Examining The Practice Of Counter Terrorism Criminology Essay

Since the terrorist onslaughts on September 11th in New York, democratic states have had to turn to the menace of terrorist act. However, the mode of which a democratic society is run, may do struggle with some of the enforcements that may be important in the bar of terrorist act, for illustration freedom of address and motion. If such limitations are to be put in topographic point, it is of import to measure whether it is really effectual and worth the forfeit. Besides in some instances it is arguable that presenting such limitations and Torahs may in fact fuel terrorist act.

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One of the most controversial Torahs that democratic states such as America and the UK have introduced is confining people with out charge. This is apparent in such prisons as Belmarsh in the UK and Guantanamo bay in Cuba which is controlled by the USA. This is controversial as it means people are unable to support them egos or turn out their artlessness as they are non cognizant of the charge against them. Some argue that this violates human rights as persons have the right to cognize why they are a suspect, nevertheless this is seen as a manner to avoid future terrorist onslaughts, and in many ways is seen as justified by the authorities in response to such events as 9/11 and 7/7. However some argue that it is making the antonym, for illustration in the UK, it was proposed that suspects should be able to be detained for up to 90 yearss without charge the “ former Metropolitan constabulary commissioner, warned that “ the conflict against terrorist act is a conflict that will last for decennaries. It is a conflict for Black Marias and a mindsaˆ¦ . ” He feared that on balance, “ and it is a really all right balance, ” the extension of detainment without charge might be counterproductive “ in the sense of promoting martyrdom instead than forestalling it. ” ( 1M1a1l1j1e1v1i.A, Wade.M:2010:339 ) ****Pg 339 1A1 1W1a1r1 1o1n1 1T1e1r1r1o1r1? 1:1 1T1h1e1 1E1u1r1o1p1e1a1n1 1S1t1a1n1c1e1 1o1n1 1a1 1N1e1w1 1T1h1r1e1a1t1,1 1C1h1a1n1g1i1n1g1 1L1a1w1s1 1a1n1d1 1.1.1.1 So it is possible that certain Torahs could decline the job of terrorist act instead than turn toing it.

Another trouble which democratic societies face is the impact anti-terror Torahs have on freedom of address. For illustration in the instance of Abu Izadeen who was arrested for ‘glorifying ‘ terrorist Acts of the Apostless in London. This jurisprudence was criticised by the OSCE who pointed out the “ joint declaration by the UN particular Rapporteur on freedom of sentiment and look, whiles accepting that it may be legitimate to forbid incitement to Acts of the Apostless of terrorist act the joint declaration remarked that such footings such as ‘glorifying ‘ or ‘promoting ‘ were ‘vague and potentially really overbroad footings. ‘ ” ( Cram.I:2009:102 ) *****Pg 102 Google books Terror and the war on dissent: freedom of look in the age of Al-Qaeda. This shows that in many ways it is indefensible to collar people under such charge as it restricts the freedom of address and the term ‘glorifying ‘ is so wide, which makes it unfastened to reading and is against the foundations of a democratic society. After the London bombardments there were a figure of instances where members of the Muslims community were arrested and extensively detained and released without charge. This lead to the Muslim community feeling targeted and stigmatised. Therefore it is difficult to accomplish a balance between protecting a community and marginalizing members of it.

There can be many different grounds for why anti-terror Torahs and ordinances may be counterproductive, this includes doing terrorist groups illegal as it would be harder to follow them as they would be driven underground, which would do their activities harder to detect. It is argued that “ Outlawing the terrorist organisations will do it to go more utmost: it will beef up the groups amongst it ranks, who will shortly travel over to the usage of force ” ( Ganor.B:2005:195 ) ****** Page 195 Google booksThe counter-terrorism mystifier: a usher for determination shapers. Besides international military intercession to forestall terrorist act may besides be counterproductive, for illustration it can be argued that in Iraq the US provoked more terrorist act, as Iraqis were used to a dictator who violently surpressed any political groups organizing and operating. However “ The US presence in Iraq besides strengthened the motive of forces that were already to use terrorist agencies in the planetary battle against the United States and its Alliess and therefore reinforced the war on terrorist act and gave it a new self-created principle. ” ( Thakur.R, Sidhu.W:2006:135 ) ******Pg Pg258-259 The Iraq Crisis And World Order. This shows that military intercession can sometimes be counterproductive and hence non good to the democratic procedure in societies.

Attempts to implement political peace policies have been made by democratic states for illustration the ‘Good Friday Agreement ‘ in 1998 between the British authorities and the IRA. And the ‘Oslo Declaration ‘ in 1993 between Israel and the PLO. However, this attack poses jobs as it is seen as unacceptable for democratic states to negociate with ‘terrorists ‘ and both the PLO and IRA are seen as terrorist administrations. However this is non unusual as “ Colombia has negotiated with assorted domestic Rebel groups, and Spain has negotiated with the Basque ETA ( Euskadi Ta Askatasuna [ Homeland and Freedom ] ) . Even the United States under president Reagan provided TOC missiles to Iran to win the release of sureties held by Hezbollah. “ ( Blum.G, Heymann.P:2010:135 ) ****** 135 Laws, Outlaws, and Terrorists: Lessons from the War on Terrorism

By Gabriella Blum, Philip B. Heymann. This demonstrates that democratic states have to travel against their ain rules of democracy in order to accomplish of import ends.

Probably the biggest job democratic states face when implementing policies against terrorist act is that the term ‘terrorism ‘ is so obscure and hard to specify that implementing Torahs under such a term, in a democratic mode, seems about impossible, “ jurisprudence should be clear and precise and its consequence foreseeable. [ aˆ¦ ] the term ‘terrorist ‘ , used in the Terrorism Acts, is obscure and imprecise, and hence, at least arguably, its significance is non foreseeable. The kernel of this point is that the definition of ‘terrorism ‘ does non mention to any specific offense, and terrorist act is non itself an offense. ” ( David.H, Rowe.j:2010:381 ) *****Hoffman, David. Rowe, John. Q.C. Human Rights in the UK An Introduction to the Human Rights Act 1998. 3rd edn. ( Essex: Pearson Education Limited, 2010 ) p.381. This in fact is the most hard issue that authoritiess face as they want to safeguard against implying guiltless people, so it is dry that to support democracy authoritiess may hold to travel off from being democratic where terrorist act is concerned.

In decision it is apparent that democratic states face many legal troubles when counteracting and forestalling terrorist act. However it is apparent at that place have been many spreads in statute laws and democratic states have strayed from some of their most of import democratic policies e.g. non negociating with terrorists, or confining people without charge. It is clear that democratic states need to believe of more ethical methods in forestalling farther terrorist onslaughts, and democratic policies should be instilled into the legal model of democratic societies. If in hard and unsafe instances, policies have to be altered, so it is of import that they are extremely effectual otherwise such moves end up compromising the very foundations of democratic societies.

Refrencing

Blum. G, Heymann.P.B ( 2010 ) Laws, Outlaws, and Terrorists: Lessons from the War on Terrorism, United States of America: MIT imperativeness.

Cram. I ( 2009 ) Panic and the war on dissent: freedom of look in the age of Al-Qaeda, London: Springer.

3 3M3a3l3j3e3v3I, 3A3l.33 Wade, M3 ( 2010 ) A war On panic? The European stance on a new menace, altering Torahs and human rights deductions, Germany: Springer.

Ganor. B ( 2005 ) The counter-terrorism mystifier: a usher for determination shapers, The United States Of America ; the library of Congress cataloguing.

Thakur. R, Sidhu. W. P. S ( 2006 ) The Iraq Crisis And World Order, Tokyo: The United Nations University Press.

Hoffman, D. Rowe. J. Q. C ( 2010 ) Human Rights in the UK an debut to the human rights act 1998, 3rd edn. , Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

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