This chapter will concentrate on the reappraisal of the bing literature to the specific thought of effects of counsel and reding on academic public presentation in secondary school degree. The information gathered from the literature will be used to specify a benchmark against which the SGC services may be measured.
2.2 Review of Related Studies
Few subjects have been identified as per the job, effects of counsel and reding on academic public presentation in secondary schools.
2.2.1 Importance of Guidance and Counseling in Secondary Schools.
Kottman ( 1995 ) came up with the following as to why counsel and guidance is of import. An single experiences positive feelings from his/her instructors, parents and grownups. They derive personal significance from their acquisition activities and are able to develop and heighten academic accomplishments to the upper limit of their ability. Guidance and reding plans help the scholar to be able to larn necessary get bying accomplishments so that they can be able to cover with the normal developmental concerns and jobs that they will meet. Learners should be able to recognize that they are responsible for their ain behaviours and so they have to work with parents in assortment of planned programes to help them to develop attitudes and accomplishments to heighten the academic and societal development. Harmonizing to Krumboltz ( 2002 ) , the aim of the plan is to convey about the upper limit development and self realisation of human potency for the benefit of single and society.
Kileen et Al ( 1992 ) , states that calling counsel Foster efficiency and societal equity. It is of import in back uping single determinations, reduces bead outs and mismatch part in public presentation particularly in faculty members. By holding counsel and guidance plans, it promotes self understanding, helps one to do realistic determinations and overcome personality shortages. It is the procedure of assisting persons to larn to cover with troubles and to believe critically about themselves and their hereafter. Hattie et Al ( 199 ) , protagonism that helps one to develop personal subject, proper usage and direction of clip, work, leisure and self trust. The plan aimed at assisting the pupils to harmonise. Killeen et Al ( 2001 ) states that it is of import, in back uping single determinations, cut down bead outs and mismatch part in public presentation particularly in faculty members. On the other manus Hattie et Al ( 1999 ) agrees that counsel and guidance in high schools helps to develop personal subject, proper direction of clip and self trust.
2.2.2 Forming Guidance and Counseling Program.
Harmonizing to Lutomia and Sikollia ( 2002 ) the caput instructors are supposed to give room or supply room for the teacher/lecturer in charge of counsel and guidance. This is because some jobs faced by pupils are personal and they may necessitate private treatments. The room should be in contributing environment and confidentiality should be of high grade. The coordinator should be the counsel and reding teacher assisted by other members i.e. get oning master/mistress, games master and house master/mistress. Harmonizing to Kottman ( 1995 ) , counsel and reding plans in schools is that plans developed in territory broad, counsellor have to include the forces from superintended office if it has Numberss of schools in the territory, the principal and other specializers are involved, but for a individual single school, the principal is the lone individual involved. Makinde ( 1983 ) had a job in implementing the counsel and guidance plans because there is a natural opposition from alteration. There is besides deficiency of lucidity about the new function.
2.2.3 Qualification of a Good Counselor.
Durlk ( 2005 ) , in reappraisal surveies reports that the grounds indicated that ballad or non-professional counsellors tend to be more effectual than extremely trained experts practioners. Hattie et Al ( 1999 ) argues that pra-professional are more effectual than trained healer and Berman and Norton ( 2000 ) , utilizing vigorous standards for accepting surveies as methodological analysis adequately conducted that there is no overall difference in effectivity between professional and nonprofessional healer. Pattern ( 1973 ) affirms that the non professional assistants have included grownup voluntaries, parents of kids and college student’s theoretical accounts of intervention have received more preparation to accomplish better consequences. Non professional do better with long term reding while professional are relatively more effectual short squad work. Durlak ( 2005 ) adds that non professional such as voluntaries achieve good consequences because of the undermentioned factors: a ) Able to offer hard instances to professionals.
B ) Restrict themselves to straight frontward.
degree Celsius ) Limited instances burden.
vitamin D ) High motivated to assist.
vitamin E ) Perceived by clients to be more echt.
Corey ( 2004 ) indicates that they are advantages in no professional position and comparative deficiency of experience and advanced preparation. Some of the disadvantages associated with expertness include the danger of burn out due to overwork. Towbin ( 2006 ) postulates that possible account for the effectivity of non professional counsellor that they are selected from a pool of of course talented untrained hearers in the community.
2.2.4 Qualities of a Good Counselor
A capable counsellor must possess a figure of personal qualities and develop the proper attitudes to do a client feel at easiness and to construct resonance so that a client can self-disclose. Makinde ( 1983 ) , states that counsellors are supposed to be patient, should be a good hearer, observe the client address when he is speaking. As a counsellor you should non develop any confidant between yourself and the pupil. The counsellor must be confidential in the sense that must ever esteem and maintain the secret of their clients every bit much as the ethical codification allows. The counsellor should be honesty if he can non work out the job and mention the client to the more experient professional. Lutomiaa and Skolia ( 2002 ) , remarks that in schools and colleges the individual chosen as a counsellor should be mature so that he can accept duty in schools and society. The counsellor should be honest and besides conversant with other people’s jobs. He should be able to maintain secrets, maintain records and should non be a gossipmonger.
2.2.5 Clients Attention
Lutomia and Sikolia ( 2002 ) , states that a counsellor has to be patient to listen to them a Lashkar-e-Taiba him/her demo the scholars that he is non in a haste. The counsellor has to give the client equal clip so that he/she can be able to show the jobs they are encountered with. Facial looks and gestures is another factor that strengthens the procedure of listening and this makes them to be appreciated.
The accomplishments of listening
Active hearing and reacting suitably are two of the cardinal skills a counsellor must hold. Listening makes the individual who is speaking experience worthy, apprehended and respected. When we give person all of our attending the talker responds positively by interacting on a deeper degree, possibly by unwraping personal information or by going more relaxed. When a counsellor pays peculiar attending to what the client is stating they are promoting the client to go on speaking, every bit good as guaranting communicating remains unfastened and positive
2.2.6 Guidance and Counseling Services Offered in Schools.
Makinde ( 1983 ) , states that orientation helps pupils adjust good in any new environment. Appraisal of stock list services and information whereby you aim at supplying pupils with better cognition of educational, vocational and societal chances so that they can do informed picks and determinations.
2.2.7 Challenges in Provision of Guidance and Counseling
Makinde ( 1983 ) , says that in developing states, counsel and guidance will go significance to single if it focuses on leaving determination devising accomplishments, calling planning accomplishments, sweetening instructor and parent effectivity and value elucidations. Parten ( 1973 ) , adds that jobs that face the proviso of counsel and guidance are attitudinal, structural, human and cultural. These include failure to prosecute in careful diagnosing of the organisational jobs that counsel and guidance was designed to work out. There is besides deficiency of trained counsellors in establishments of acquisition, deficiency of adequate clip and installations for usage by counsellors, deficiency of research work in the counsel and reding country.
2.2.8 How to Identify Student’s Problems
Tolbert ( 1959 ) , states that for one to place a job in a pupil is through the lector or category instructor. If it is a boarding school, the matron and providing unit can be of great usage since they ever interact with pupils. In school records, it is ever of import when pupils are admitted to an establishment, a file of each should be opened and all the information about the pupil entered so that incase of a repeating job, the counsellor can mention to the file and happen the needed information. Patern ( 1973 ) argues that other people who know of the pupil can be approached and information about the pupil job can be identified. He adds that some pupils confide in friends and it is slippery because if the pupils learn that people are discoursing him/her he/she can easy maintain off. Therefore a good counsellor should be careful when discoursing one pupil with another.
2.2.9 Troubles in Guidance and Counseling
Krumboltz ( 2001 ) , states that mass media offer many negative influence and the children/learners are exposed to it than of all time before. Some advertisement encourage bad behaviours i.e. the advertizement of some coffin nails, intoxicant companies are so colourful that pupils would wish to get by that image or wants to be the same as that individual utilizing it and when a counsellor tries to deter it, pupils will state him that they have seen people who smoke and drink and yet they are successful. Besides telecastings encourage pupils to make incorrectly because they show romantic films which immature people will bask watching. Oketch ( 1999 ) , agrees that company and influence from equal group is one of the challenges.
The counsellor will be cognizant when there is bad influence from such company and seek to carry the pupil to avoid it, but the affected pupils will believe of the instructor concerned as the 1 on the incorrect and will go rebellious. Shertzer and Stone ( 1981 ) , states that the broad course of study in the current 8-4-4 system of instruction has many topics that pupils need to cover between 8 am-4pm. This makes it hard because there is ever a force per unit area on the student’s head which is a job. On the other manus, the counsellor has got no clip for guidance because he is ever in category or the pupil is ever in category and at 4.00 o’clock the lone clip left, the pupil is on the field with games chief hence doing it hard for the counsellor to run efficaciously. Fuster ( 1990 ) suggests that pornographic is another hinderance to credence of reding in secondary schools. There are many adult stuffs in circulation and they land into the custodies of the guiltless misss and male childs who end up in take parting.
2.2.10 How to pull facts from a pupil
Patern ( 1973 ) , writes that a counsellor should demo involvement into treatment by perchance doing brief remarks, he/she should avoid disrupting a pupil before he completes his train on ideas, he/she should ever listen to major facts. Harmonizing to Makinde ( 1983 ) , he claims that a counsellor should non acquire tired while listening to a pupil. He/she should listen attentively because this will do the pupils be willing to listen and lend. Harmonizing to Fuster ( 1990 ) , the counsellor should ever look into his/her opposing sentiment and every measure confirm if they are together with the pupils.
Having discussed different literature on counsel and guidance in secondary schools coupled with the research worker ain experience as one clip pupil, it is apparent plenty that there is demand for effectual guidance theoretical account in secondary schools. The many work stoppages that rocks most of the authorities secondary schools in 2008 are illustrations that are still fresh in most peoples mind. This shows that something is really incorrect and demands to be addressed every bit shortly as possible. It is in hope that the findings of this survey will travel along manner in turn toing most of the recommendations proviso of counsel and guidance services in larning establishments. In general there is demand for counsel and guidance that necessitates a hunt for truth. There is need to look at jobs that pupils face in schools and how counsel and guidance may be effectual to them.