this paper we should travel further and state that globalisation is an economic procedure that is driven by few powers to modulate, generate and sustain capitalist economy. At the interim globalisation procedure can besides be seen as the airing of faith and civilization ; it evolves interaction of people, groups, communities chiefly through trade and commercialism. Sociology survey on globalisation focal point on the procedures and flows in society whether at local degree, national or planetary degree. Sociologist like Barrington Moore, Charles Tilly, Theda Skocpol and Immanuel Wallerstein have looked at society loosely to understand connexions of human lives with assorted field like economic sciences, civilization, media, engineering etc, so, in short globalisation is a procedure driven for economic growing by few international establishments that controls the procedure and result of planetary economic system.

Indigenization

The term indigenization originates from the significance autochthonal. Harmonizing to Webster ‘s New World Dictionary defines Indigenous as ‘existing or turning of course in a part, state ‘ , Sefa Dei ( 2002 ) said autochthonal cognition as unique to a given civilization or society characterized by the common sense thoughts, ideas, values of people formed as a consequence of sustained interaction of society, nature and civilization. In Sociology autochthonal mean to incorporate one ‘s refection on the local civilization and society or history into his or her attacks. Yet it is of import to observe that non all civilization is autochthonal for eg in Yang ‘s article he clarifies that autochthonal civilization in Chinese context was to analyze traditional Chinese civilization I.e. Confucian tradition and non local tradition like Gelao tradition in Taiwan. Autochthonal people constitute more than 70 % of the universe out of which 250 million people lives in Asia. They are known by different names like ‘hill tribes ‘ in Thailand, ‘Scheduled Tribe ‘ in India, ‘cultural communities ‘ in Philippines, ‘minorities nationalities ‘ in China etc. Heterogenisation, globalisation, hybridisation and indigenization have all become portion of the broad runing cultural surveies in different discourse and argument about the diverseness of local interaction with planetary capitalist economy. Roberston ( 1995, 28 ) provinces relation to globalisation with civilization said that ‘in legion modern-day histories globalising tendencies are regarded as in tenseness with local averments of individuality and civilization ‘ . Here we will non be concentrating so much on individuality but expression at how societal cultural patterns gets undermined in globalisation.

Globalization and homogenisation

We will now see how globalization procedure works as homogenizing tools that are frequently selective in nature and homogenized certain civilization over another go forthing out the importance of plurality of a state. Harmonizing to Nederveen Pieterse ( 2004 )[ 2 ], there are[ 3 ]three positions on the issue of globalisation. The first position looks at globalisation as clang with civilisation as expressed by bookmans like Samuel Huntington. The 2nd position is expressed by the term ‘Mcdonaldisation ‘ of the universe that would besides intend homogenisation of peculiar civilization over others, that frequently overlooks at the plurality and differences of civilizations diverseness. The 3rd position is based on hybridisation and synthesis, as this position suggest that much of the universe ‘s civilization has evolved through exchanges, blending or diffusions where there be a changeless motion and interaction between people who are the bearer of civilization. Here the thought of homogenisation and indigenization becomes rather critical as it is driven by the market economic systems that are profit driven, which we will look at as we proceed farther. To understand globalisation and homogenisation we will reason on the first and 2nd position of globalisation as stated before, as a ‘clash of civilisation ‘ and ‘mcdonalization ‘ through planetary fiscal web. .Yamashita argued that ‘the history of Southeast Asia itself can be a good illustration of glocalisation’.The Economist ( 10 Oct 1994 ) predicted that China would be the universe ‘s largest economic system by 2020 catching United State and besides the developing states will rule more than 60 % of the universe ‘s economic system go forthing merely 40 % with the developed states. The experiences of many Asiatic states like Hongkong, South Korea, Taiwan etc showed rapid economic growing in early 1990s. Global economic establishments like World Bank 1993 reports ‘The East Asiatic Miracle ‘ ascertained and sensed these policies to be stable, market friendly policies with internal and external fiscal market liberalisation to pull foreign investing. However, by late 1990s the economic system of East Asiatic went into crises, which World Bank commented as inability to turn their domestic Bankss into ‘western manner establishment ‘ that accent on transparence and rational market oriented standards. On the other manus, turn toing this same job Hirst and Thompson ( 2002 ) said that South Korea and Singapore have suffered the most in this crises as they both depended to a great extent on short term loans from international fiscal establishments, and by and large they concluded that the states were ‘heavily depended on the Western advice, and having congratulations for it from such establishments as the IMF which complimented Thailand on its macroeconomic policies in 1996. Civil order was driven by conformance with Western philosophy ‘ . Thus, East Asian Crises clearly showed the bias policies of the West to spread out its market that frequently demands so much from the receiver state to do their policies favourable foe investing otften at the cost of the state. Still there are some bookmans like Khondker who argues that rational closing to others will shut duologue between societies or states. He urges that in globalisation epoch states should open up yet non be a unsighted impersonator of western thoughts and constructs and give importance to local context and values. This crisis shows how planetary fiscal establishments controls and directs the policies of other developing states and homogenized certain ‘western values ‘ as ideal values over local values. State sovereignty in the procedure itself becomes restructure and reorganized through globalisation, it consistently becomes a marionette at the custodies of the fiscal giants, so there should be a infinite and right for states to reject or reform or act upon the policies and conditions that will impact them. There is besides this tenseness with globalisation as on one manus it seems to be making diverseness yet on the other manus it has farther strengthen localisation.

Harmonizing to Ritzer, ‘McDonaldizationaˆ¦ does non stand for something new but, instead, the apogee of a series of rationalisation procedures that had been happening throughout the 20th century ‘ . He said that globalisation is non needfully Westernization. At some point this statement seems acceptable but as we look around we can non disregard the McDonaldization as the popular civilization even in India shows more Americanization as top chart music are dominated by popular vocalists like Madonna, Rihanna etc or hip hop civilization, all the latest loud manner statements are made through foreign merchandises like Nike, Addidas, Puma, Samsung, Vodaphone etc, telecasting shows like Simpsons, American Idol, Friends etc gaining control the popular media civilization. McDonald, KFC ‘s international nutrient articulations are seen in every metropoliss and in many merchandises they modify or indigenized it with selective civilization to suit into new civilization a authoritative illustration can be the debut of ‘aloo tikki ‘ in McDonald bill of fare or ‘nimbu pani ‘ drinks in KFC bill of fare. The procedure of globalisation started with trade and trade goods now is traveling towards services.

Globalization and Indigenization

The term globalisation and indigenization have become a desired term. Harmonizing to Samuel Huntington in, ‘The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order ‘ he argued that because of new thoughts like modernisation, urbanisation and mass communicating and the terminal of Cold War there will be competition of political orientation, this would take to a struggle that will non be based on political orientation or economic system but on civilization. His anticipation seems to be coming true as we see the controversy worldwide on globalisation and indigenization that challenges the base on civilization. The impact of globalisation on civilization is seen otherwise by different bookmans. Some like transformative says that civilization is germinating and altering hence needs interaction that will advance integrating and removed negative cultural barriers. Spectics have argued that it will make uneven cultural globalisation, Many other see it as a negative influences upon each other, as the planetary fiscal institutes like IMF policies has shown really bias attack driven for economic net income. The turning protest against international organisations meetings like G-8, European Union in Seattle, Washington, Genoa and Barcelona is a cogent evidence of turning discontent among many people. Indigenization of certain civilization becomes of import inquiry as we see that it is intractably related with the province, individuality and economic system. Lieber and Weisberg suggest that civilization within globalisation have to make deeper than its surface phenomena and ‘McDonald, American music, linguistic communication, art and life style ‘ has within it a signifier of disaffection that owes to the alterations and breaks brought by modernisation and globalisation. They argued that in Middle East, South Asia and Africa there is a fury of choler against corrupt and autocratic regulation, which came into being after the dislocation of their traditional societal, political and economic relationships. Therefore, these new establishments fails to run into the demands of the societies thereby there is a deep bitterness against the Americans that have pose a challenged to individuality[ 4 ]. They considered civilization as an country of controversy. The US, considered as the chief histrion of globalisation has been playing a double function in prolonging and protecting capitalist economy. The United States of America with less than 5 % of the universe ‘s population histories for one 4th of its economic histories. They have all captured power in international establishments and rule universe economic system. Thereby, homogenising popular civilization of other states. American English is the most common spoken linguistic communication in the universe ; about 380 million people use English as their first linguistic communication and 250 million as their 2nd linguistic communication. A German diplomat Karsten Voight with US said that

The USA has long been puting criterions on a world-wide footing, non merely for the general public, but has been taking the field in the authoritative cultural domains, for illustration in research and instruction, or movies and modern art. Its planetary function rooted in a hitherto unknown blend of economic power, the ability to put the planetary cultural docket and military high quality. ( International Journal of Politics, 2002, p277 )

Media besides plays an of import function for indigenization procedure as Hollywood movies captures more audiences than any other movie production company. As there are many coevalss of work forces who grew up all wanting to be a ‘cowboy ‘ as the influence of film was really strong in earlier clip, even though due to infinite and clip, physical constrains the grade of homogenisation might be lesser though am non denying the monolithic life style influence that clip. Now, we can see that societal and cultural globalisation over oversight with commercial economic system. The planetary media are control by few states through wireless, cyberspace and film. There are bookmans like Ben Beakidn, who wrote ‘Media Monopoly ‘ and argued that planetary economic system is controlled by merely few states. He gives an illustration that by 1998 merely six Multi National Corporation or MNC control more than half of universe societal and cultural life like Disney, other minor MNCs were Fox, BBC, Microsoft, Yahoo all these are dominated by developed states and even localized within their district, I would wish to reason here that these MNCs acts a major tools for homogenising and indigenizing western civilization that gets strongly reenforce through popular mass media and this has intensify due to go on interaction over the old ages under rapid globalisation epoch. These societal and cultural phenomena as seen above frequently subscribe to few dominant civilizations chiefly term as Americanization that creates a cosmopolitan history. Media has created ‘soft power ‘ in homogenisation and indigenized few civilizations at the disbursal of other, eg in India the debut of cold drinks like Pepsi, Coke, Sprite etc has wiped out many traditional drinks like Lassi or nimbu pani, and many traditional little graduated table earner that depended on these trade for support are displaced and about non existent now, we can besides see now market besides commodities goods like the debut of ‘packet nimbu pani ‘ which are projected as more healthy over traditional drinks. There are barely any marks of traditional civilization of life style particularly in the market like traditional earthen pots ‘ghara ‘ as H2O ice chest is about non being, which are natural, environment friendly and healthy. The indigenization procedure that caters to new clients for net income by choosing popular civilization over other are really apparent as discussed earlier the debut of ‘aloo tikki ‘ or vegetarian bill of fare in McDonald, the latest manner are besides projected as have oning certain Sons and tickets like Reebok, Adiddas, Nike ( JUST DO IT ) etc replacing traditional garbs like kurtas and salwar kameez, though we see them yet still but we need to recognize that many traditional trade that trade with these merchandise are now non existent or fighting for endurance as new engineering can bring forth the same more expeditiously and in big sum, which makes the traditional merchandise more expensive and since so called rational consumer goes for cheaper goods it finally lead to the diminution of some efficient traditional civilization. This phenomenon besides unnaturally creates a division among people as we besides see the indispensable growing of Trans national elite in every society. There are greater connexion among people around the universe and which besides lead to some positive result like growing in Human Rights Movement, Feminist motion and Environmental anterooms etc. non overlooking the positive facets of globalisation as good we can still reason and before we can reason it would be interesting to chew over on what Gupta ( 2007, 88-89 ) writes in chapter rubric ‘Business as Usual ‘ that globalisation convey in new political orientation that are clearly seeable in which concern are projected in India, trade brotherhood has been laid down, productions are driven by consumers want it is no longer about employment, economic independency or strong trade brotherhood. In this competitory capitalist procedure unluckily for state like India it poses a job to citizenship and disregard of underprivileged people. Business or corporate giant in India are portion of household concern so it puts household above all else, this vividly captures the province of India nowadays scenario that is driven for economic growing and net income driven in globalisation universe and has intensified over the old ages.

Decision

Through this paper I have tried to foreground the implicit in current of globalisation that is fundamentally driven by few developed states chiefly US. Globalization as a procedure starts and ends with economic enlargement, by which it homogenized selective civilization and undertakings it as superior over others and indigenized itself to be accepted as it enters new markets. In this procedure globalisation creates a complex phenomenon that creates contradiction within the impression of civilization, for some state like Singapore globalisation has been good as they are driven with the pursuit for latest engineering as they have high criterion of life in by and large. However, for a state like India it is debatable as we have seen that by homogenising and indigenization merely selective civilization dominants over other and India been a pluralist state with so much of diverseness. The functions of citizens besides greatly diminish as there is no infinite for pick, so underprivileged subdivisions of society bears the greatest load. There should be a changeless attempt on the portion of state to supply substantial equality to citizens make public assistance policies free from any foreign influences. Culture keeps altering and germinating but we should maintain in head that any opportunities should be directed to do every person live a respectable and dignified life and in right cultural context.

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