Effective Professional Development Models in Educational TechnologyEffective Professional Development Models in Educational Technology
Professional development workshops are frequently utile in beef uping an employee’s cognition and/or learning a new methodological analysis. However, when we look at U.S. tendencies, a mere 20 % of provinces require engineering preparation or proving for recertification or engagement in technology-related professional development ( Hightower 2009 ) . Virtual/informal versus traditional/face to face/workshops, Technology, teaching method, content and cognition ( TPACK ) , and practical asset Problem based larning all describe assorted methods of professional development ( PD ) bringing. There is non a broad scope of cognition on the effectivity of these methods as it relates to engineering integrating in the educational scene. The surveies that exists employs size uping chiefly qualitative research, while there are limited surveies with quantitative and assorted method research approaches. This reappraisal of literature will analyze what works efficaciously through analyzing these methods.
Virtual/informal versus Traditional/Informal
In a qualitative survey performed by Birman, Desimone and Porter ( 2000 ) research workers set out to turn up effectual constructions of a professional development session. They surveyed 1000 instructors who were a portion of a federally funded professional development in 1999. These surveies lead to the sum of 16 extra instance surveies. The subsequent information was so analyzed to bring out two set of subjects: context for professional development and the processs used during the professional development. In the subject of context, there were three identified constituents: signifier or type of puting, continuance of clip spent in the session and figure of Sessionss and engagement across class degrees, schools and sections. In the subject of processs used there were besides three recognized constituents: content focal point or end of the action, active acquisition or existent usage of the information in the signifier of exercising and treatment, and coherency or the alliance to existent instructor demands. This survey purported to happen that when the professional development Sessionss were enacted under the pretence of reform there were more favourable results. Positive results were besides reported for longer and more frequent Sessionss, every bit good as, the end of active larning being achieved in the groups with similar attenders. As it relates to theme of processs: instructors reported to hold better consequences with content specific Sessionss, cases where they were able to use the information learned in a existent universe puting with resident trainers on site to reply inquiries and they occurred and positive results when the Sessionss paired with schemes that reflected the demands of the instructor reported ends.
When analyzing plans that increase teacher productiveness as it relates to student success, Harris and Sass ( 2011 ) supply us with an extended two measure quantitative survey of the administrative files for teacher’s informations in Florida. The files were of pupil accomplishment tonss and instructors for classs 3-10. The research here found that professional development had no important consequence on instructor productiveness. Most notably, when PD takes topographic point during the current school twelvemonth it has a negative consequence on that same school twelvemonth with an addition in accomplishment noted after two old ages. This is explained by the deficiency of instructor presence to the pupils during the times of professional development and the usage of anterior created lesson programs and engineerings. This survey supports the thought of practical or informal PD, where instructors can entree the stuff while non giving their presence in the schoolroom. Although the kernel of larning new stuff additions pupil accomplishment over clip, it is non correlated to formal or traditional PD scenes.
In contrast, Fisher, Schumaker, Culbertson and Deshler ( 2010 ) found small overall difference between the effects of the bringing methods of PD. This assorted methods analyze sought to happen out 1 ) the effectivity of practical PD versus traditional PD and 2 ) what are the ensuing results in footings of instructor usage of the methods, pupil acquisition and pupil blessing. The survey was divided into two single surveies that looked to analyze the effects of a computerized attack versus a workshop attack to PD. The farther end was to research the possibility that these cases of professional development really affected the behaviour and consequences of pupils. The participants were unpaid instructors enrolled in a alumnus degree Professional development class.
The first survey was comprised of 59 instructors who were indiscriminately selected for the experimental ( n=30 ) and control ( n=29 ) group. The experimental group was given a practical stand-alone workshop, while the control group received a traditional two portion in individual workshop. Both groups had the chance to execute a pattern lesson with either practical pupils or existent pupils matching to the workshop design. After the workshops, teacher were given tests to prove their cognition keeping and a satisfaction study to estimate attitudes towards the class. The 2nd survey included eight instructors from the first survey and 125 of their existing pupils. The experimental group was indiscriminately selected and the resulting pupils assigned depending on their instructor. To mensurate the information the research workers employed assorted methods. A multiple baseline was established through observation of all eight of the instructors and replicated with two of these instructors. In order to treat the ensuing cognition tonss of the pupils a pretest-posttest design theoretical account was used. These consequences were so computed utilizingTtonss and an analysis of covariance was performed with pretest tonss being the covariate.
It was discovered that the usage methods taught in the experimental practical group were significantly different than those in the control/traditional group, with the experimental/virtual group surpassing the control/traditional group. However, the analysis of the pre- and post-test showed no important difference. There was besides no important difference revealed in analyzing the pupil blessing of the methods. An obvious restriction to both of the surveies is the little sample size. This limits any possibility of formalizing this survey across larning environments. The demographics of the schools varied in footings of race and socioeconomic position, an extra restriction to the generalisation of the survey. The research was strengthened by the usage of assorted methods to mensurate the information. Mixed method surveies are highly utile in multisite instance surveies ( Sharp et al. , 2011 ) .
Further demoing no difference between the bringing types is a randomised survey by Fishman et Al. ( 2013 ) . By indiscriminately delegating 49 instructors from assorted schools across the United States that followed a new scientific discipline course of study developed in concurrence of the National Science Foundation ( Edelson, D. 2005 ) . 24 were presented the stuff in a face to confront environment and 25 were presented with the online atmosphere. The survey employed informations from a statistical point of view but found no important difference between bringing methods.
TPACK is an emerging and popular subject in instruction “At the bosom of the TPACK model, is the complex interplay of three primary signifiers of cognition: Content ( CK ) , Pedagogy ( PK ) , and Technology ( TK ) . The TPACK attack goes beyond seeing these three cognition bases in isolation. TPACK besides emphasizes the new sorts of cognition that prevarication at the intersections between them, stand foring four more cognition bases instructors applicable to learning with engineering: Pedagogical Content Knowledge ( PCK ) , Technological Content Knowledge ( TCK ) , Technological Pedagogical Knowledge ( TPK ) , and the intersection of all three circles, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge ( TPACK ) ” ( Koehler, 2014 ) . Here we will look at two surveies that examine the effectivity of TPACK.
The first survey by Harris and Hofer ( 2011 ) , they inspected the effectivity of TPACK in the country of societal surveies. This research attempt endeavored to find if there was a alteration in instructor activity after having a TPACK based professional development session. This qualitative survey of seven instructors documented informations over a five month period with the usage of interviews, analysing unit programs and instructor contemplations after the PD. This survey found that the instructors found that their planning of instructional stuffs changed positively after having preparation on utilizing digitals in a more active acquisition mode. The instructors reported that utilizing the collaborative and constructivist attacks presented via TPACK made them more comfy with learning the content in a more tech-forward manner.
The research squad of Doering, Veletsianos, Scharber and Miller ( 2009 ) besides endeavored to research the effects of TPACK in an extended assorted methods survey. Their research looked at instructors larning to utilize an online learning tool ( GeoThentic© ) and so utilizing this tool in the schoolroom. The information was based on their meta-knowledge of the content after go toing a TPACK based PD as opposed to their content consciousness before the session. After tabling their informations they found that quantitatively 59 % of the instructors found a distinguishable alteration in their knowledgebase with the bulk happening this to be a positive property. To farther back up the findings, qualitatively they found that the professional development chance with GeoThentic had a extremely positive consequence on their information keeping. Even when conjoined with instructor contemplations, the TPACK based workshop proved valuable. A possible follow up survey would be on the pupil cognition keeping and or accomplishment after the workshop.
Virtual merely versus practical plus job based:
This survey by Walker et Al ( 2012 ) supports the impression that utilizing tech based/virtual/ untraditional PD is more good than a individual method attack. This squad conducted a quasi-experimental survey comparing the consequence of two technology-related teacher professional development ( TTPD ) designs. The first design group used merely practical agencies for relaying cognition and accomplishments attainment. The 2nd design group utilized both practical agencies and custodies activities on Problem based acquisition for pupils. The survey examined the consequences of 51 voluntary instructors in classs 7-9. It used both statistical informations and self-reported informations for analysis. The self-reported informations produced similar results between both PD design groups, yet the same consequences were non supported statistically. The pupils with entree to instructors that participated in the practical and custodies on ( job based learning activities ) produced higher quantifiable additions than those with the practical merely experience.
Per the research, professional development might best be viewed as a vehicle non an attack. In 2015, we are in a planetary market where engineering alterations continually. The research shows that there are several ways to ship on the undertaking of increasing pupil accomplishment and instructor apathy. The majority of research points to a more custodies on attack, where teachers are actively engaged and prepared for the existent clip environment of the schoolroom. The TPACK attack stands to obtain more examination. Many of the surveies were and are limited by voluntary and comparatively little samples, which limits the range of altering policy. Further quantitative research is most assuredly needed, yet due to the nature of covering with bush leagues, may non be so readily available. “An active larning clime may be dei¬?ned as a clime that stimulates employees to inquire inquiries, seek feedback, rei¬‚ect on possible consequences, explore and experiment, with the purpose of increasing their acquisition or doing usage of what is learned on the job” . ( Collin, Heijden and Lewis, 2012 ) .
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Doering, A. , Veletsianos, G. , Scharber, C. , & A ; Miller, C. ( 2009 ) . Using the technological, pedagogical, and content cognition model to plan on-line acquisition environments and professional development.Journal of Educational Computing Research,41( 3 ) , 319-346.
Edelson, D. C. ( 2005 ) .Probes in environmental scientific discipline: A case-based attack to the survey of environmental systems. It ‘s About Time.
Fisher, J. B. , Schumaker, J. B. , Culbertson, J. , & A ; Deshler, D. D. ( 2010 ) . Effectss of a computerized professional development plan on instructor and pupil results.Journal of Teacher Education,61( 4 ) , 302-312.
Fishman, B. , Konstantopoulos, S. , Kubitskey, B. W. , Vath, R. , Park, G. , Johnson, H. , & A ; Edelson, D. C. ( 2013 ) . Comparing the impact of online and face-to-face professional development in the context of curriculum execution.Journal of Teacher Education,64( 5 ) , 426-438.
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Walker, A. , Recker, M. , Ye, L. , Robertshaw, M. B. , Sellers, L. , & A ; Leary, H. ( 2012 ) . Comparing technology-related teacher professional development designs: a multilevel survey of instructor and pupil impacts.Educational engineering research and development,60( 3 ) , 421-444.