The to the full unified, completed, secure and coherent individuality is a phantasy. Alternatively, as the systems of significance and cultural representation multiply, we are confronted by a bewildering, i¬‚eeting multiplicity of possible individualities, any one of which we could place with – at least temporarily. Hall ( 1992: 277 )
On 15th May, one month before the 2010 World Cup, Kevin-Prince Boateng tackled one of his oppositions Michael Ballack during the FA Cup concluding between Portsmouth and Chelsea. The injury German captain Ballack picked up devastatingly ruled him out of the quadrennial football tourney. With Ghana and Germany drawn together in the same group in this World Cup, Ghanaian Kevin-Boateng has shortly become a hate figure in Germany, which is his state of birth. More ironically, if both of them are included in different squads, Kevin-Prince Boateng could play against his half brother Jerome Boateng who opted to stand for Germany. 23-year-old Kevin-Prince and 21-year-old Jerome are boies of an African male parent and German female parents. Both of them grew up in Berlin, trained with the German football nine Hertha BSC, and played for German young person squad with great accomplishments. However, mentioning to the Federation Internationale de Football Association ( FIFA ) regulation-a football participant with double nationality ( or more than two nationalities ) , who has represented one national squad at young person degree, is eligible to exchange national commitment ( FIFA 2004 ) -the Boateng brothers are now playing on opposite sides with surprisingly different attitudesi?sKevin-Prince Boateng is “ proud to be an African ” , while Jerome Boateng “ ne’er thought of playing for Ghana ” .
By jointing the complex dealingss of ethnicity, civilization and individuality in really direct ways, athleticss, and football in peculiar, serves as a peculiarly utile sociological and anthropological site for analyzing the altering context and content of different societies ( Carrington and McDonald 2001 ) . Since a long clip ago, the immorality of racism had entered the sphere of football. Some football participants were abused for the cultural background by football fans or even their white-skinned comrades: the racialist mottos ( for illustration, “ peanuts and bananas are the wage for your opprobrium. “ ) , the anti-semitic vocals, the fascist salutation and petroleum verbal abuses. Gradually, a turning figure of football players and fans were standing up and talking up to toss off out racialists, and at the same clip, football associations, authoritiess joined manus with non-government organisations to eliminate racism. Although racialists have non been wholly kicked out of the pitch, it is undeniable that the state of affairs has changed greatly.
Other than racism, the ongoing narrative of the Boateng brothers reflects some new controversial issues sing ethnicity which are emerging in the field of football. Football lucifers, on an international degree, involve two squads that represent specific geographical, cultural and national individualities ( Giulianotti 1999 ) . The national squad embodies the modern nation-state, symbolically wrapping itself in the national flag, national anthem, etc. and requires to unite disparate peoples as an imagined community ( Anderson 1983 ) . In this twenty-four hours and age, with the inflow of migrators, and the lifting cultural hybridity consequently, the “ distinctiveness ” is closely related to the football players ‘ senses of ethnicities. Further, the turning technological power of the mass media enables football to hold its public entreaty.
The overall range of this essay is to analyze how, and to what extent, football ( the national squad in peculiar ) enacts as an incorporating power among different cultural groups within a nation-state. I will besides research the concealed crisis, challenges and countermeasures sing ethnicity and individuality in the context of universe football. Due to a tight budget of clip, I am non allowed to carry on ethnographic fieldwork, such as interviews or/and studies to roll up informations. Alternatively, I will set about discourse analysis which will be based on the second-hand interview beginnings by journalists and ocular stuff from the Internet. I will foremost supply an overview of the background of the widely distributed traditions and the “ nation-building ” procedure in the history of universe football. Following, for the intents of analysis, the differentiations between “ race ” , “ state ” , “ ethnicity ” and “ nation-state ” will be examined. The chief treatment, so, is on the ( rhenium ) building and ( rhenium ) controversy of cultural individuality. By using Krappmann ‘s ( 1971 ) interaction theory, every bit good as Hall ‘s ( 1997 ) theoretical model of cultural representation ( 1997 ) and cultural individuality ( 2003 ) , through assorted instances, I will see the relationship between I-identity and We-identity in footings of linguistic communication, citizenship and the devising of strangeness from football participant ‘s ( particularly the 1s with double or multiple nationalities ) position and signifier football protagonist ‘s ( the migrators in peculiar ) point of position as good. I will reason that the many-sided nature of individuality enables “ football people ” to retain civilization and tradition in relation to their origin cultural root, and to foreground their colony and socialization in a widely distributed civilization and society at the same clip. The multi-layered individuality, or in Castles and Miller ‘s ( 1993: 274 ) words, the in-migration along with “ cultural diverseness ” , does offer positions for alteration. Cultural individuality in the context of football is complex, combative and variable within this multicultural universe and indicates how football embodies the complexnesss of “ diasporic life styles ” ( Burdsey 2006 ) , and associations in the flows of globalisation and passage. Then, I will farther take into consideration the hazards and underlying power drama of the competition in naming up the dual-nationality endowments by tow football associations. Finally, I move to see, football, as one of the most popular signifiers of nationalist behavior ( Kellas 1991 ) , associating to patriotism and nationalism perilously remains its dark, prejudiced side.