Abstract-Computer games have been used for educational intents today. The executions of educational computing machine games bring some challenges and issues that need to be highlighted. There are three challenges in measuring educational computing machine games which are the rating standards, the judges and the rating procedure. Evaluation standards have been identified and it consists of five issues which are Interface, Educational, Content, Playability and Multimedia. The judges are existent and foster users. The 3rd challenge is sing rating procedure and one of the suited procedures is by implementing formative rating in order to develop a comprehensive and practical educational computing machine games.
Keywords-component ; educational computing machine games ; challenge ; issues ; rating crtiteria
Introduction And Motivation For Research
Computer games have been popular presents and it has been proposed as a possible acquisition tool by both educational research workers [ 1, 2 ] and game developers [ 3, 4 ] . There are many statements and argument sing the execution of computing machine games in schoolroom and among them are ; a ) computing machine games able to raise active battle in scholars [ 1 ] B ) computing machine games able to promote active engagement of scholars, larning by making and more motive [ 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ] and degree Celsius ) accommodates multiple acquisition manners and accomplishments [ 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 ] .
Execution of computing machine game in schoolroom highlighted the importance of design and integrating of pedagogical elements in order to develop effectual educational computing machine games and brought along the importance of rating of the developed educational games [ 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 ] . This is of import to do certain that merriment and serious elements can be integrates really good to accomplish predefined end.
Effective serviceability rating for computing machine games that being used in learning and larning procedure or sometime known as Educational Computer Games ( ECG ) is necessary in order to guarantee that games adequately meet the demands of merriment and educational elements. A scope of attacks have been used in the rating of computing machine games that relate to educational intents. Most of the rating focuses on summational rating procedure with the aim of accessing how good completed games run into the pre-defined ends sing the execution of the developed games in instruction and acquisition intents [ 6, 9, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36 ] .
In malice of the assortment rating of ECG, most of the rating focal point on effectivity of the ECG and self generated questionnaire were used in their rating procedure. There were really small survey has being reported sing the usability rating of ECG particularly that focused on interface of ECG [ 37 ] . Failure of focal point to plan useable game interfaces can interfere the end of making a convincing experience for users and may hold a negative effects on the overall quality and success of developed games [ 37 ] . Specific methods are needed to place serviceability jobs in both early design and in more complete paradigm [ 38, 39, 40, 41 ] .
In measuring ECG, there are few facets need to be focused in order to accomplish a good Electrocardiogram that combine elements of merriment and serious. This is of import to pull users in utilizing it and able to heighten their cognition in specific topic. Details rating of ECG that integrates all of the mentioned elements needs to be done at the early phase of development and should affect assorted users either existent or alternate. Combination of existent and foster users able to observe every bit many as possible serviceability job of the evaluate computing machine system [ 42, 43 ] .
This paper is organized as followed: Section 1 provides the background of this survey ; Section 2 illustrates some models and methods being used to measure educational computing machine game ; Section 3 nowadayss some thoughts and elements of interface rating that an educational game should incorporate ; Last subdivision of this paper concludes and provides future waies of this undertaking.
Background And Related Work
Educational Computer Game ( ECG )
Peoples play computing machine games for many grounds, because of the enjoyment and entertaining properties [ 44 ] , for leisure and educational intents [ 45 ] . Adolences prefer playing computing machine games as a leisure clip activity, to avoid emphasis, to dispute their accomplishments and to bask the attractive features of the games [ 46 ] . Computer games can be effectual educational tool [ 47, 48 ] and they can supply enjoyment during larning procedure to scholars [ 46 ] , allow users to prosecute in instruction while they basking themselves [ 6, 23, 49 ] .
The purpose of educational games is to ease the participant ‘s experience [ 50, 51 ] , desired nonsubjective [ 6 ] , allow utilizations to prosecute in instruction while they are basking themselves [ 52, 53 ] . Educational games seem to set leraners in the function of determination shaper [ 2, 44 ] , received immediate feedback of their action and determinations, ask foring geographic expedition and experimentation [ 32 ] .
Evaluation of Educational Computer Game
Educational computing machine games has been used in many countries such as in technology [ 54, 55 ] , medical [ 56, 57 ] , literacy [ 58 ] and mathematics [ 59 ] . Once the ECG being developed, the rating procedure usually take portion for a group of pupils who use the game in their acquisition procedure and the effectivity of the game being evaluated [ 9, 10, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 ] .
Most of the past rating of educational computing machine games use questionnaire [ 9, 26, 54, 66, 67 ] , interview, log-files and observation [ 50 ] . Other than questionnaire, there were few effort in developing model to measure educational games [ 68 ] . Figure 1 shows the developed model by [ 68 ] .
A Framework for Measuring games-and simulation-based instruction ( Beginning: [ 68 ] )
The challenge of measuring educational games is divided into three classs, the rating standards, judges and the suited rating procedure. Evaluation standards discuss about the necessary elements that need to be evaluated and why it is of import. Second class discuss about the suited judges and why they are needed as an judges, how they can lend towards the sweetening of develop ECG. The last class is about the suited rating procedure, either summational or formative and why it is of import.
There are many issues involves in measuring ECG. In any system, interface plays an importance function in order to supply appealing and attractive interface for the users. It implies the same construct for ECG, interface is the chief issue that needs to be taken into consideration in measuring ECG. Issues of consistence, interactivity, pilotage, screen design and pleasant to utilize are the of import elements that need to be evaluated. Since ECG integrates merriment and instruction, pedagogical issue is another of import component that needs to be evaluated. Elementss of pedagogical such as clear end and nonsubjective, motive, scholars control, larning values, immediate feedback and dispute demand to be taken earnestly in measuring ECG.
The 3rd issue is multimedia such as the use of all multimedia elements should be suited harmonizing to it maps, combination of multimedia elements in each screen and suitableness of multimedia elements are among the focal point of rating. Other so interface, pedagogical and multimedia, content is another issue that need to be highlighted in measuring ECG. The dependability of the content, clear and apprehensible construction and interesting and piquant stuffs are among the importance elements of content issue.
The 5th component is playability. Since it is a game, the playability plays of import elements in order to supply game that is fun and gratifying and at the same clip able to pull users to play and heighten their cognition. Elementss in playability that need to be evaluated are challenge, scheme, gait in balance, participants able to command and able to cognize the advancement of the game. Figure 2 shows the five rating issues and standards that need to be evaluated in order to develop a comprehensive and practical ECG.
Educational Computer Games Evaluation Issue
Evaluation of educational computing machine games is non limited to evaluation standards merely. Issues of who are the suited judges and why they are importance demand to be taken into consideration. In usability ratings, there are two types of users usually involve in rating procedure which are existent users and foster users. The importance of judges for ECG demand to be chosen based on their expertness. After thorough reappraisal and treatment, the engagement of the two types of judges is importance in the survey because of their cognition. Normally, foster users can be either experts in HCI or other related sphere based on definition by the research workers. In ECG, after consideration of the highlighted issues that involve in measuring ECG, the demand to assorted judges is necessary, foster and existent users.
Surrogate users that are needed in rating divided into four classs – HCI, educational, content and game developers ‘ experts. They are needed because it is hard to happen an adept judge that has knowledge in all the five issues highlighted antecedently. HCI experts need to measure interface and multimedia issues based on developed heuristics as a guideline. The 2nd alternate judges are educational expert that need to measure issues of pedagogical and multimedia. The 3rd alternate judges are content adept demand to measure content and multimedia issues. The last alternate users are games developers that need to measure issues of playability and multimedia. Figure 3 shows the alternate and existent judges.
Multimedia issue is consider as cosmopolitan issues that can be evaluated by all of the alternate users because it is believed that with the cognition of computing machine and familiarisation of the such applications, judges able to measure multimedia elements. Other than that, since the full alternate judges need to measure multimedia issue, it is believe that serviceability job of multimedia issue can be detected really good.
Real Evaluators – Potentail users
Surrogate Evaluators – Game Developers
Surrogate Evaluators – Content expert
Surrogate Evaluators – Educational expert
Surrogate Evaluators – HCI expert
Real judges are the existent users that consider as the mark group of the developed ECG. Their engagement in rating is of import in order to observe serviceability job from users ‘ position. In order to steer existent users in rating procedure, the heuristics that being developed for experts judges will be designed in signifier of questionnaire so that it is much easier for existent users during the rating procedure.
Once the rating standards are highlighted and the judges have been identified, the following measure is to be after for the rating procedure. In term of rating procedure, the argument either to utilize formative or summational rating is depend on the technique of rating. Since the focal point in on the development of comprehensive and practical ECG, formative rating procedure is suited to be used in this undertaking. In order to provide for the formative rating and after comprehensive reappraisal of issues in ECG, Playability Heuristics Evaluation for Educational Games ( PHEG ) technique has been developed derived from Heuristics Evaluation [ 69, 70 ] and Heuristics Evaluation Playability [ 38, 39 ] .
PHEG will be used by foster users as a guideline during rating procedure. PHEG has been divided into five bombers heuristics which are Interface, Pedagogical, Content, Multimedia and Playability. Sub heuristics is used in order to provide for different alternate users based on their expertness. Table II shows sub heuristics for Interface of ECG that will be used by HCI expert. Table Three shows sub heuristics for pedagogical that will be used by instruction expert. Education expert necessitate to be involve because non all of the HCI expert or content expert have knowledge in educational theories.
Table IV shows sub heuristics for content. This sub heuristics will be used by content expert. Content expert will be the lectors who teach the peculiar topic. Content expert is needed to place the developed ECG is comprehensive plenty for the particular topic and follow necessary course of study.
PHEG – Interface
Educational Game Usability Heuristics – Interface
Uses aesthetic and minimalist design
Maximizes consistence and lucifers criterions
The utilizations of infinite, colour and text are harmonizing to the rules of screen design
The utilizations of text, colour and fount follow the rules of readability
Ensure appropriate usage of criterion and properness control
The interactivity of the game is suited to scholars degree
The integrating of presentation agencies is well-coordinated
Quality of user interface is acceptable
Provide specific and self- identified key for specific undertaking ( issue, glossary, chief, nonsubjective )
Overall interface of the game is appealing
PHEG – Pedagogical / Educational
Educational Game Usability Heuristics – Educational/Pedagogical
Clear end and acquisition aims
The activities are interesting and prosecuting
The design and the contents are dependable and proved.
Can be used as self- directed acquisition tools.
Support for self- acquisition accomplishments.
Medium for larning by making.
Considers the single differences.
Performance should be an outcome-based.
Offers the ability to choose the degree of trouble in games
Ability to work in their ain gait
PHEG – Content
Educational Game Usability Heuristics – Content
Reliable content with right flow.
Clear and apprehensible construction of contents.
Navigation of content is easy and accurate.
Supporting stuffs are sufficient and relevant ( quiz ) .
Materials are interesting and prosecuting.
Players able to understand the acquisition end.
The content is chunk based on subject and subtopic
Major and minor subject is differentiate clearly
Playability is another bomber heuristics in PHEG and it will be used for game developers as a guideline in rating procedure. Table Volt shows the sub heuristics of playability.
PHEG – Playability
Educational Game Usability Heuristics – Playability
Challenge provided are up to the users standard/level
Users able to schemes
The gait of the game are in balance
Players able to command the game
Advancement of the game can be seen at anytime
Players able to execute to their best ability
Challenge is equal – non excessively easy and non excessively hard
The last bomber heuristics in PHEG is multimedia and it will be used for all of the alternate judges in rating procedure. Table Six shows the sub heuristics of multimedia. Sub heuristics Multimedia is believe can be evaluated by all of the judges because it is non excessively proficient and judges experience in covering with other application will assist to observe serviceability job for ECG.
PHEG – Multimedia
Educational Game Usability Heuristics – Multimedia
Use of multimedia elements are acceptable
Combination of multimedia elements are equal
The presentation of multimedia elements are good pull off
Suitability of multimedia elements for specific usage
Not excessively many multimedia component in one screen
The usage of multimedia elements back up meaningfully the text provided.
The quality of multimedia elements ( text, image, life, picture and sound ) used is acceptable.
The utilizations of multimedia elements heighten the presentation of information.
Real users will move as existent judges that will be utilizing questionnaire that has been modified based on PHEG and known as PAEG with extra elements of serviceability which are effectiveness, efficiency and subjective satisfaction. Detailss of PAEG will be discuses in another paper. Real and foster judges will be utilizing same ECG ( paradigm ) for the rating procedure and it is trusting that combination of both judges able to observe every bit many as serviceability job possible.
Consequence And Disucssion
Evaluation of Educational Computer Games is of import in order to develop ECG that is comprehensive and practical to be used in learning and larning procedure. This paper highlighted the challenges in measuring ECG that comprise of three which are rating standards, the judges and rating procedure. These three challenges have been highlighted and possible solutions were discussed. Evaluation standards can decide utilizing five rating issues which were Interface, Educational, Content, Multimedia and Playability.
Evaluators ‘ issues can be established by uniting existent and foster judges that able to provide all of the highlighted rating standards. The 3rd issue, rating procedure will be utilizing formative rating with the aid of PHEG technique for alternate users and list of questionnaire ( PAEG ) for existent users that will be discussed inside informations in another paper.
Three challenges in measuring ECG have been highlighted. Evaluation standards, the judges and rating procedure are the three challenges that need to be overcome in the rating procedure of ECG. It is believe that combination of the three highlighted challenges able to observe serviceability job of ECG at early phase of development procedure. Improvement of ECG based on the serviceability job highlighted able to bring forth comprehensive and practical ECG that can be used to assist scholars in their acquisition procedure.
This reseacrh is conducted utilizing e-Science Funs Grant ( 01-01-02-SF0089 ) , Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.