Examining Factors Influencing Police Decision Making Criminology Essay

Police decision-making relies on a myriad of factors to include the single officer ‘s features, the environment the officer works in, the features of the wrongdoer, the state of affairs the officer finds themselves in, and the organisation that influences them. In an effort to command officer behaviour and discretion, some constabulary bureaus have encouraged and/or mandated the increased hiring of minorities, adult females, and college educated officers. The belief is that officer features such as race, sex, and instruction have an consequence on constabulary determination devising and these features will hold a moderating influence on crying behaviours such as inordinate force, constabulary shots, and misdemeanors of civil rights. However, there is no obliging grounds to propose that officer features have such a strong influence to counter the other factors of state of affairs, organisation, and environment in decision-making. Since officer features are a minor portion of the complex factors act uponing constabulary behaviour, there is no injury in advancing increased hiring of minorities, adult females, and college educated officers. These engaging policies do necessitate to be seen as an effort by the constabulary bureau to engage officers that portion features of the constituency that they serve. More survey is needed to verify the influences of officer features on constabulary behaviour and so, if the surveies verify a connexion, this research can confirm the increased hiring patterns of minorities, adult females, and college educated officers.


There is a famine of quasi-experimental and experimental designs into the factors that influence a constabulary officer ‘s decision-making. Questions remain on how influential certain features such as officer sex, race, age, instruction, and attitude can be on officer behaviour. Of the bing surveies that investigate the influences of officer features, the consequences are assorted on how influential these features are. However, there are legion surveies, while non experimental, that can assist explicate police behaviours through factors other than officer features ( National Research Council, 2004, pp. 34-35 ) . By utilizing these surveies of other than officer features, we can formalize how strong or weak these factors are on officer behaviour. More surveies of officer features on constabularies behaviours are needed in order to warrant the canonic hiring of more females, minorities, and college educated officers in an effort to command officer behaviour. Some constabulary decision makers and policy shapers think that officers with more instruction and a diverse background will do better determinations when interacting with the populace and cut down the incidents of inordinate force and misdemeanors of civil rights ( Walker, 1998, p. 232 ) and this is the ground for implementing affirmatory action engaging plans at some constabulary bureaus.

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Some factors put away as possible behavioural influences on constabulary officers have included citizen behaviours and attitudes, ecological influences, environmental factors, legal restraints, organisational factors, political relations, and situational factors. While all are capable of act uponing behaviour, none replies the full inquiry of finding and foretelling constabularies behavior ( National Research Council, 2004, pp. 214-216 ) . One of the biggest obstructions in finding constabulary behaviour is get the better ofing ingrained “ conventional wisdom ” on constabulary affairs. There is excessively much attending placed on certain behaviours such as racial profiling, constabulary shots, usage of force, and corruptness without seeking to understand the causes and definitions of such behaviours. These high-profile incidents receive speedy holes from politicians and constabularies decision makers without turn toing the implicit in causes. Theory based surveies would be better used to explicate and rectify crying shows of constabulary behaviour ( Engel, 2002, pp. 269-270 ) . There is a demand for empirical based surveies of constabulary behaviour in order to find which factors, if any, influence the behaviour of constabulary officers, the usage of discretion, and whether if police sections can command for these behaviours by stressing the hiring of adult females, minorities, and college educated officers ( National Research Council, 2004, pp. 152-154 ) .

Based on the grounds so far, the influences on constabularies behaviours are excessively complex and varied to do a strong decision that certain policies such as engaging more minorities, adult females, and college educated officers can rectify and/control single constabulary behaviour. Although strong correlativities exist between constabularies behavior and situational, legal, organisational, and community factors, none represents a bellwether solution for act uponing constabulary behaviour. With no conclusive grounds associating certain officer features such as officer race, gender, and instruction to peculiar behaviours, policies stressing departmental solutions to behavioural issues should be maintained within certain contexts. Rather than being seen as a tool to act upon officer behaviours and results, these engaging patterns should be seen as an effort to rectify old prejudiced hiring patterns, promote employee diverseness, and as an enterprise to hold a constabulary bureau reflect their constituency in order to construct trust and cooperation. Other factors such as police civilization, state of affairss, and constabularies bureaucratism that have been shown to hold more of an influence constabulary behaviour than officer features should be given more focal point in efforts to alter officer behaviour.


The Importance of Discretion

Undertaking the issue of finding the footing of constabulary behaviour is non new but the complexness of the issue was realized from the beginning of such research as the American Bar Foundation Survey in the 1950 ‘s and its follow-on research by the President ‘s Commission on Law Enforcement in 1967. Though these early surveies spent considerable clip in trying to understand constabulary discretion, they laid the basis for later surveies on constabularies behavior and raised several inquiries in the procedure ( Walker, 1992, pp. 48-54 ) . Questions such as the influence of officer features and attitude on officer behaviour are still non to the full understood. These surveies began with the accent on analyzing constabulary behaviour and public interaction with the belief that most officers performed their occupations harmonizing to the missive of the jurisprudence. However, it was shortly discovered in the class of these surveies that the constabulary exercised an tremendous sum of discretion in using the jurisprudence ( National Research Council, 2004, pp. 22-23 ) .

The importance discretion has on constabularies behavior can non be overstated. A police officer, one time out of preparation, operates with really small direct supervising and can be extremely selective in showing the power of the constabulary. Even when replying service calls with ample grounds of a offense, there is no warrant that the officer will take a formal action against a citizen. Almost every interaction an officer has with the populace has a step of discretion. Because of a deficiency of direct supervising, the actions of the officer can non be invariably monitored to guarantee attachment to the jurisprudence and obeisance of civil rights. On one manus, an officer decides to implement the jurisprudence and do the apprehension. This action so comes under the reappraisal of the constabulary section, tribunals, the media, and the public since apprehension in the United States are a affair of the populace record. On the other manus, an officer decides non to do an apprehension by utilizing discretion. The grounds for no apprehension can change from deficiency of grounds to the officer ‘s concern that her/his displacement is about over and does non desire to remain tardily to book an apprehension. Merely the officer, the suspect, and possibly some bystanders have cognition of the non-arrest. Since none of these people occupy the officer ‘s concatenation of bid or justness sub-system, this determination of non-arrest is non up for reappraisal except in rare fortunes ( Goldstein, 1960, pp. 90-92 ) .

Goldstein ( 1960 ) noted that the usage of constabulary discretion in non doing apprehensions are non reviewed except in instances where the constabulary detained suspects in a offense and the fishy went on to perpetrate farther offenses and/or the non-arrest is seen as portion of corruptness. However, apprehensions and therefore the determinations to do that apprehension are under reappraisal at every occasion of the condemnable justness procedure, from booking through adjudication. Therefore, the load of a good apprehension and the discretion used to do the apprehension is no longer on the officer put placed with the tribunals for reappraisal.

Police officers use their discretion for a battalion of intents, from being a “ offense combatant ” to making their best to avoid every bit much work as possible. Leting for the effects of being the topic of a survey, officers still exhibit a broad scope of behaviours depending on when, where, and with whom they choose to exert their powers of detainment, oppugning, apprehension, and force ( Van Maanen, 1974, p. 122 ) . Added to the mundane factors such as the state of affairs in which the officer happen himself or herself interacting with citizens, outlooks of their bureau and colleagues, and differences in location, the officer is besides portion of a public service organisation. The constabulary have viing authorizations and duties placed upon them by a volatile populace and an even more volatile political system. These authorizations and duties are normally non clearly communicated or merely communicated after an incident has taken topographic point and the constabulary response was non what the public expected of their bureau. Discretion is used by police direction to steer these outlooks down to the all in officer and to set to a changing and erratic political clime ( National Research Council, 2004, p. 57 ) .

Analyzing Police Behavior and Discretion

Discretion has been the focal point of survey since the 1950 ‘s and 1960 ‘s in an effort to understand how officer determination doing influences police behavior. More significantly, research workers were looking into how discretion factored into state of affairss in which officers violated civil rights, apprehension determinations, and racial favoritism ( National Research Council, 2004, p. 64 ) . While old research focused on the constabulary using the jurisprudence, it was thought that officers clearly applied the jurisprudence reasonably and non-discriminately when the jurisprudence had been broken. However, follow-up surveies revealed that discretion in how the officer applied the jurisprudence was more of import to determination doing than one time believed. Military officers were shown to non do apprehensions even when the jurisprudence was clearly broken and were doing apprehensions for grounds other than jurisprudence interrupting i.e. , citizen safety, discourtesy, and instance direction ( National Research Council, 2004, p. 70 ) .

Attempts to command discretion have been tried in different constabulary bureaus, frequently because of constabulary shots and other misapplications of deathly force. While most efforts to command or formalise discretion have met with assorted consequences, other such as in the wake of the Memphis constabulary shots have been successful in cut downing police shots and implementing other administrative controls ( Fyfe, 1982, p. 72 ) . The usage of discretion carries with it a double-sided expletive of being ineluctable in constabulary work in a democratic political system. With no discretion, constabulary officers would be heavy handed and legalistic but still exerting some type of penchant, merely with more nuance and with obvious offenses being ignored and minor misdemeanors being investigated. Attempts by constabulary decision makers to command discretion have failed ( Aaronson et al. , 1984, pp. 408-436 ) and even though it can promote maltreatments, discretion carries with it the will of the people who are being policed.

The Exercise of Police Arrest Power

The actions of the constabulary are based on the lawfulness and legitimacy of their actions in commanding the populace. The populace besides has to acknowledge the legitimacy of the constabulary and submit to these dogmas in order to be policed. When there is struggle between the populace and the constabulary it is normally a consequence of the constabulary non following the stenosiss set up under the jurisprudence e.g. , improper hunt and ictus, questions without Miranda warnings, and inordinate force ( National Research Council, 2004, pp. 5-6, 252 ) .

Assorted constabulary bureaus exercise discretion and apprehension power in different ways based on the manner of patroling the bureau utilizes. There are three manners of patroling identified by Wilson ( 1968 ) : the watcher, service, and legalistic. Discretion is used the most frequently under the watcher manner since these types of bureaus are chiefly concerned with order care. Military officers utilizing this manner are most concerned with keeping societal control by stamp downing illegal activities and riotous behaviour. Discretion is used along with arrest powers to carry, endanger, and deter possible violators ( National Research Council, 2004, pp. 70-71 ) . The legalistic constabulary bureau is the antonym of the watchman manner with an accent on implementing the jurisprudence no affair how little the misdemeanor may be. Legalistic bureaus tend to hold high apprehension rates, issue more commendations, and use the jurisprudence to aim and/or harass individuals suspected of go againsting the jurisprudence. The usage of discretion is low for these types of sections since they tend to see misdemeanors in more concrete footings and usage apprehension as a tool even for minor misdemeanors. This type of full enforcement besides constrains officer behaviour and allows some sum of control over the officer by the bureau. Police bureaus that use a service manner of patroling are utilizing both order care and jurisprudence enforcement while remaining attuned to the desires of the community they serve. While less accent is placed on utilizing apprehension for even minor misdemeanors, the service type of bureau still uses apprehension and discretion to implement the Torahs that are of import to the local community. Officer behaviour is still controlled but non every bit much as under the legalistic manner but besides non given every bit much freedom as under the watchman manner. However, discretion is still present in all three manners with changing grades of arrest power implemented and/or encouraged by the bureau in order to more closely adhere to the desired results of the constabulary bureau.


Effectss on Police Behavior

It has been suggested that an officer ‘s psychological and attitudinal orientation influence the officer ‘s behaviour when they interact with the populace. This premise deals with an officer ‘s traits, experiences, and attitudes ( Terrill and Mastrofski, 2002, p. 218 ) . One country that has drawn an increasing sum of attending from research workers is officer features and the usage of force. Research into the influences of officer instruction and experience has suggested that officer instruction and experience have a positive consequence on the usage of force in that officers with more experience and formal instruction are more likely to utilize alternate signifiers of citizen control. Officer instruction refers to formal instruction outside of constabulary preparation and normally means some type of college or trade school instruction. Officer experience refers to the sum of old ages employed as a constabulary officer. The research found that a more educated and experient officer shows more restraint when using force ( Terrill and Mastrofski, 2002, p. 244 ) .

Officer behaviour can be explained by the situational factors officers find themselves in and by the attitude exhibited by the officer. However, the nexus between situational factors and officer behaviour is stronger than the attitude nexus. While traveling against conventional wisdom, officer attitude has non been found to be a strong index of officer behaviour and this holds true for the general population as good ( Worden, 1989, p. 670 ) . Situational and organisational factors have been found to be a more of import beginning of officer determination doing than attitudinal based factors ( Worden, 1989, pp. 673-674 ) . An officer is besides to a great extent influenced by the legal factors involved when an officer encounters a citizen such as the citizen ‘s opposition to orders, officer and citizen safety, and grounds of a offense. Normally when an officer finds her or himself covering with a state of affairs that requires arrest or the usage of force within a legal model, they will act consequently instead than rely on officer attitude or other officer features ( Terrill and Mastrofski, 2002, pp. 233-235 ) .

The officer ‘s race has besides been studied as a possible account for constabulary behaviour with the thought that an officer of a minority background would interact with citizens of the same race otherwise and with greater apprehension. Agencies have encouraged the hiring of more black officers with the outlook that black officers would better dealingss between constabulary and the black community and cut down the sum of bias held by officers against black citizens. However, before race or ethnicity can be examined as a possible beginning of behaviour and a forecaster of future behaviour, other influential factors must be controlled for. These include length of the officer ‘s experience on the occupation, their degree of instruction, features of the suspect, and type of brush in inquiry. Surveies such as Brown and Frank ‘s ( 2006 ) hold that officer race has an influence on apprehension determinations and behaviour but their survey had to command for the above-named factors. They found white officers were more likely to do apprehensions than black officers were but that black officers were more likely to collar black suspects. Other research found that while there were differences in the attitudes of minority and white officers, African American officers arrested African American suspects more frequently and were more likely to utilize force against minority suspects than white officers ( Thirty )

An officer ‘s gender has besides been identified as a possible beginning of officer behaviour. However, there has been no important grounds to propose that male and female officers behave otherwise in the class of their occupations even though it has been suggested that female officers would be less aggressive and rely more on persuasion and verbal tactics during fishy confrontations ( National Research Council, 2004, p. 151 ) . The few surveies that showed a difference in officer behaviours based on gender were directed toward community policing and order care state of affairss. Engel et Al. ( 2000 ) founds that female officers focus more on job work outing when confronted with issues during their displacements ( National Research Council, 2004, p. 151 ) . Female officers, when runing under the protections of community policing, have been found to hold a more positive attitude towards citizens and the ends of the community patroling plans than do male officers ( Skogan and Hartnett, 1997, pp. 239-242 ) . Mastrofski et Al. ( 2000 ) concluded that female officers besides were more likely to honour a citizen ‘s petition to command other citizens within the context of community policing ( p. 335 ) . Other than attitudes, differences between female and male officer bahvior during the class of their responsibilities has non been shown. Female officers seem to exhibit the same bahviors as male officers when confronted with different state of affairss and different behaviours exhibited by citizens. Whether these citizen inteactions required restraint, issue of commendations, force, or arrest, the actions of the female officers was really similar to those of male officers ( Walker,

Despite some differences in attitudes, research findings confirm that there are merely really little differences in on-the-job behaviour between the sexes. Surveies of constabulary officers in several bureaus have revealed that female and male officers responded to similar calls for service and encountered similar proportions of job citizens ( e.g. , citizens who are intoxicated, angry, violent, etc. ) . Merely slight-and nonstatistically significant-differences existed in the proportion of apprehension and commendations issued by male and female officers ( for reappraisal, see Walker ) .

Findingss sing officers ‘ usage of deathly force, nevertheless, have been slightly assorted. Surveies have shown that male officers are involved in lifelessly force incidents more frequently than female officers, but female officers who are partnered with a male officer reacted likewise to their male spouses when reacting to violent confrontations ( Walker ) . In add-on, a survey of constabulary officers in Indianapolis Police Department and St. Petersburg Police Department during 1996-1997 found that male officers are more likely than female officers to react positively to citizens ‘ petitions to command another citizen ( Mastrofski et al. , 2000 ) .

Traveling Against Type, Styles of Officer Behavior

Bing portion of a to a great extent bureaucratized and politicized organisation, the constabulary officer has the chance to depend upon a certain type of behaviour in order to do their work enjoyable. A police officer is supervised closely and operates independently at the same clip, using discretion and experience to either patrol sharply or merely answer service calls. The intricate factors that influence decision-making include organisational force per unit areas, district coverage, endurance, street codification, group kineticss, and get bying accomplishments. Since the nature of patrol work can alter from minute to minute and can merely be by and large predicted over the class of a displacement, the behaviour an officer exhibits can rapidly alter from an aggressive legalistic manner to a laid back, exigency response manner over the class of a displacement ( Van Maanen, 1974, pp. 120-121 ) .

Outside factors have an influence on officer behaviour every bit strongly as internalized attitudes and beliefs. Because the constabulary bureau is to a great extent influenced by outside forces such as the jurisprudence, bureaucratic control, political relations, and public ailments, sometimes the officer ‘s behaviour is pre-determined by such restraints ( Herbert, 1998, pp. 361-364 ) . An officer besides has to keep themselves to an organisational ideal of being competent, moral, and safe ( for ego and fellow officers ) . Even if an officer exhibits the properties of a hard-charger or a desk jockey, they are still expected to run into the minimal outlooks of the group i.e. , aid when called upon, show solidarity with fellow officers, and be safe ( Herbert, 1998, pp. 355-361 ) .


The Probability of Arrest

Factors other than officer features have been shown to be a better forecaster of officer behaviour in footings of apprehension. Citizen initiated apprehensions and penchants have a stronger influence on apprehension determinations than the penchants of the officer, who sometimes would prefer to be more indulgent and possess more grounds when doing an apprehension determination. Earnestness of the offense, whether the suspect is known and/or related to the officer, and the sum of discourtesy given to the officer are besides factors that take the apprehension determination beyond officer features ( Black, 1971, pp. 1104-1110 ) .

Suspect demeanour besides has been shown to be a strong index of the opportunities of being arrested. An officer, no affair their attitude or other features, will non normally capable themselves to disrespect and mistreat at the custodies of a citizen. Although state of affairs particular, interaction between constabulary and citizens is influenced by the behaviour displayed by both parties, and an escalation of perceived discourtesy by one party against the other is met with opposition by the other. There is besides disagreement among officers on what construes disrespect, which adds to the trouble in utilizing fishy demeanour as an officer behaviour forecaster ( Klinger, 1994, pp. 489-491 ) . However, the correlativity in fishy demeanour and opportunity of apprehension is still a strong index of officer behaviour and anticipation ( Worden & A ; Shepard, 1996, pp. 99-103 ) .

Other situational factors such as the mental wellness of a suspect and citizen petitions have a much stronger consequence on officer behaviour than officer features. Even though there may be a correlativity on an officer ‘s instruction degree in regard to the officer ‘s preference to collar a mentally broken suspect ( Engel and Silver, 2001, p. 247 ) , officers have non been shown to disproportionately collar mentally broken individuals based on mental wellness ( Engel and Silver, 2001, pp. 245-248 ) . An officer is normally non inclined to allow a citizen ‘s petition to collar another unless there is grounds of a offense committed. This holds true regardless of the citizen ‘s race, wealth, or societal association. However, Mastrofski et Al. ( 2000 ) found that male officers, officers of limited experience, and officers with a passion for community patroling were more disposed to honour a petition for apprehension.

Fishy Features

It has long been pre-supposed by the advocators of conventional wisdom that certain features of the suspects that are instantly discernible such as age, race, sex, and societal category had an influence on the officer ‘s determination to do an apprehension or some other formal action.



The Influences of the Organization

The influence of organisational factors on officer behaviour is dependent upon the type of organisation the officer is working in. Smith ( 1984 ) identified bureaucratic and professional bureaus with four sub-categories identified by the degree of bureaucratism and professionalism within the bureau. High professionalism and high bureaucratism is legalistic, high professionalism with low bureaucratism is service, low professionalism with high bureaucratism is militaristic, and low professionalism with low bureaucratism is fraternal. Therefore, the behaviour of the officer can be moderately predicted based on the type of bureau and that bureau ‘s definition of legal control ( Smith, 1984, pp. 33-35 ) .

Organizational influences on officer behaviour can besides be seen when utilizing anticipation theory. The organisation, in this instance constabulary bureau or section, instills certain outlooks from its officers in respects to apprehensions, traffic Michigans, commendations issued, etc. In the illustration used by Mastrofski et Al. ( 1994 ) in their survey of Pennsylvania constabularies officers, DUI enforcement was the studied anticipation. Mastrofski et Al. ( 1994 ) found that when the officers operated under the outlooks of their bureaus, they normally complied whether the outlooks were for high or minimum enforcement. The features of the single officers did non play a important function except for a little figure of “ rate fellows ” who bucked the system and made significantly more apprehensions for DUI ( Mastrofski et al. , 1994, pp. 142-145 ) .

Organizational factors have been shown to hold the ability to alter officer behaviour when there has been directed action against identified behaviour, normally in response to patrol maltreatments or dirt. An illustration of this occurred when the Memphis constabulary section made a conjunct attempt to cut down the sum of constabulary shots since the rate of deathly shots in Memphis was disproportional when compared to other, larger metropoliss ( Fyfe, 1982, pp. 712-717 ) . The grounds for hiting given by the Memphis officers were non in understanding with grounds given by the comparing metropolis of New York since Memphis officers showed a preference to utilizing lifelessly force for belongings offense discourtesies ( Fyfe, 1982, pp. 715-716 ) while New York officers did non. The Memphis constabulary addressed this issue by establishing a more rigorous lifelessly force policy and officer endurance preparation in an effort to cut down the shots incidents.

An organisation ‘s influence on officer behaviour can besides be seen in the supervisory manners of constabularies mid-level direction. Engel ( 2001 ) identified different supervisory manners among police sergeants and lieutenants identified as traditional, advanced, supportive, and active ( pp. 347-350 ) . While each manner has a direct influence on the officers they are oversing, it is besides interesting to observe the attitudes of the supervisors themselves when the distribution is included for sex, race, rank, age, experience, and instruction. Engel ( 2001 ) found that half of the traditional supervisors were female, this may be attributed to their usage of regulations, and ordinances to maintain officers in line and under control since female supervisors may hold an issue with sensed power by subsidiaries ( pp. 350-351 ) .


Patroling the Vicinity

The country in which a constabulary officer patrols has an consequence on their behaviour. This depends on the societal, economic, and attitudinal make-up of the local occupants of the vicinity in inquiry. There are besides other environmental factors act uponing constabulary behaviour. These include community interaction, past history of patroling the vicinity, the local political relations, and the dominant country civilization ( National Research Council, 2004, pp. 155-156 ) .

The influence of the vicinity is strong on possible constabulary behaviour dependant upon the type of vicinity that is served by the constabulary. Smith ( 1986 ) found that constabularies behave otherwise in higher position vicinities than they do in lower position vicinities. For illustration, the constabulary are more prone to halt and oppugn a leery individual in a higher position vicinity than in lower position, less racially heterogenous vicinities ( pp. 338-339 ) .

Vicinity conditions besides affect constabularies behavior. Klinger ( 1997 ) found that officers come to see aberrant behaviours as normal if they are exposed to the behaviour in vicinities that are economically disadvantaged. Rather than moving as service suppliers in these types of vicinities, officers rapidly learn to prioritise the offenses in footings of urgency and the demand to react ( pp. 298-300 ) . Crank ( 1990 ) besides found differences in officer behaviours in footings of motive to collar in rural and urban countries. Not merely are at that place differences between constabulary behaviours within a municipal country, there are besides differences in behaviour between rural and urban constabulary with the rural constabulary officer being more prone to do apprehensions for discretional discourtesies ( pp. 185-187 ) .


Police bureaus, the public, policy shapers, and politicians have long had the desire to enroll and use officers whose behaviour is beyond reproach. An officer who made the right determination in every case without respect to a suspect ‘s race, sex, economic position, or mental wellness would be extremely regarded and emulated. When the officer was confronted with state of affairss that required the application of force and/or restraint, they would make so right and with the proper legal justifications. It is thought that the usage of officer discretion would besides be decently applied and controlled by the first line supervisors and directed by the bureaus themselves based on community demand. Agencies believe they could partly run into these ends if they emphasize the hiring of adult females, minorities, and college educated officers.

However, due the complexness of constabulary work and the battalion of influences such as situational, organisational, and environmental factors, determining officer behaviours would be really hard so. As was shown in legion surveies above, these other influences besides officer features, frequently have a stronger influence over officer behaviour than the officer ‘s ain attitude, race, sex, and/or instruction.


The accent on engaging more minorities, adult females, and college-educated officers should go on because these plans are doing no injury and they are a contemplation on the desires of the community that is being policed. No survey has shown a negative consequence of holding more minorities, adult females, and college-educated officers on a peculiar constabulary force. However, no survey has shown a important difference in constabulary behaviours based on sex or race so more research is needed in an effort to understand a connexion between officer behaviour and officer features.


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