Everything revolves around money

Understanding the function of microfinance in Poverty decrease: a survey of ASA Bangladesh

Significance of Topic choice:

In the present universe we live in, practically everything revolves around money. With the growing of universe economic systems different types of fiscal services have emerged to assist people cover with the direction of their money and other resources. In every state in the universe both developing and developed states, rich and hapless economic systems, high-income or low-income states, there exists some kind of fiscal establishments that serve people. The lone difference and which is the chief subject of treatment is that a big figure of people in these different states have small or no entree to the fiscal services. The hazards involved in giving loans without collaterals and besides the high dealing costs involved with small loans, including the inability of fiscal establishments to run in the really distant rural small towns where low-income families live makes it hard for the formal fiscal establishments. Harmonizing to latest appraisal by Financial entree Initiative there are about “ 2.5 Billion grownups in the universe who do non utilize formal fiscal services to borrow or salvage ” with approximately 80 % of the entire grownup population of sub-Saharan Africa “ unbanked ” . [ 1 ]

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This spread between demand and supply of fiscal services is being filled up by Microfinance which is the proviso of fiscal services to the hapless. There has been a planetary motion in favour of microfinance in these past two decennaries from the slums of Dakar in Bangladesh and Belen in Peru to the dark corners of the sordidnesss of Ajengunle in Lagos, Nigeria. Due to the fact that entree to fiscal services can travel a long manner to assist the hapless in pull offing hazards and loss better and besides gives them the chance to do determinations that affect their ain lives on what to make with their money for illustration how to direct money from the metropolis to a hapless household member who lives in a really distant country in the small town, how to salvage for future investing like the school fees of their kids, for exigencies like illness or decease, take chances that help them increase their income or start concern. Governments, International establishments, development NGOs around the universe have all in one manner or the other being instruments to the spread of Microfinance. As the possible Market for Microfinance is immense, it is merely but expedient that we get more understanding of Microfinance and its function in poorness decrease. Due to the nature of MFIs most of them depend on giver parts to cover some administrative costs like wages, rents depreciation of assets, loan loss and so on. In a state of affairs where by there are moves by some MFIs to go financially self-sufficing [ 2 ] , there is every possibility that those MFIs may hold the inclinations to loan to borrowers who are on the poorness line or merely somewhat below or above the poorness lines of the state in inquiry. In Serving the “ hapless ” my chief aim is to understand how these MFIs independent of donor financess cover their cost without consisting the end of Microfinance which is supplying quality services to the hapless.

Literature Review

Microfinance is merely defined as the fiscal services for the hapless ( Helms 2004 ) . It is involves supplying little loans without collateral ( micro-credit ) , roll uping sedimentations, selling insurance, money remittals to hapless clients “ who had been ab initio written off by commercial Bankss as being unprofitable ” ( De Aghion and Morduch 2005 ) . The establishments that provide these services for the “ Poor ” are called Microfinance Institutions ( MFIs ) .Some literatures indicate that the thoughts and inspirations behind Microfinance are non that new, that the supply of loans to low-income families have been in being for long clip before the experiment on microcredit ( Helms 2004 ) .Some other literatures have connected the foundation of Microfinance to the micro loaning that started in Bangladesh in the 1970 ‘s to hapless local small towns ( De Aghion and Morduch 2005 ) .

Most literatures refer to Mohammed Yunus as the Pioneer of microcredit because of his experiment undertaking of imparting little loans to the hapless families of Jobra for usage in running little concern. Mohammed Yunus “ an economic expert trained at Vanderbilt University lector at Chittagong University ” [ 3 ] in the early 1970 ‘s. As a state that merely gained independency from Pakistan after a civil war, with 80 % of the population life in poorness due to the widespread implosion therapy in Bangladesh ( De Aghion and Morduch 2005 ) , there was a batch to be done. So Mohammed launched an experiment to research a manner to assist the hapless enter a proper fiscal recognition web ( Du Xiaoshan, Sun Ruomei1997 ) imparting little loans to the hapless families to make little concern, this proved productive and profitable and this experiment gave birth to the present Grameen Bank ( De Aghion and Morduch 2005 ) . The end of Microfinance is to “ supply 1000000s of hapless people with the continued entree to recognition and salvaging services that helps them better respond to income raising chances, better manage hazards and loss and most basically helps avoid hereafter skiding into poorness or going farther impoverished ” . ( UNCDF Microfinance Distance Learning )

Due to the present roar of the Microfinance Industry around the universe, there are now so many literatures available for issues refering microfinance. The one major statement in the literatures of Microfinance is the statement of autonomy and sustainability of MFIs. This statement is based on the loaning attack of the Microfinance establishments. Robinson ( 2001 p.7 ) describes the two chief attacks as the “ Poverty loaning ” attack and the “ fiscal systems ” attack. The Microfinance Programs ( MFPs ) with “ poverty-lending ” attack has the chief end of “ making the hapless or the poorest of the hapless ” . These MFPs focal point chiefly on poorness decrease through credits and other services funded by giver and authorities subsidies and other concessional financess hence majoring on merely “ microcredit ” . The “ fiscal system ” attack on the other manus harmonizing to Robinson ( 2001 p.8 ) refers to the “ commercial fiscal intermediation ” among borrowers and rescuers stressing more on “ institutional autonomy ” with the position point that there is no possibility that the authorities financess and donor financess can finance the immense demand for microcredit on a planetary graduated table. Institutional ego sufficiency This statement is seen in the light as two parties, one is the party that advocates that the MFIs should be able to cover it ‘s operational costs and fiscal costs with grosss generated from, the plans and non depend on giver or authorities financess to cover it ‘s cost therefore doing it a more “ commercial fiscal system ” for the hapless.

Arguments in favour of the “ commercial fiscal system ” for the hapless against that of “ Poverty loaning attack ” is that the policy of poorness decrease through banking services is non a new invention because “ from the early 50 ‘s through 80 ‘s some states poverty relief scheme was the allotment of subsidised credits to the low income families ( Morduch 1999 pg.2 ) . The consequence of this scheme was nil to compose place about as it brought about inauspicious effects with low refund rates, the money being siphoned by the political elites far off from the hapless it was originally designed for. ( Adams Dale and J.D Von Pischke 1992 ) . This argument between the “ poverty-lending ” system and the “ fiscal loaning ” system is discussed in what Morduch ( 2000 ) titled the microfinance Schism. The “ Poverty-lending ” MFPs emphasizes more on poorness decrease so they place more accent on the deepness of outreach and the quality of outreach and non needfully the comprehensiveness of outreach. The comprehensiveness of outreach means the figure of people served non defying whether they are “ core-poor ” or “ non-poor ” ( that is whether they are under the poorness line or somewhat above the poorness line ) , the deepness of outreach significance serving the really hapless clients. In stressing the demand for fiscal viability of MFIs, ( Du and Sun 1997 ) states that for development plans in the MFIs to be sustainable, the MFIs demand to accomplish some kind of fiscal viability otherwise the MFIs will merely trust of giver financess which may non be ever accessible therefore taking to the “ premature terminal ” of the plan or MFI.

In favour of the “ fiscal system ” attack it is argued that non all hapless people are eligible for loans. This is because those that are economically inactive or mentally retarded for illustration will non profit much from borrowing but can profit from other merchandises and services in the Microfinance. Since the early 90 ‘s there have been inventions in the Microfinance sector to function the Poor better. The Move from “ Microcredit ” ( which had a focal point on loaning to the hapless ) to the present “ Microfinance ” ( which includes a broader scope of services for the hapless like nest eggs, micro insurance ) indicates the relentless attempts of microfinance practicians in happening better ways to function the hapless.

The inventions in the Microfinance industry are really necessary as they bring to life best direction techniques and services to clients. Best direction techniques in hunt for what suits each peculiar client in the facet of the best loan size, the best interest-rate to bear down the clients, the manner to impart to the clients that is whether group-lending or single loaning best suits the clients is a great finding factor of the future success of Microfinance ( Bhatt, Nitin and Shui-Yan Tang 2001 ) . This is really specific about the importance of research to understand the client ‘s demands and the best manner to follow up services to accomplish net incomes for both the service suppliers and the service receiving systems. Best direction techniques besides brings into consideration “ who ” the mark audience is, in regard to gender and their poorness position. Surveies have shown that loans to hapless adult females were more efficient than those lent to work forces ( Pitt and Khander 1998 ) . It is besides no surprise that many MFIs in the universe have more adult females clients than work forces clients. Who is the mark client is besides decided as the MFIs would hold to take it ‘s theoretical account of attack in order to make it ‘s ends which are good outreach fiscal viability

Research aim:

This is an effort to understand the function of microfinance in poorness decrease.This undertaking will analyze the ASA ( Association for Social Advancement an NGO-MFI in Bangladesh ) to understand the characteristics and operational rules of ASA that led to her become financially self-sufficing. Understand the deductions for being financially Self-Sufficient as an MFI on the deepness of outreach.


Definition of footings:

Microfinance is the proviso of fiscal services like credits, nest eggs, insurance, remittals and so on for the hapless. Poverty on the other manus is a multidimensional word that does n’t hold a sentence definition. For the footing of this research, I will take to specify poorness as the deficiency of stuff demands as this concentrates on the measuring of income ( Hulme, Mosley 1996 ) . The ground for taking the income-poverty attack is because most authoritiess and organisations use the income-poverty attack to analyse their policies. Second microfinance has direct consequence on the income-poverty because it creates loans that enable the hapless to take part in profit-making economic activities therefore increasing their income. Fiscal autonomy is the is the ability of MFIs to run at some degree of profitableness that enables them to still supply quality services to their clients and still hold the fiscal ability to cover all disbursals with grosss generated from involvements and service fees, hence going independent of donor financess. Depth of outreach is means making the serving the “ really hapless ” clients.

This survey will use a instance oriented qualitative research scheme. This is traveling to be chiefly to research ASA ( Association for Social Advancement an NGO-MFI in Bangladesh ) to understand their function in poverty-reduction. Due to the fact that Microfinance is a new construct to me, it increases my involvement to understand how it works more, I will set about an 8 hebdomad internship class in ASA Bangladesh get downing January 2010 to give me an ample chance to make some field research and acquire a first-hand experience on the country of Microfinance. The other manner of informations Collection for this survey is chiefly the secondary informations from beginnings like CGAP, World Bank, UNDRC, ASA data base and other relevant informations from organisations that are into microfinance. I would besides utilize relevant studies and records, including academic articles relevant to my survey. Depending on the handiness of Data NGO-MFIs ( Preferably ASA International ) in other states sooner Nigeria and China, I will look into their public presentations in these states to prove the possibility of ASA theoretical account reproductions outside of Bangladesh.

The chief inquiries that I will be looking frontward to replying are the undermentioned. Can MFIs truly to financially Self-sufficient without compromising with the deepness and comprehensiveness of outreach? What is the operation Model of ASA and can this theoretical account be replicated.


There will be a structural analysis of ASA to understand the operating rule of organization.I will be making secondary analysis of informations particularly of old ages before and after going financially self-sufficing to see if I there are any new tendencies in outreach.



  1. Armend & A ; aacute ; riz de Aghion, Beatriz, and Jonathan Morduch, 2005, The Economicss of Microfinance, Cambridge: MIT Press
  2. Du Xiaoshan and Sun Ruomei 1997 Rural Microcredit: International Experience and Chinese Pilot Projects of Funding the hapless Cooperative Rural Microfinance in China pp 97-110, edited by Du Xiaoshan, Liu Wenpu, Zhang Baomin and Sun Ruomei, 1997, China Economics Publishing House
  3. Hulme, David and Mosley, Paul ( 1996 ) , Finance Against Poverty Volume 1 ( London ; New York: Routlege
  4. Robinson, Marguerite 2001 Microfinance Revolution: Sustainable finance for the hapless. World Bank publications
  5. Helms, Brigit 2006 Access for All: Building inclusive Financial Systems, universe bank
  6. Debraj Ray 1998 Development Economics, Princeton university imperativeness
  7. Articles:

  8. Adams, Dale and J.D Von Pischke 1992 Microenterprise recognition plans: D & A ; eacute ; J & A ; agrave ; vu World Development, Vol. 20, No.10, pp. 1463-1470
  9. Albert Park, Changqing Ren 2001 Microfinance with Chinese Characteristics World Development, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp 39-62
  10. Brandsma, Judith, and Rafika Chaouli, 1998. Making Microfinance Work in the Middle East and North Africa. Private and Financial Sector Development Group, Human Development Group, Middle East and North Africa Region, Washington D.C: World Bank Report 23076
  11. Bhatt Nitin and Shui-Yan Tang, 2001 Delivering Microfinance in developing states: Controversies and policy positions, Policy surveies Journal vol. 29, pp319-333
  12. CGAP. “ Fiscal Sustainability, Targeting the Poorest, and Income Impact: Are There Trade-offs for Micro-finance Institutions? ” Focus Note No. 5, December 1996.
  13. He Guangwen, Du Xiaoshan, Bai Chengyu and Li Zhanwu 2009 China Microfinance Industry Assessment report China Association of Microfinance
  14. Morduch, Jonathan. 2000.The Microfinance Schism. World Development Vol.28, No.4, pp.617-629
  15. Morduch, Jonathan.1999. The microfinance promise.Journal of Economic Literature. Vol 37 No.4, pp 1569-1614
  16. Pitt Mark and Shahidur R. Khander 1998 the impact of group-based recognition plans on hapless families in Bangladesh: Does Gender truly matter? The Journal of Political Economy Vol. 106 No. 5 pp 958-996
  17. Rhyne, Elisabeth. 1998 The Ying and Yang of Microfinance: Reaching the Poor and Sustainability, MicroBanking Bulletin, No. 2, pp. 6-9
  18. Rutherford, Stuart.1999 The Poor and Their Money. Institute for Development Policy and Management.
  19. Sergio Navajas, Mark Schreiner, Richard L. Meyer, Claudio Gonzalez-Vega, Jorge Rodriguez-Meza 2000Microcredit and the Poorest of the Poor: Theory and Evidence from Bolivia World Development Vol.2 8, No. 2, pp 333-346

Web sites

  1. Fiscal Access Initiative hypertext transfer protocol: //financialaccess.org/sites/default/files/110109 % 20HalfUnbanked_0.pdf
  2. Microfinance Distance Learning hypertext transfer protocol: //www.uncdf.org/mfdl/index.php? _mode=students.home
  3. Advisory group to help the hapless www.cgap.org
  4. Grameen Bank hypertext transfer protocol: //www.grameen-info.org/
  5. ASA Bangladesh hypertext transfer protocol: //www.asa.org.bd/
  1. Fiscal Access enterprise 2009 Half the universe is unbanked Financial Access Initiative Framing note accessed from hypertext transfer protocol: //financialaccess.org/sites/default/files/110109 % 20HalfUnbanked_0.pdf on 16th November,2009
  2. In this paper formal fiscal establishments includes semiformal establishments but excludes informal fiscal beginnings like usurer, pawnbroker’s shops and other informal nest eggs or recognition strategy

  3. Bing financially self sufficient is the ability of MFIs to run at some degree of profitableness that enables them to still supply quality services to their clients and still hold the fiscal ability to cover all disbursals with grosss generated from involvements and fees. Bing financially self sufficient allows the MFIs to cover the all disbursals changing from administrative costs to depreciation disbursals by utilizing grosss generated from involvements and services fees finally leting the MFIs to keep it ‘s services to the hapless for a long clip without being influenced by the unpredictable fluctuations in giver support. ( from UNDCF Microfinance Distance Learning class. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.uncdf.org/mfdl/index.php? _mode=students.home )
  4. Armend & A ; aacute ; riz de Aghion, Beatriz, and Jonathan Morduch, 2005, The Economicss of Microfinance, Cambridge: MIT Press

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