While walking my Canis familiaris one Sunday afternoon, I saw a ruddy tailed hawk perched high on a tall pine tree. Suddenly it took flight surging at a rapid rate of ascent into the bluish sky until I lost it from position. I thought to myself: “ What tickle pinking freedom! ” The metaphor of the free hawk represents for me the eventual freedom from the battle of ignorance when the instructor is embedded in the community of the pupil. This is the teaching method of Paulo Freire.
I chose Freire as my educational theoretician for two grounds: First, he believes, as do I that larning occurs in duologue ( defined below ) between teacher/supervisor and pupil, pupil and pupil and groups ; a topographic point where grownups can larn from each other with, love, non subjugation. And 2nd, Freire, influenced by Dewey, strives for larning to emanate from the lived experience of the pupil ( experiential acquisition ) . Dialogue as defined by Freire is: “ An act of creative activity ; it must non function as a cunning instrument for the domination of one individual by another. Dialogue can non be, nevertheless, in the absence of a profound love for the universe and for people. The naming of the universe, which is an act of creative activity and re-creation, is non possible if it is non infused with love. Love is at the same clip the foundation of duologue itself. “ a This is congruous with my vision of mutualness. Subsequently in this paper, I discuss two of Freire ‘s educational constructs: the “ knowable object ” and the “ perceptual experience of the old perceptual experience ” which guide my supervision.b
CPE is experiential grownup instruction. During orientation, I tell pupils that my hope is that they will larn from the CPE experience as it is their experience. I besides tell them that their freedom has bounds and that from clip to clip I will dispute or face them. I do this so they may hold a glance of who I am and what my function is. I besides province that I want to larn from them ; from their experiences. They will larn by experiencing and reflecting on existent events with patients, staff, equals and supervisor. I will larn when my theoretical schemes are tested by them, which helps me refine and better those schemes and theories. After all, in the dance or El Baile, I turn, but I besides am turned.
One of Freire ‘s beliefs is when instruction is treated as a merchandise to be bestowed from on high, by the instructor, down to less knowing persons/students ( “ banked, ” by his definition ) , it becomes a tool of subjugation ( Freire 1970 ) . In banking the instructor provides information to pupils that pupils receive, memorise, and give back. Freire says that in banking, originative ( his word ) acquisition does non happen. I agree that in this theoretical account, there is deficiency of originality in larning. Learning emerges more readily in a free dialogical probe of the universe ; in a critical thought, synergistic learner-empowering scene. Therefore, when showing a didactic in a group scene, which relies slightly on the banking methodological analysis, I focus rather deliberately on treatment, ask foring pupils to portion their cognition of the topic and to inquire inquiries.
Freire ‘s teaching method of engaged free duologue is educationally inspirational to me because it gives pupils a voice and an chance to “ alter the universe. ” “ It gives pupils self-respect ” ( Freire 1970 ) . This is congruous with Moltmann ‘s divinity of mutualness and love, and my ain pedagogical theory of big instruction.
One review of Freire is that his orientation limits the freedom to dispute pupils or how to cover with struggle. In these state of affairss I rely on Ellis and Yalom. c 500 Yalom provinces that struggle is inevitable in human relationships and must be addressed otherwise if denied or suppressed it will constantly attest itself in corrosive and frequently ugly ways.c Ellis will assail and face a patient in order to do fleet acquisition and alteration to occur.d I do non assail pupils but I will turn to struggle and will face a pupil if I deem it appropriate, i.e. , when a pupil is denying his/her feelings. Nevertheless, I recognize Freire ‘s Pedagogy of the Laden and take from it what is in concert with how I supervise in CPE, preponderantly chapters 2 and 3.
Learning occurs in many ways. Yalom says people learn separately by witnessing mold ( be like me ) ; by action, disorienting quandary, contemplation. Harmonizing to Freire people learn experientially through action and contemplation and new action. It is praxis ; it offers transmutation. And as practice, it requires theory to light it. Human activity is theory and pattern ; it is contemplation and action.2a Harmonizing to Ellis, people learn by way and confrontation.
Gerry discussed his acquisition ends with me in IS, sing what he wanted to larn. It was dialogical acquisition because when I engaged Gerry I suggested other ends. He felt his ends ( which were within CPE results ) were more suited for him. He took duty for his ain acquisition, and I refrained from coercing my result ends on him.
Sing groups, harmonizing to Yalom and Freire, people learn in this scene experientially and by prosecuting in duologue with each other. Yalom wrote: “ Group members, through feedback from others and self observation, learn important facets of their interpersonal behaviour: their strengths, restrictions, interpersonal deformations, and the maladaptive behaviour may arouse unwanted responses from others. They appreciate the impact of that behaviour upon the feelings of others, the sentiment that others have of them and the sentiment they have of themselves. “ 1c This procedure is important in instruction because pupils, in larning about ego and their behaviour, will move more judiciously with others, particularly patients. Students learn in groups by openly sharing their experiences ; by confer withing with each other and supervisor on how they performed in the chaplain/patient brush. Harmonizing to Yalom, most group behaviour is unconscious.1c I strive, hence, to raise unconscious behaviour for contemplation and acquisition. As pupils learn more about ego and go more comfy in the group, pupils will portion their more of their concealed egos and bit by bit get down to take off their “ masks ” and be themselves.
The clinical method of acquisition is teaching method that Freire employs as I stated earlier, based on the constructs of the “ knowable objects ” and “ perceptual experience of the old perceptual experience. “ 1b The experience of sing patients is in Freire ‘s footings the “ knowable object ” or action the pupil has taken and the footing for group treatment. The “ perceptual experience of the old perceptual experience ” is the contemplation of that experience. In CPE all of a pupil ‘s relationships with patients, equals, and supervisors are “ knowable objects. ” Discussion of the instance survey becomes the “ perceptual experience of the old perceptual experience. ” For illustration, when George visited a patient the patient told him her lone boy had died in a recent auto accident George left the room without researching her remark ( action ) . When he presented the instance, I suggested George experienced counter transference and unconsciously ran off from the hurting of the minute. George, through the intercession, connected the ministry to his ain life experience ( contemplation ) of losing his ain nephew to a auto accident. Subsequently, in ulterior instance surveies, holding understood the counter transference, George demonstrated a more compassionate sensitiveness toward patients ( new action ) . He was able to stay with patients despite his ain feelings, leting pastoral attention to happen. This teaching method is indispensable because pupils learn how to travel by antagonistic transference or other issues for improved pastoral attention through the “ perceptual experience of the old perceptual experience, ” in Freire ‘s footings. 2b In other words, a renewed action consequences from the acquisition that took topographic point from the survey of the contemplation of the old intercession. Better relational ministry evolves. Consequently, as pupils improve, they besides learn practical accomplishments for pastoral attention.
Educational systems are merchandises of the civilizations in which they are embedded. As pedagogues, and in order to oversee more efficaciously, we need an apprehension of how attacks to larning and learning differ across cultures.2c bell hooks writes in Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom, how cultural differences influence the educational procedure. Some foreign pupils are in “ cultural daze ” when they arrive in this state. Hooks teaches that they bring different values and thoughts giving us an chance to detect the differences.2d To better understand their civilization, I include educations from pupils on their civilization in my course of study.
One manner civilization influences the educational procedure is that in one civilization, pupils may non be expected to knock their instructors, or openly differ with their fellow pupils. In another civilization, this may non merely be the norm, but even expected.2e
Rajah, a male Indian pupil, trained under severe British systems, faltered without my way. Almost in cryings in IS he said: “ Rev. Dan, state me what to make. I do non understand what the Chaplain is supposed to make! ” I said: “ Ok. Raj, I think you will understand better if we function drama. ” Efficaciously, my scheme was to state him what to make because that was the manner he had been trained as a kid. Some pupils with directing larning backgrounds can happen inactive procedure orientation confounding. For these pupils, and informed by Ellis, my intercessions become more directing and less confounding to them. I besides teach multiculturalism in didactic format for farther elucidation.
Cultural differences should be managed with attention so that we as pastoral pedagogues do non do premises about pupils because of the civilization from which they come. For illustration, Juan, a pupil born in Puerto Rico, was a Sephardic Jew whose lineage was from Spain. Understanding that he was influenced by two civilizations was of import to me in order to assist Juan in his educational procedure. As a Jew, I understood Juan could hold issues of justness because his ascendants were thrown out of Spain even though it was a long clip ago. As a individual of Spanish tradition raised in Puerto Rico, a patriarchal society, he could portion cultural patriarchal values. During clinical seminars he was condescending to female pupils, handling them as if they had no right to talk ; no voice. I raised this to him several times as did his female equals. He was willing to larn and finally did, which changed his behaviour towards his female equals every bit good as toward female patients.
Hooks reminds me of two of import points: 1 ) the demand to acknowledge the influence of other people ‘s civilizations and households on instruction and 2 ) the demand to understand how my ain civilization affects my reactions and responses to students/supervisees. ( Hooks 1994 )
Irvin Yalom ‘s theories of group kineticss inform my supervision/education of group procedure. I chose Yalom because, influenced by Rogers he believes, as bash I, in a patient/student centered practice.2f Rogers will dispute patients, but Yalom and Ellis are more confrontational than Rogers. Yalom besides expounds a safe group environment2f ( p84-85 ) . In this manner, pupils will prosecute in free duologue which is congruous with Freire ‘s theory and Moltmann ‘s divinity of mutualness and love. Yalom ‘s curative factors and recognition of procedure are two facets of his theories for larning I use when oversing groups. His 11 curative factors are: instillment of hope, catholicity, leaving information, selflessness, disciplinary palingenesis of the primary household group, development of socialising techniques, imitative behaviour, interpersonal acquisition, group coherence, katharsis, and experiential factors ( Yalom 1995, 1-16 ) . Although Yalom ‘s theories are chiefly directed for usage by clinical psychologists, as a pastoral pedagogue, I adapt them for instruction in CPE. In CPE, group procedure is non therapy ; it is instruction. However, the curative factors can hold educational impact in CPE, which can go constituents of good pastoral instruction and pastoral attention because, in Freire ‘s footings, as knowable objects, pupils gain penetration on ego and learn by reflecting on their behaviour which can alter their behaviour, as in the instance of Juan.
Yalom is the group theoretical account I use in CPE. I apply his theoretical account in the clinical verbatim analysis, educations and the Interpersonal Relations Seminar ( IPR ) . They are a necessary portion of CPE because it is the pupil ‘s experience ; people dialoging and act uponing each other and these experiences, which can be emotional, are suited in impacting a alteration in the pupil ‘s old behavior.2f It affords pupils, as a group, an chance to prosecute and research personal feelings, attitudes and beliefs in the context of equal and authorization relationships. I use Yalom ‘s theory on safety to develop the group theoretical account into an ambiance of trust which is congruous with Freire and Moltmann ; a safe environment for analyzing fright and struggle. The paradox is that fright and struggle may emerge even in a loving, safe environment.
The unfastened docket equal group experience I use is IPR. Harmonizing to Yalom, pupils learn by honestly uncovering their emotions ; larning what it means to truly be human and vulnerable. In this manner the group can go the support system pupils may necessitate as they discuss their frights, joys, and anxiousnesss. As they engage, pupils will or may non derive increased assurance. The procedure allows pupils to derive penetrations on transference, ego, and the cloth of relational ministry that can be transformative, therefore bettering their pastoral attention intercessions accomplishments ; their ministry. As they improve in larning I affirm their growing. A safe environment can supply increased self-awareness, particularly of their emotional life and how it operates in relationships, self-acceptance, and increased ability to associate and in bend aid others. The procedure helps pupils to come in tough emotional, dark topographic points of human battle and enduring with more assurance, competency and be able to give and have support and review in kingdom of relationships with equals and authorization figures. Nevertheless, struggle may originate. In fact, Yalom says that struggle can non be eliminated from human groups and that it has positive properties such as play, exhilaration, alteration and development ( Yalom 1995, 344 ) .
From clip to clip, I facilitate authorising the group by confer withing with the group, leting the group to populate and turn, particularly if there is struggle or tenseness within the group. Harry was invariably late for group meetings. Feeling what their reaction would be, my scheme was to utilize struggle as instruction and asked the group how they felt about his tardiness. The group acknowledged his tardiness and reacted with choler towards Harry. They admonished him for his insensitiveness as it interrupted the kineticss of the procedure. The corporate wisdom of the group is of import and in this peculiar procedure I was engaged with the group and facilitated the result. This is another method within my group theory which says that equal group procedure interactions can be every bit effectual as direct supervisory intercessions. I use it because it is correspondent to a finding of fact given by a individual justice versus a finding of fact given by a jury. The jury has more credibleness and clout. At the terminal of each IPR session, I invite the group to portion their observations of the kineticss and treat what happened. If the group misses an event or two I will portion my observations with them. In this illustration and in order to avoid Harry from going the identified patient, I inquired of group members how they understood their passiveness in non disputing Harry. This intercession helped them concentrate on their ain actions and non acquire stuck scapegoating Harry.
A partial section of the application of Yalom ‘s curative factors ( shown in parentheses below ) in IPR was when Judith told the group she was afraid of what was traveling on in her life due to what she thought was her neglecting seeing.
Don started by being pastoral and sympathetic stating that Judith needed to acquire some remainder ; that she did excessively much and we all experience similar state of affairss at some point in our lives due to emphasize ( catholicity ) . Judith acknowledged her emphasis and said it came from her ( deceased ) female parent ( leaving information ) . At this point, Judith wept. I asked what the cryings were approximately and what she was experiencing ( leaving information ) . She said she felt fright because her female parent was demanding her to make more even from the grave ( leaving information ) . She could experience her female parent ‘s force per unit area ( disciplinary palingenesis of the primary household group ) . Each group member gave her reassurances and affirmed her ability in sharing her hurting with them ( katharsis, group coherence ) . The group responded by giving her support ( group coherence ) . Judith thanked the group and said she was happy to be portion of the group because she would non hold been able to show her feelings had she non felt safe ( development of socialising techniques, imitative behaviour ) and trusted the group. After treating the kineticss, the group learned Judith trusted them ; that they had provided pastoral attention and what it means to be human ; spoting we can portion mutualness and love despite our frights and concerns and that together we can alter the universe. There were several factors that made this experience important educationally ; Judith initiated sharing of herself, experiencing safe to make so ; supervisor engaged her around her feelings ; group members offered support. These illustrations illustrate my educational theory for group work.
Sing pupil ratings ; they are a important portion of the procedure because pupils need feedback on growing and turning borders, on their public presentation in conformity with their ends and aims and on the results for Level I and II CPE. Informed by Erikson and Gilligan, from the clip I meet pupils during the initial personal interview till the terminal of the unit, I am measuring them. Informed by Yalom, during IS and in group seminars, I comment on their relationships with patients, staff, equals and authorization figures ; on their strengths and failings. I assess them on their instance survey presentations, larning contract, behaviour, and growing, battle in group kineticss, their clinical hours and site work. At the terminal of the unit, I write my position of their work throughout the unit. Informed by Freire, I invite each pupil to reexamine the rating with me in order to make understanding on content. I besides ask them to compose a self rating as I believe self supervising is portion of the acquisition procedure. Regardless of manner, ratings are an indispensable tool for acquisition because the pupil additions insight on a ) advancement in accomplishing personal ends ; B ) on ego and self-awareness, particularly of their emotional life and how it functions in relationships ; degree Celsius ) “ integrating of personal history, faith tradition and the behavioural scientific disciplines in the art signifier of pastoral attention and vitamin D ) their increased ability to associate and in bend aid others. “ 3