Effects of the financial crisis on various UK industries

Economic Report

The above graph shows the FTSE 100 index in the 5 old ages to the 14th October 2010. A The index value at any peculiar clip is based on the portion monetary values of the top one hundred by value with each administration being ‘weighted in proportion to its entire market value ‘ ( Pike, Neale, p.38 2009 ) . A Despite this index merely being a little per centum of the entire companies in the United Kingdom it by and large reflects the public presentation of much of the market.

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Prior to the fiscal crisis of 2008 taking to the clang in the markets-shown in the first one-fourth of 2009-investment in authorities debt was regarded as comparatively hazard free.A It is a mark of the delicate economic system state of affairs globally that investors no longer see such investings as a ‘sure thing ‘ ( Oakley, 2010 ) .A This recognition crisis has prompted investors to continue with cautiousness and despite initial positive tendencies the rules which underpinned investings in the yesteryear have been shattered ensuing in big scale political reforms throughout much of the Western World ( Future of puting, FT ) .A The suggestion of an unsteady recovery is reinforced by a recent article in the Economist which states that, A

‘Big plus flops are normally followed by old ages of failing as the over-borrowed fix their balance-sheets.A Experience suggests that several old ages of slow growing prevarication in front. ‘

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Oct. 7th 2010

It goes on to province that the reactive steps will be ‘the biggest synchronized financial fastening on record ‘ . A Governments worldwide have had their manus forced in to budget cuts and other steps to prolong growing out of the crisis. A Whilst this statement points to and assures uncertainness should be highlighted that ‘growth ‘ albeit at a slow gait is thought to be probably.

The current economic state of affairs, specifically in the United Kingdom, is underlined by the monolithic growing in unemployment.A Gilmore remarks that the figure of workless families has increased to 3.9 million over the last two old ages – an addition of 389,000 ( 2010, p 39 ) .A Furthermore, high profile cutbacks remain prevailing with Boots and Hewlett-Packard announcing combined cuts of 2,200 workers in the UK entirely ( Clark, 2010 ; Felsted 2010 ) .A Whilst over the past two old ages at that place has been an overall escalation in unemployment there are some marks of improvement.A The three months to July 2010 witnessed the figure out of employment autumn to 2.47 million ( Gilmore, 2010 ) .

It can be said that the current times are really unsure and on that account the right investing scheme will be vaguer than of all time before. A For that ground, the general investing scheme which will be employed is ‘buy and keep ‘ . A Not all investings will be made in this mode, nevertheless, for the most portion this logic will be applied. A The ‘buy and clasp ‘ attack can be justified by looking at the market tendency since the FTSE 100 began in 1984:

It can be seen that after a dip such as in 1987 and in 2000 that the market tends to retrieve so despite the delicate economic state of affairs a recovery, albeit a slow one as mentioned antecedently, can be envisaged.

Sector Reviews

Sector: Power

The power sector is one of the chief components of the FTSE 100. Utilities and Oil & A ; Gas entirely make up 14 of the 104 components which complete the index, together numbering for about a one-fourth of the net market capitalization for all the industries included. It can hence be deduced that any sensible alteration in the power sector as a whole has a great influence on the public presentation of the top one hundred FTSE listed companies ( FTSE Fact Sheet, 2010 ) .

For consideration, the sector has been split in to three chief sub-sectors: excavation, H2O & A ; public-service corporations and oil & A ; gas. All three sub-sectors witnessed their three twelvemonth lower limit around 2009 and have recovered strongly since with one exclusion to be covered in more item: oil & A ; gas.


The recovery can be expected to go on in the excavation sector as trade good monetary values continue to lift. One of the major mined trade goods, gold, has seen monetary values surge in recent times increasing about six fold since 2001 ( Post1, 2010 ) to its current degrees of $ 1361.20 per ounce. The market expects this monetary value will go on to lift amid guess that the United States authorities will get down quantitative easing one time more ( Murchie, 2010 ) . Barrick Gold and Anglo Gold Ashanti have late raised equity to extinguish ‘bad hedges ‘ and does non anticipate to return to fudging at any monetary value ( Yahoo! Finance, 2010 ) . Therefore, both administrations expect the monetary value of gold to go on to lift hence gilded companies with proved militias are likely to increase in value. This theory is reinforced by a Goldman Sachs analyst, writes Alistair Dawber, who predicts that Gold will hit $ 1,650 within a twelvemonth ( Independent, 2010 ) .

Water and Utilities

Water and Utilities in the United Kingdom show a strong recovery after the first one-fourth of 2009 besides having encouragements from an exceptionally cold winter. Net incomes of ScottishPower rose 7.9 % last twelvemonth due to the bitterly cold winter and Britain ‘s biggest provider of gas and electricity witnessed net incomes surge 46 % to ?554 million ( Macallister, 2010 ) . The Met office commented that it had been the coldest winter in 30 old ages ( 2010 ) . Long term prognosiss predict that this winter will be colder than norm with more precipitation than would be the norm. Should this keep true so portion monetary values will increase on the dorsum of higher demand for gas and electricity which eludes to the sector portion monetary values to tendency upwards.

Oil and Gas

The first in writing representation shows the FTSE 350 index for Oil and Gas manufacturers. A sustained recovery from the low in late 2009 was seen until Q2 of 2010 which observed a crisp diminution. This impairment is mostly due to the Deepwater Horizon catastrophe and its effects are clear. BP ( once British Petroleum ) are the 2nd largest company in the FTSE 100 index ( FTSE Fact Sheet, 2010 ) so any alteration in portion monetary value will hold a big influence on both the sector and the whole economic system. The 2nd graph shows the correlativity between the BP portion monetary value and the FTSE 350 – Oil and Gas. The cost to BP, who are regarded as being finally responsible for the catastrophe, sums to a pre-tax charge of $ 32,192 million. This sum relates to all costs sustained in relation to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill and the committedness to cover any hereafter costs which BP feel they can gauge faithfully ( BP, 2010 ) . As the cost of the catastrophe has already been absorbed by the company and the markets, presuming there is no farther outfall, it can be expected that the market will go on to tendency upwards and back towards it ‘s old norm. On this footing, the sector can be considered as a comparatively safe investing.

There is possible for really big returns within this sector nevertheless they arise with considerable hazard. Those with a higher hazard appetency may seek to put in the companies partaking in the oil geographic expedition taking topographic point in the Falkland Islands.


Due to the positive nature of all three sectors in this unsure economic period it has been decided that all three sub-sectors outlined will supply investing chances. This facilitates possible for first-class additions but at the same clip it utilises one of the chief schemes for pull offing hazard, ‘diversification ‘ ( Jaeger, 2002, p.235 ) .

Sector: Conveyance and Leisure

Conveyance and leisure is a wide ranging sector including companies such as Babcock International Group who specialise in a broad scope of countries including defense mechanism to administrations such as First Group who are a ‘leading conveyance operator in the UK and North America ‘ ( First Group ) . As it is such a wide sector ‘transport ‘ and ‘travel and leisure ‘ will be combined due to the similar nature of the two sub-sectors. Food & A ; Beverages has been discounted for ethical grounds.

Aerospace and Defense mechanism

As much of this sub-sector ‘s gross comes from authorities disbursement, Aerospace & A ; Defence at foremost appeared to be a wise pick for investing although on closer review this was proved non to be the instance. A This sector was finally discounted mostly due to the expected cuts in authorities disbursement in the United Kingdom and abroad which will hold an influence on companies which rely on this disbursement to keep profitableness and current portion monetary value degrees. A For illustration, Babcock International Group ‘s grosss are 80 % U.K based ( Hoyos, 2010 ) which in the current clime is excessively much exposure to a individual market. A The FTSE 350 index – Aerospace and Defense mechanism shows the volatility across the sector throughout 2010.

Cars and Partss

Outside of the chief administrations in this sector there is merely relatively little sum of information available exterior of the major companies. Where the big leagues are concerned, a instance could be constructed for investing nevertheless these are outweighed by the possible hazards. In recent times at that place has been many interrupting events which have an consequence on the volatility of portion monetary values within the sub-sector. Three major auto makers, including one trading in the UK-Toyota, have announced big graduated table callbacks. Toyota was forced to remember 10.9 million autos in the US and Canada ( Simon, 2010 ) whilst both BMW and Dailmler AG have recalled a combined 698,800 vehicles. ( Sky News, 2010 ) ( WSJ, 2010 ) . Equally good as the turbulent recalls demand for new autos in the UK has fallen and it is non expected that they will return to peak degrees. Between 2007 and 2009 the sum of new autos purchased fell from 2.4 million to 1.9 million-of which 285,000 were purchased at a to a great extent discounted degree under the Government ‘s scrappage strategy ( Sky News, 2010 ) . The article goes on to province that gross revenues figures are non expected to increase above 2 million for the following three old ages which would touch to a levelling of portion monetary values at current degrees.

Food and Beverage

The low which the FTSE 350 – Food and Beverage experienced in March 2009 coincided with the underside of the FTSE100, nevertheless, the dip was non as terrible and the immediate recovery was fleet and strong.A Whilst these are assuring marks at that place has been a stagnation.A In Q2 and Q3 of 2010 the index hasA fallen from it ‘s high of 541.81 in mid April to a it ‘s current degree of 528.69 ( Yahoo finance, 18th October ) .A In the same period the FTSE 100 after enduring from an initial bead recovered strongly and is now demoing a positive growing curve in the short term.A It can be concluded that the public presentation of the sector as a whole is non fiting that of other sectors which are executing good. An illustration of a hapless performing artist in this sector would be Punch Taverns which is one of the largest saloon companies in the United Kingdom ( Punch Taverns, 2010 ) . Shares in Punch Taverns are down over 15 % in the last fifty-two hebdomads ( Synergistic Investor Trading, 2010 ) .

Travel & A ; Leisure

A graph of the FTSE 350 index over the old 5 old ages is shown. It can be seen that from it ‘s extremum in 2007 there has been a immense loss in market capitalization across the travel and leisure sector nevertheless this was met with a strong recovery from mid 2009 onwards and this tendency looks to go on. The upwards motion of this index is underpinned by growing in many of the major companies in the sector such as British Airways, Ryanair Holdings and Easyjet. This shows turning investor assurance in one of the most troubled industries of the past 10 old ages.


It is this assurance and steady sustained growing within sub-sector four that makes the Travel and Leisure sub-sector the advised pick for investing nevertheless the other sectors will supply some potency for investing should an appropriate company be identified.


UK retail sector employees around 3 million people. It is the 3rd largest in the universe after USA and Japan. On a whole the retail sector generates around 8 % of the UK GDP. 1 in 10 of the people in employment presently works in the retail sector. Shops history for more than a 3rd of consumer disbursement ; due to this the retail sector is really of import to how the economic system on a whole performs. Normally if there is a bead in retail, the GDP of the economic system would be affected greatly every bit good.

The twelvemonth 2007 marked the beginning of the recognition crisis which resulted in the UK confronting an economic downswing. This affected many companies, including Woolworths. Woolworths before the recognition crisis was one of the major companies in the retail sector. Due to the crisis, which lasted from 2007-2009, Woolworths went into disposal on the 26th November 2008. During late 2009 market the terminal of the period of the recession, which allowed the retail sector to better its growing, as shown in the graph below.


The retail sector is ideal because of its high growing before the recognition crisis, this sector is now rapidly retrieving and should be expected to be at a high growing as before the recognition crisis. There should be high growing particularly during the Christmas period.

The House leisure & A ; Personal Goods sector would be an inappropriate option in my sentiment because it involves tonss of manual and material costs. This sector will besides derive lower growing unlike the retail sector, which should hold higher growing.


The telecommunication sector offers a broad assortment of occupations and is an of import sector for the economic system. The UK is one of the prima locations for telecommunication in Europe. In recent times, the competition between telecommunication companies has aggressively risen since the early 1990s. This is due to the quickly increasing usage of phone lines, cyberspace and Mobiles etc.

This sector besides was affected with the recognition crisis during late 2007 as shown below on diagram. One of the largest companies in the telecommunications sector BT faced their third-quarter net incomes had been reduced to 81 per cent. This was due to the hapless public presentation from the BT ‘s IT web division. BT had besides had to compose off a batch of its contracts which resulted in a loss of ?336 million. But it should be considered that this was due to the recognition crisis, now that the crisis is finished, most companies should get down to develop more growing in the telecommunication sector.


Telecommunications is invariably developing through nomadic devices, picture naming and other services. Today ‘s engineering has an impact on the telecommunication sector, such as Apple, that supplies advanced telecommunication service through its Iphone. There telecommunication service offers many new services, which suggest this sector would be ideal for strong growing

The Tech Hardware sector involves tonss of changeless research that includes invention and development, which could affect tonss of costs in this sector.

The Electronic & A ; Electronic Equipment sector involves big costs of investing because of the development and stuff costs involved, you must take into consideration of the current competiveness in the market today. This sector makes up for 4 per cent of the Europeans municipal waste, “ which is turning three times faster than any other waste direction system ” , as discussed by Waste on-line web site.

It would non be recommended to put in the Media sector because of the competiveness in this market. Current administrations in the media sector are losing out from clients, due to the immensely handiness of free media available online.

Pharmaceuticals & A ; Biotechnology

Sector: Chemicals & A ; General

The pharmaceuticals and biotechnology sector is a monolithic industry, there are many companies involved with the field. The value of the planetary pharmaceutical market is expected to turn 5-7 per centum in 2011, to $ 880 billion, compared with a 4-5 per centum gait this twelvemonth, harmonizing to IMS Health.

The sector divides itself into two sub-sectors.

Pharmaceutical companies: Develop and industry prescription and nonprescription drugs ( acetylsalicylic acid, cold redresss, birth control pills ) , every bit good as vaccinums.

Biotechnology companies: Create new biological substances for usage in drugs and diagnosis tools through research and development.

The sector is chiefly occupied by little, highly specialised, research houses. As these companies do n’t hold a normal income flow, but rely more upon new finds to assist fund future research any discoveries or licencing agreements. As this can take to big grosss which may assist fund even further research. On the other manus due to the little size of the concerns any holds in geting support may do hard currency flow jobs. Along with this trading can be really irregular as new finds can do portion monetary values to rocket.

There has been a tendency in the pharmaceutical industry whereby little biotechnology companies are transporting out the premature work on new finds, before selling their work to the industry leaders, which is rather similar to an outsourcing theoretical account. The terminal consequence allows the merchandise to be sold in big measures to a planetary market.

The industry has seen really drastic alterations over the past few quarters, since public presentation was affected by factors such as generic competition. The following 5 old ages suggest a major alteration between the debut of new merchandises and patent loses. One of the chief grounds why the planetary pharmaceutical market growing, will be limited to 5-8 % through 2014 is because over the following five old ages. Products that generate gross revenues upwards of $ 142 billion will finally confront competition from generic merchandises. Besides approaching merchandises are non likely to make the same sum of gross revenues, as merchandises lose their patent protection.

Fig 1.

The above graph shows the FTSE-350 of the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology sector over a period of 4 old ages. You can see the affects of the recognition crisis in the first one-fourth of 2008, after this there is a little addition in the market nevertheless the market clangs in the first one-fourth of 2009. Overall the sector produced entire grosss of $ 615.1billion in 2008.

One of the most profitable sectors of the market in 2008 was cardiovascular which was deserving 19.8 % of the markets entire value. That is tantamount to $ 121.7 billion. Prognosiss suggest that the growing of the market is set to shrivel with a likely CAGR of 3.6 % fro, 2008-2013. This should do the value of the market to increase to $ 734 by the terminal of 2013.

Top 10 companies

top 10 drug company bio.jpg

Emerging Markets

Other recent tendencies include concentrating on emerging markets such as the “ BRIC ” states ( Brazil, Russia, India, and China ) . This is due to gross revenues in emerging markets that have been turning at faster rate than gross revenues in the established markets ( IMS, 2010 ) . Within the following five old ages these emerging markets will bring forth as much gross as the traditional markets such as the U.S. market ( largest pharmaceutical market ) along with Europe and Japan.

Beginning: IMS wellness

Construction & A ; Materials

Sector: Industrials & A ; stuffs

This sector includes companies that are involved with discovering, developing and treating natural stuffs and mining/refining of metals, chemicals and forestry. Due to this sector providing stuffs for building, it to a great extent relies on a strong economic system. This sector can besides be really unpredictable as it is vulnerable to provide and demand due to monetary values of natural stuffs such as gold.

In general building activity declined quickly by 10.5 % in 2009. Estimates backed by delicate private sector lodging, industrial and commercial belongings activity suggest a farther autumn of 1.6 % in 2010. The most profitable in the sector over the past twelvemonth was substructure and public non-housing ( such as schools ) which increased by 10 % and 25 %

Recent information shows slight marks of recovery in the private sector, peculiarly in new lodging. This is backed up by study grounds which shows a little addition in lodging activity in the concluding one-fourth of 2009


In 2010, private sector lodging activity is expected to demo farther marks of a gradual recovery, but recent marks of increased investor assurance in commercial belongings may non interpret into stronger activity until 2011. This is shown in the graph below.

contruction 1.jpg


Public lodging:

Weak activity in the private sector has caused end product in this sector to hold fallen in 2009.

However due to the authoritiess drive to assist increase low-cost lodging there are marks of addition in the 2nd half of 2009. Public lodging is expected to lift about 6-7 % within the following two old ages.

Private lodging:

End product for private lodging was forecasted to drop by about 30 % last twelvemonth. Prognosiss suggest the recovery period will be gradual. Housing indexs besides show recovery in house monetary values and mortgage blessings. End product in this sector is set to lift to 1 % this twelvemonth forcing it to 10 % in 2011

Infrastructure and public non-housing:

This sector is continuously turning over the past twelvemonth this has been due to a figure of high- profile undertakings such as route and rail undertakings across the UK, the schools edifice programme and the 2012 Olympic gamess

Private commercial and industrial:

Over 25 % of end product has plunged since last twelvemonth in this sector harmonizing to prognosiss.

Even though there has been involvement to investors in this particular sector. Output will probably increase once more in 2010, as the commercial sector underperformed industrial, before it returns to normal growing.

Repair & A ; care:

As the current economic state of affairs is easy retrieving, care and private fix are expected to brace and finally turn in 2011. However its different narrative for public fix and care as its easier to force back disbursement on this country than do a cut in new high- profile investings

Chemicals & A ; General including: –

Support Servicess


Industrials & A ; Materials including: –

Industrial Transportation

Industrial General

Industrial Engineering

Sector: Chemicals & A ; General

Sub Sector 1: Chemicals

The chemical industry is really important to UK fabrication as it provides the indispensable compounds for the fabrication procedures and the besides the big figure of occupations it creates. The industry is tantamount to 1.5 % GDP. UK ‘s fabrication industry entire gross revenues of ?62.62bn over the period of 2005 to 2009. However when the economic system fell into recession one of the cardinal sectors to be hit by this was fabricating which the chemical industry is a cardinal provider of.

This sector is extremely competitory which has lead to a great trade of amalgamations and acquisitions. Majority of the major companies in the UK industry are planetary participants which are focused on ‘core ` activities which involve specialised synthesis or concluding preparation of merchandises.

Before the economic recession growing was steady and would hold increased over a period of clip, nevertheless due to the sulky growing of the UK economic system and besides globally. Growth will remain moderately restrained in 2011-2012. Along with the desperate province of the authorities ‘s finance which will finally take to revenue enhancement rises and disbursement cuts. Therefore this subsector will non be a profitable investing. However export markets in emerging economic systems are more likely to successful.

Sub Sector 2: Health Care Equipment & A ; Servicess

The Healthcare industry is broken down into smaller groups such as medical devices, research lab equipment, system and engineering and associated services such as direction, preparation and instruction. The bulk of companies that operate in the UK are foreign-owned largely American. This sector exports up to ?4bn worth of merchandises and services yearly into the planetary market.

Overall this sector is turning highly fast as there are so many states working to better their wellness attention services and installations. The chief ground to the UKs turning presence in the planetary market is down to the positive relationship between the authorities, the industry, NHS and private sectors. Along with the well developed wellness attention substructure.

One of the chief subjects of the health care industry has become cost decrease this is due to the hard economic times. It is really important that the administrations look for new ways to assist lessening costs. Therefore this bomber sector will non be a profitable investing.


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