INTRODUCTION There are 3 processes of word formation in English: affixation- addittion of prefixes and sufixes; conversion- use of the word in another class without any changes; and compounding- joining 2 words to form another. This paper identifyies only the first process(affixation), English prefixes and suffixes, meaning e classification of them and it gives some examples. The meanings given here, are not conclusive, but central. Further information can be found in large dictionares, which can also supply added meanings.
PREFIXATION A prefix is a beginning that is added to a root word. For example, take the root word “purpose. ” By adding the prefix “multi” to “purpose,” the new word “multipurpose” is formed. Every prefix has its own meaning. When added to a root word, a prefix changes the meaning of the root word to which it is added. The root word “purpose” means “an aim or a goal one wishes to achieve. ” The prefix “multi” means “many. ” The new word “multipurpose” means “designed or used for many purposes. ” Common Prefixes Prefix |Meaning |Example | |a-, an- |without |amoral | |ante- |before |antecedent | |anti- |against |anticlimax | |auto- |self |autopilot | |circum- |around |circumvent | |co- |with |copilot | |com-, con- with |companion, contact | |contra- |against |contradict | |de- |off, away from |devalue | |dis- |not |disappear | |en- |put into |enclose | |ex- |out of, former |extract, ex-president | |extra- |beyond, more than |extracurricular | |hetero- |different |heterosexual | |homo- |same |homonym | |hyper- |over, more |hyperactive | |il-, im-, in-, ir- |not, without |illegal, immoral, inconsiderate, irresponsible | |in- |into |insert | |inter- |between |intersect | |intra- |between |intravenous | |macro- |large |macroeconomics | |micro- |small |microscope | |mono- |one |monocle | |non- |not, without |nonentity | |omni- |all, every |omniscient | |post- |after |postmortem | |pre-, pro- |before, forward |precede, project | |sub- |under |submarine | |syn- |same time |synchronize | |trans- |across |transmit | |tri- |three |tricycle | |un- |not |unfinished | |uni- |one |unicorn | | | | | 1. 1- MEANING OF PREFIXES Verbs e. g. prefix + verb verb Prefix |Meaning |Examples | |re- |again or back |restructure, revisit, reappear, rebuild, refinance | |dis- |reverses the meaning of the verb |disappear, disallow, disarm, disconnect, discontinue | |over- |too much |overbook, oversleep, overwork | |un- |reverses the meaning of the verb |unbend, uncouple, unfasten | |mis- |badly or wrongly |mislead, misinform, misidentify | |out- |more or better than others |outperform, outbid | |be- |make or cause |befriend, belittle | |co- |together |co-exist, co-operate, co-own | |de- |do the opposite of |devalue, deselect | |fore- |earlier, before |foreclose, foresee | |inter- |between |interact, intermix, interface | |pre- |before |pre-expose, prejudge, pretest | |sub- |under/below |subcontract, subdivide | |trans- |across, over |transform, transcribe, transplant | |under- |not enough |underfund, undersell, undervalue, underdevelop | Nouns The most common prefixes used to form new nouns in academic English are: co- and sub-. The most common suffixes are: -tion, -ity, -er, -ness, -ism, -ment, -ant, -ship, -age, -ery. By far the most common noun affix in academic English is -tion. e. g. prefix + noun noun Prefix |Meaning |Examples | |anti- |against |anticlimax, antidote, antithesis | |auto- |self |autobiography, automobile | |bi- |two |bilingualism, biculturalism, bi-metalism | |co- |joint |co-founder, co-owner, co-descendant | |counter- |against |counter-argument, counter-example, counter-proposal | |dis- |the converse of |discomfort, dislike | |ex- |former |ex-chairman, ex-hunter | |hyper- |extreme |hyperinflation, hypersurface | |in- |the converse of |inattention, incoherence, incompatibility | |in- |inside |inpatient, | |inter- |between |interaction, inter-change, interference | |kilo- |thousand |Kilobyte | |mal- |bad |malfunction, maltreatment, malnutrition | |mega- |million |Megabyte | |mis- wrong |misconduct, misdeed, mismanagement | |mini- |small |mini-publication, mini-theory | |mono- |one |monosyllable, monograph, monogamy | |neo- |new |neo-colonialism, neo-impressionism | |out- |separate |outbuilding, | |poly- |many |Polysyllable | |pseudo- |false |pseudo-expert | |re- |again |re-organisation, re-assessment, re-examination | |semi- |half |semicircle, semi-darkness | |sub- |below |subset, subdivision | |super- |more than, above |superset, superimposition, superpowers | |sur- |over and above |Surtax | |tele- |distant |telecommunications, | |tri- |three |Tripartism | |ultra- |beyond |Ultrasound | |under- |below, too little |underpayment, under-development, undergraduate | |vice- |deputy |vice-president | 1. 2- THE CLASSIFICATION OF PREFIXES In some reference books, prefixes (and suffixes) are classified according to their source, but this does not seem to help from a practical point of view.
It seems more helpful to classify the most important productive prefixes by their meaning into the following ten categories: 1) Negative prefixes un- : uninformative, unexpected, unease, unrest non- : nonviolent, non-cooperation, nonautomatic, nonadjustable, nonalcoholic in-:Incomplete, inconsistent, incorrect, invulnerable, illogical, illegal, impolite, immoral, imbalance, irrational, irregular dis- : dishonest, discontent, discover, disobey, disagree a-/an-: amoral, asexual, atheism, anacid, anarchy, 2) Reversative or privative dis- :disconnect, dishearten, disinterested un- :undo, unpack, untie, unwrap, unmask de- :defrost, deregulation, degeneration, deformed, denationalize 3) Pejorative prefixes seudo- :pseudonym, pseudoscience, pseudoclassic, pseudo-friend MaL-: maladjustment, maldigestion, malfunction, maldevelopment mis- :misguide, misapplication, misbehavior, mischoice, misgiving 4) Prefixes of degree or size under- :underdeveloped, underpopulation, undergraduate hyper- :hyperactive, hypercritical, hyperaggressive, hypercautious super- :supermarket, superpower, superstar sub- : subadult, subtitle, subbreed, subatom over- :overwork, overestimate, overemphasize, overabundance, overburden out – :outdo, outgrown, outlive mini- : minibus, minicamera, miniskirt ultra-: ultramodern, ultrasecret, ultraclean, ultrasonic, ultraconservative 5) Prefixes of orientation and attitude
PRO- :pro-American, pro-revolutionary, pro-Fascism , pro-student, proslavery ANTI-anti-abortion, anti-art, antiwar, antibacterial, antisocial, anticancer, antibody counter- :Counterexample, counterclaim, counteractive, counterattack, counterculture, countermeasure co- :Co-author, co-star, co-prosperity, cooperation 6) Locative prefixes Tele-: telephone, telegram, telecommunication trans-:transatlantic, transoceanic, transform, transplant inter-: international, intergovernmental, intertwine, interdisciplinary, intercollege fore-:forearm, foreleg, forename, foreword 7) Prefixes of time and order Post-: post-election, postwar, postgraduate, postdoctoral Pre-:premature, prewar, prehistoric, prepay, premarital Fore-: foresee, foretell, forefather, forewarn Ex-:ex-husband, ex-president, ex-colony, ex-convict 8) Number prefixes ulti-/poly- : multipurpose, multipolar, multiangular, multilingual, polyatomic, polycrystal, polygamy semi- :semicircle, semiliterate, semivowel, semiannual, semicolony, semiautomatic tri- : triangular, triatomic, trimonthly, trilateral, trilingual bi-/di- :bicycle, bilingual, bimonthly, dioxide, dialogue, dichotomy, disyllable uni-/mono- : monoxide, monocrystal, monogamy, monologue unilateral, unicell, unicircuit, unicolor, unicycle, unidimensional, uniform, unipolar, 9) Conversion prefixes En- :endanger, enforce, enable, embody, embitter, empower be- :belittle, bestir, befriend, bewitch a- :aloud, asleep, aglow, awash 10) Miscellaneous prefixes Pan- :Pan-Pacific, Pan-Arabism, Pan-Africanism Neo- :Neo-classicism,neo-colonialism, neo-fascism, Neolithic Extra- :Extralinguistic, extraordinary, extraterrestrial 1. 3- SENTENCE EXAMPLES Negative prefixes: -I am unhappy. -We normally have similar opinions but I disagree with him totally. The exercise is incorrect. Reservative or privative prefixes: – The shelves are uneven. – My internet has ben disconnected. Pejorative prefixes – The child is mistreated by the mother. – I was misinterpreted by the teacher. Preffixes of degree or size: – The supermarket is closed today. – My miniskirt is wet. – Archipelago is a collection of islands. Locative prefixes: -The secretary travels international countries. -I go to my job on subway Preffixes of time an order. : – He is my ex- husband. – My homework was terrible, so I had to redo it. – The baby was born premature. Number prefixes: -The teacher is bilingual. The doctor uses uniform. Other prefixes: The singer wrotes her autobiography. -The house is semi-detached. The vice-chancellor died this morning. Conversion prefixes: -The men is bewitched by the woman. -The ship is afloating in the ocean. – The affrican niggers was enslaves by the European people. 2-SUFFIXATION A suffix is a letter or a group of letters attached to the end of a word to form a new word or to alter the grammatical function of the original word. For example, the verb read can be made into the noun reader by adding the suffix -er; read can be made into the adjective readable by adding the suffix -able. The table below defines and illustrates 26 common suffixes. Common Suffixes Noun Suffixes | |Suffix |Meaning |Example | |-acy |state or quality |privacy | |-al |act or process of |refusal | |-ance, -ence |state or quality of |maintenance, eminence | |-dom |place or state of being |freedom, kingdom | |-er, -or |one who |trainer, protector | |-ism |doctrine, belief |communism | |-ist |one who |chemist | |-ity, -ty |quality of |veracity | |-ment |condition of |argument | |-ness |state of being |heaviness | |-ship |position held |fellowship | |-sion, -tion |state of being |concession, transition | | | | | |Verb Suffixes | |-ate |become |eradicate | |-en |become |enlighten | |-ify, -fy |make or become |terrify | | | | | |-ize, -ise |become |civilize | | | | | |Adjective Suffixes | |-able, -ible |capable of being |edible, resentable | |-al |pertaining to |regional | |-esque |reminiscent of |picturesque | |-ful |notable for |fanciful | |-ic, -ical |pertaining to |musical, mythic | |-ious, -ous |characterized by |nutritious, portentous | |-ish |having the quality of |fiendish | |-ive |having the nature of |creative | |-less |without |endless | |-y |characterized by |sleazy | A pejorative suffix is a suffix that attaches a negative meaning to the word or word-stem preceding it. There is frequent overlap between this and the diminutive form. The pejorative suffix may add the sense of “a despicable example of the preceding,” as in Spanish -ejo (see below). It can also convey the sense of “a despicable human having the preceding characteristic”; for instance, as in English -el (see below) or the development of the word cuckold from Old French cocu “cuckoo” + -ald, taken into Anglo-Saxon as cokewald and thus to the modern English word. 2. 1-MEANING OF SUFFIXES Verbs e. g. Suffix used to form verbs with the meaning “cause to be”. Suffix |Example | |-ise |stabilise, characterise, symbolise, visualise, specialise | |-ate |differentiate, liquidate, pollinate, duplicate, fabricate | |-fy |classify, exemplify, simplify, justify | |-em |awaken, fasten, shorten, moisten | Nouns e. g.
Suffix added to a verb (V), noun (N) or adjective (A) noun |Suffix |Meaning |Examples | |-tion |action/instance of V-ing |alteration, demonstration | |-sion | |expansion, inclusion, admission | |-er |person who V-s |advertiser, driver | | |something used for V-ing |computer, silencer | | | | | |-ment |action/instance of V-ing |development, punishment, unemployment | |-ant |person who V-s |assistant, consultant | |-ent | |student | |-age |action/result of V |breakage, wastage, package | |-al |action/result of V |denial, proposal, refusal, dismissal | |-ence |action/result of V |preference, dependence, interference | |-ance | |attendance, acceptance, endurance | |-ery/-ry |action/instance of V-ing |bribery, robbery, misery | | |place of V-ing |refinery, bakery | Suffix |Meaning |Examples | |-er |person concerned with N |astronomer, geographer | |-ism |doctrine of N |Marxism, Maoism, Thatcherism | |-ship |state of being N |friendship, citizenship, leadership | |-age |collection of N |baggage, plumage | Suffix |Meaning |Examples | |-ity |state or quality of being A |ability, similarity, responsibility, curiosity | |-ness |state or quality of being A |darkness, preparedness, consciousness | |-cy |state or quality of being A |urgency, efficiency, frequency | Adjectives Many adjectives are formed from a base of a different class with a suffix (e. g. -less, -ous). Adjectives can also be formed from other adjectives, especially by the negative prefixes (un-, in- and non-). The most common suffixes are -al, -ent, -ive, -ous, -ful, -less. e. g. Suffix added to verbs or nouns adjective Suffix |Example | |-al |central, political, national, optional, professional | |-ent |different, dependent, excellent | |-ive |attractive, effective, imaginative, repetitive | |-ous |continuous, dangerous, famous( | |-ful |beautiful, peaceful, careful | |-less |endless, homeless, careless, thoughtless | |-able |drinkable, countable, avoidable, | e. g. negative + adjective adjective Prefix |Examples | |un- |unfortunate, uncomfortable, unjust | |im-/in-/ir-/il- |immature, impatient, improbable, inconvenient, irreplaceable, illegal | |non- |non-fiction, non-political, non-neutral | |dis- |disloyal, dissimilar, dishonest | 2. 2- THE CLASSIFICATION OF SUFFIXES Since suffixes mainly change the word class, we shall group suffixes on a grammatical basis into : 1. 1) noun suffixes 2. 2) adjective suffixes 3. 3) adverb suffixes 4. 4) verb suffixes 1) Noun suffixes
Noun suffixes may be subdivided into the following five kinds. 6. Denominal nouns (concrete or abstract) 7. Deverbal nouns 8. De-adjectival nouns 9. Noun and adjective suffixes 1) Noun suffixes (Denominal nouns (concrete) -ess :actress, waitress, stewardess, hostess, lioness -let :booklet, leaflet, piglet, starlet -er :Londoner, teenager, villager -eer :auctioneer, engineer, mountaineer, pamphleteer, profiteer, racketeer ( Denominal nouns (abstract) ship :dictatorship, scholarship, friendship, sportsmanship -ocrasy :aristocracy, democracy, meritocracy -ism :idealism, optimism, individualism, consumerism -hood :boyhood, brotherhood, neighborhood, adulthood ery/-ry: drudgery, slavery, nunnery, nursery, machinery -ful :handful, mouthful, plateful, tubful -dom : freedom, kingdom, stardom, officialdom -dom -age :baggage, luggage, mileage, percentage (Deverbal nouns – ment :amazement, arrangement, movement, government -ing :building, dwelling, earnings, savings, clothing, stuffing – ation :foundation, exploration, nomination, starvation -al :refusal, revival, survival, arrival, dismissal -er/-or :driver, employer, interviewer, computer, silencer, accelerator, supervisor, actor, window-shopper -age :breakage, coverage, shrinkage, drainage -ee :interviewee, addressee, appointee, nominee, employee -ant :contestant, inhabitant, assistant, informant De-adjectival nouns Adjective- noun suffixes -ness: accurateness, falseness, kindness, selfishness, happiness, largeness, frankness, unexpectedness, thickness, goodness -ity :diversity, equality, rapidity, verbosity, responsibility, actuality, regularity, popularity, respectability (Nouns and adjective suffixes -ist :communist, pianist, specialist, socialist -(i)an : Darwinian, republican, Elizabethan, Shakespearean, Indonesian, Russian – ese :Burmese, Chinese, Cantonese, officialese, journalese 2) Adjective Suffixes (Denominal suffixes Noun—– adjective suffixes -like :childlike, ladylike, statesmanlike ly :friendly, cowardly, motherly, daily, weekly less : homeless, hopeless, merciless, harmless -y: milky, sandy, hairy, meaty -ish : childish, foolish, snobbish, Irish, Turkish -ful : delightful, successful, faithful, meaningful -ed : dogged, rugged, pointed, chocolate-flavored Some adjective suffixes commom in borrowed and neo-classical words -ous (-ious,-eous) :ambitious, desirous, marvelous, courageous, erroneous, courteous ic (-atic): ethnic, economic, historic, problematic -al (-ial, -ical) :accidental, professional, residential, musical, philosophical ( DEVERBAL SUFFIXES Adverb Suffixes -wise :clockwise, lengthwise, weatherwise, educationwise, taxwise, moneywise -ward(s) :downward, eastward, homeward, forward ly :smoothly, personally, extremely, publicly, naturally Verb suffixes -ate : Originate, hyphenate -ify :Solidify, modify, beautify, classify, identify -en :Deepen, harden, strengthen, hasten -ize(-ise) : Symbolize, computerize, legalize, publicize, specialize 2. 3-SENTENCE EXAMPLES Noun suffixes: – In my childhood, I live in EUA. – I live in a kitchenette. – The bakery sells breads. Noun/ adjective suffixes: – The boy is very polite. – The Brazilian man lives in Canada. – The girl is Japanese. Verb- noun suffixes: – Al Pacino is a famous actor. – The deputy is in imprisionment. – The student did’nt go to the school. Adjective- noun suffixes – My happiness depends of you. – Verb suffixes I need to summarize this book. Noun — adjective suffixes – I have many useless things in my job. – My daughter will have a hopeful carrer. – This is an harmful product. Some adjective suffixes commom in borrowed words. – The tiger is an dangerous animal. – My plastic surgery was only esthetical. – She is so sensitive. Other adjective suffixes – I’m not capable to do this. – Janet is incredibly reliable. Adverb suffixes -Suddenly, my father appears and… 3-MIXED e. g. base with both prefix and suffix Adjectives: uncomfortable, unavoidable, unimaginative, inactive, semi-circular Nouns: disappointment, misinformation, reformulation 4- CONCLUSION
The study of morphology, ie the formation of words, serves to demonstrate the flexibility of language, this flexibility that allows the native speaker transfer words from one category to another, through the addition of affixes. Unfortunately, rules of formation of words do not apply to all words, and in fact an application, or a “productivity” very limited. That is, the rule applies only to those words already established by usage in the language. From the point of view of what learning English, the rule only aid in the recognition of words, not in production. So, just learn the rule says to apply it in the formation of words. That also, again, demonstrates the superior effectiveness of the natural assimilation (acquisition) of formal study (learning) in the learning of languages.
The usefulness of knowing the rules of training for key words, from the point of view of what is developing familiarity with English, is the fact that this knowledge allows the identification of probable grammatical category even when they do not know the word in its meaning, which is very useful in the interpretation of texts. 5-REFERENCES: CALLELLA, Trisha. Prefixes and Suffixes: Teaching Vocabulary To Improve Reading Comprehension. Creative Teaching Pr, 2004. QUIRK, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman ,1985 http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Prefix http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Suffix http://grammar. about. com/od/words/a/comsuffixes. htm http://www. paulnoll. com/Books/Clear-English/English-suffixes-1. html http://www. prefixsuffix. com/affixes. php? navblks=1011000 http://www. uefap. com/vocab/build/building. htm