Presents, people are witnessing a rapid development of information engineering. Technology has been impacting every facets of societal life. In instruction, it has both positive and negative influences on instruction and acquisition every bit good as schools ‘ public presentation. On the one manus, it is drastically altering the manner we teach and learn. Technology can be used as a fantastic tool to help or even heighten instruction and acquisition ( Schulman and Sims, 1999 ; Radhakrishnan and Bailey, 1997 ) . Many people argue that classes that rely on talks and chalkboards as the primary manner of learning are non good accepted by pupils of the cyberspace coevals and this traditional instruction method will be replaced by a new method that base on engineering. On the other manus, engineering besides has inauspicious effects on instruction. For case, pupils can utilize nomadic phone, while larning in their schoolroom, for playing game or chatting. Besides, they can watch overly violent movies on the cyberspace. These are really harmful to their results and their personality development every bit good.
There are many researches analyzing these of import jobs in instruction in many states throughout the universe. However, there is a famine of research on this country in Vietnam. In this paper, I will depict and warrant the methodological analysiss for two research proposals analyzing this subject. First, with a post-positivistic position, the first research will analyze the effects of engineering on the mathematics accomplishment and attitudes of secondary school pupils in Hai Phong metropolis in Vietnam. Second, with an interpretative position, the 2nd research will detect the beliefs of instructors and decision makers sing the principle for censoring pupils from utilizing nomadic phone in their schoolroom at secondary schools in Haiphong metropolis every bit good. Finally, I will set frontward a review and rating of these two methodological analysiss.
The major end of this survey is to measure an advanced teaching-learning attack based on utilizing electronic lesson programs in mathematics instruction. This attack was designed to better believing accomplishments by integrating the major educational enterprises of invention and information engineering. In the survey, the learning attack that instructors use electronic lesson programs will be compared with one that uses merely the traditional ( lecture-based ) lesson programs. The two types of attacks will differ merely with regard to whether they are applied information engineering. Of particular involvement in the survey will be the impact of electronic lesson programs on mathematics achievement and attitudes. This research survey will be extremely important in that the findings may hold national deductions for the sweetening of mathematics instruction.
The primary research inquiry to be addressed in the survey is: What are the effects of utilizing electronic lesson programs on mathematics achievement and attitudes?
In the book Developing Effective Research Proposals, published in 2000, a cardinal issue in the whole field of empirical societal research is the sum of construction and specificity planned into the research survey. Surveies may change from tightly pre-planned and pre-structured to about wholly unfolding, with many places between the continuum of the changing grades of pre-structuring or flowering. One of the cardinal differences between the two types of research attacks ( quantitative and qualitative ) is the sum of pre-specified construction in the scheme used. Quantitative research attacks are by and large used to turn to inquiries of consequence ( e.g. , plan rating surveies ) . In this visible radiation, such surveies are normally extremely pre-structured, with clear and specific research inquiries, a clear conceptual model, a pre-planned design and pre-coded informations. On the other manus, qualitative research approaches by and large focus on turn toing inquiries of peoples ‘ positions. As such, these tend non to trust to a great extent on pre-structured inquiries, pre-planned designs and pre-coded informations. In visible radiation of the fact that the major end of this survey was to measure the efficaciousness of the information engineering on mathematics achievement and attitudes, a quantitative attack with a post-positivistic position was considered most appropriate.
( 1 ) Type of learning method: There will be two degrees of this independent variable: electronic lesson programs and traditional lesson programs.
( 2 ) Ability degree: There will be two degrees of this variable, based on the sum mark.
( 1 ) Mathematics Accomplishment: This refers to the tonss of the pupils based on a 20-item, researcher-developed multiple-choice trial.
( 2 ) Mathematics Attitudes: This refers to tonss on a researcher-adapted attitude study consisting 20 statements to analyze pupils ‘ attitudes towards mathematics.
The survey will utilize an experimental design, with graded random assignment of participants to conditions. Stratification variables will be ability degree. The design used in the survey is represented in the undermentioned figure.
Experimental group ( 100 participants with 50 from each school )
Pre-test of Attitudes and Achievement
( with electronic lesson programs )
Post-test of Attitudes and Achievement
( 100 participants with 50 from each school )
Pre-test of Attitudes and Achievement
( with traditional lesson programs )
Post-test of Attitudes and Achievement
For each school, utilizing the sum tonss, 100 pupils in the same degree mathematics subject will be indiscriminately selected. Then, they are assigned to either the experimental group or the control group ( 50 for each group ) . The entire figure of the participants in the survey will be 200.
The undermentioned variables will be held changeless across the two groups:
( 1 ) Age: Same age group of 14 twelvemonth olds secondary school pupils taking the same mathematics course of study
( 2 ) Curriculum Content: Lapp selected subjects on Algebra, Geometry and Arithmetic.
( 3 ) Teaching attack: In both conditions, the same modified Predict-Observe-Explain
( POE ) scheme will be used. The lesson programs used will be tantamount in footings of ( I ) the mathematics rules applied, ( two ) application to real-life scenarios, ( three ) basic construction and teaching method, and ( four ) trouble degree. The lone difference between the conditions will be that the control status will utilize traditional lesson programs, whereas the experimental status will utilize electronic lesson programs.
( 4 ) Number of enrichment Sessionss. In both conditions, pupils will all have either five or six enrichment Sessionss, depending on the restraints of the school timetable.
( 5 ) Timing of trials: Pre-test to be taken one month before the first talk to understate the pattern effects. Post-test to be taken instantly on the twenty-four hours after the last talk.
The population from which the sample of two schools will be taken is the 15 secondary schools in Hai Phong. In the Hai Phong system, all pupils receive an sum mark on which determinations sing school entry are made. These tonss give an indicant of the intake quality of a secondary school and its superior place. Based on the one-year school ranking of the 15 schools in academic public presentation, a purposive sampling of two schools, one among the top five graded schools, and one among the bottom five graded schools, will be chosen. This is to guarantee two groups of extremely different ability pupils for maximal fluctuation in the survey.
A formal visit will be made to obtain the support of the principals of the two selected schools for both the pilot survey and the existent survey. An information sheet and consent missive for Mathematics Heads and the take parting pupils in this research survey will be provided through the principals. No mention will be made to single consequences in the analysis of the informations. To safeguard the confidentiality of the participating schools, the names of the schools will be coded as school A and school B.
To garner informations for the rating of the effectivity of two types of learning method in bettering accomplishment in mathematics among secondary school pupils in Hai Phong, a Mathematics Achievement Test ( MAT ) will be used. Two sets of surrogate or parallel signifiers of the MAT that will be developed to be piloted for cogency and dependability with the purpose of choosing the best points to build the concluding MAT. ‘Alternate signifiers ‘ are merely different versions of a trial that are constructed so as to be parallel. They are designed to be tantamount with regard to variables such as content and degree of trouble. ‘Parallel signifiers ‘ of a trial exist when for each signifier of the trial, the agencies and discrepancies of ascertained trial tonss are equal. The format of this concluding MAT written trial will consist 20 Multiple Choice Questions ( MCQ ) . These mathematics inquiries will be chosen or modified from old twelvemonth inquiries and text editions to prove conceptual apprehension, believing accomplishments and application to existent life state of affairss. To guarantee content cogency in the building of the MCQ points in the Mathematics Achievement Test ( MAT ) , the inquiries will be constructed based on the larning results of the mathematics subjects in the course of study. The professional opinion of the senior mathematics instructors of the two take parting schools every bit good as content experts from the Hai Phong Department of Education will besides be sought.
To prove for dependability, the ‘parallel-forms ‘ or ‘alternate-forms ‘ with a clip interval of 1-4
hebdomad ( s ) together with split telling will be administered to two groups of 20 participants from schools A and B severally. In add-on, the behavior of the pilot survey at both the participating schools will guarantee that the wining batch of 100 pupils who will take part in the chief or existent survey have undergone the same instructional programme and school environment. The intent of the 1-4 hebdomad ( s ) test-retest is to look into the instrument ‘s dependability across clip.
General Attitudes Towards Mathematics
A version of the Test of Mathematics-Related Attitudes questionnaire ( TOMRA ) will be used to measure general attitudes towards mathematics. The TOMRA includes points which measure an of import aspect of Mathematics-related attitudes that is the enjoyment of mathematics lessons. This trial will be designed to reflect pupils ‘ responses to the two different learning methods used in this survey in footings of easing apprehension of the mathematics affair and heightening enjoyment and involvement in this affair. The enjoyment of mathematics lessons graduated table will be used because this is a graduated table deemed to be relevant given the content of the intercessions used. Each point will hold four-scaled options: SA strongly agree, A agree, D disagree and SD strongly disagree.
For the intent of the pilot survey to prove the cogency and dependability of the instruments, the needed figure of 20 participants from each college will be indiscriminately chosen. For the existent survey affecting the 100 wining batch of pupils from each school, based on the pre-test tonss, stratified random assignment into the experimental and control groups with equal figure of participants from each school will be carried out. An analysis of discrepancy on pre-test tonss will be made to guarantee that the participants in both the experimental and control groups are non different. As the pilot survey is targeted at the anterior batch of pupils, a good period will be before their concluding scrutinies. For the existent survey which is targeted at the wining batch of pupils who are new to the talk tutorial system, it is of import for them to acquire inducted into this manner of larning and to hold completed those subjects that are selected for this research survey before taking the pre-test. A sufficient clip slowdown of a month between carry oning the pre-test and the post-test must besides be factored in to minimise the pattern consequence. In the visible radiation of the above considerations, a good period for the pre-test would be sometime after their promotional scrutinies. The behavior of the two hebdomad intensive mathematics as enrichment lessons can be carried out and it will be instantly followed by the post-test. There will be a fixed clip used to build and prove the lesson programs followed by a preparation session to fit the two mathematics instructors from each school on the learning attack in the behavior of the mathematics lectures with and without the electronic assistance. To take the instructor consequence in the survey, both the instructors will talk half of the control group and half of the experimental group.
As indicated, the content cogency of the two parallel signifiers of the Mathematics Achievement Test ( MAT ) will be evaluated through expert panels. The psychometric belongingss of the instrument will be farther examined and improved through the pilot survey. On the footing of the 40 pupils who complete the two parallel signifiers of the trial during this stage, the features of each multiple pick point and the overall construction of the trial will be examined utilizing Rasch methods. This procedure will be used to analyze whether any points should be excluded in either of the concluding signifiers of the instrument. Based besides on the pilot survey informations, the dependability of the instrument will be estimated utilizing test-retest indices based on the correlativity between tonss from the first and the 2nd trial disposals. If either index suggests a low dependability, the trial signifiers will be reworked prior to utilize in the concluding survey.
In add-on, a version of the Test of Mathematics-Related Attitudes ( TOMRA ) will be used both at the pre-test and at the post-test. To find whether there is a important difference in the post-test accomplishment of the experimental and control groups or whether there are important attitudinal differences between two these groups after the intercession, t-test will be employed.
By researching the positions of instructors and school decision makers on censoring pupils from utilizing nomadic phone in their schoolrooms ( UMPIC ) , this survey aims to supply replies to some of the inquiries that ask why nomadic phone continues to be used or banned in schools when there appears to be small grounds of its efficaciousness. Therefore, the proposed survey aims to collate the beliefs of instructors and decision makers in respects to censoring pupils from UMPIC and to detect subjects that could enable schools to do better usage of this disciplinary pattern and better the results of the pupils concerned.
The cardinal inquiry that will be addressed by this survey is as follows:
“ What do instructors and administrative staff believe is the principle for censoring pupils from utilizing nomadic phone in their schoolrooms at secondary schools in Hai Phong metropolis in Vietnam? ”
There are some guiding inquiries that will determine the survey. These are: What are the positions of instructors and administrative staff on the usage of this prohibition as a behavior alteration tool? And why? ; What do instructors and administrative staff believe are the pupils ‘ perceptual experiences of prohibition? And why? ; What do instructors and administrative staff believe is the parents’/community ‘s perceptual experience of this prohibition? And why? ; What impact do instructors and administrative staff believe this prohibition has on pupil behavior? And why?
As the purpose of the proposed research is to understand how instructors and decision makers
do significance refering to censor, the type of enquiry needed lens itself to a qualitative
attack that is aligned with interpretative theory. The interpretivist expressions to understand the significances that constitute the actions ( Schwandt, 1994 ) and this is the nucleus of the proposed research. When utilizing this attack the accent is on the importance of the procedures which lie between societal construction and behavior. The cardinal character in these procedures is the individual who is active in the building of societal world ( Reid, 1986 ) .
It is anticipated that by using this theoretical position more relevant subjects will emerge that both address the cardinal research inquiry and give visible radiation to alternative or improved patterns in Hai Phong secondary schools.
To maximize profusion and truth of informations, every bit good as transferability of the findings, instance surveies will be carried out at two different school sites. Case surveies are an first-class method to utilize when endeavoring to understand the phenomenon being studied in deepness.
They allow the research worker to go familiar with the informations in its natural scene and to the full appreciate the context ( Punch, 2005 ) . In respect to this survey, to understand why prohibition is used, it is necessary to understand the point of view of the school and how it fits within the context of subject in that school.
Each school site will be approached as a separate instance survey with the following features, consistent with Punch ( 2005 ) :
1. The boundaries of the instance will be defined as the schools themselves and the instruction and administrative staff who work at that place. Even though the wider community ( such as parents ) have some influence on how schools operate and pupils are evidently cardinal to the school environment, merely instructors ‘ and decision makers ‘ beliefs will be examined throughout this survey. This boundary has been created for two grounds. First, there is a famine of research in the country of instructors ‘ and decision makers ‘ positions on prohibition and secondly, to help in making finite boundaries to do the research manageable.
2. Each instance is about the beliefs held by instructors and decision makers within that peculiar school. All phenomena that either influence or reflect these beliefs that are controlled will be examined, such as each school ‘s behaviour direction policy, schoolroom direction policies, options to censor and allotment of staff to pastoral attention.
3. In order to continue the integrity of the instance, the informations from each school will be analysed with the alone context of the school in head, including location, socio-economic factors, the figure of pupils who use nomadic phone in their schoolrooms and alternate plans. Cross-case analysis will officially happen merely after the single site analyses are complete.
4. Multiple beginnings of informations will be accessed, non the least of which is the interviewing of staff with different responsibilities at the school, from schoolroom instructors to principals. In add-on, school records refering to effects of UMPIC, socio-economic standing and general subject records will be collected in order to derive an overall position of the prohibition and behaviour direction in the school.
Secondary schools have been chosen due to the fact that the bulk of pupils who are utilizing mobile phone overly and unsuitably are in many Hai Phong secondary schools.
Kien An and Hong Bang territories each have secondary schools that will fly plans refering the prohibition. These schools can be considered particular instances ( Punch, 2005 ) .
One school is flying a plan to censor pupils from UMPIC is located in Kien An territory. This plan will be in its babyhood, therefore the sentiments and beliefs of the staff will be interesting to analyze, particularly sing the alterations to train that will germinate in the school due to the plan ‘s execution.
The 2nd school that allow but control their pupils to utilize nomadic phone in their schoolrooms will be selected as a direct contrast to the first school. The beliefs of this school ‘s staff will be interesting to compare with the first school that will be undergoing alterations in their disciplinary patterns.
Teachers from different larning countries will be interviewed from each site to maximize fluctuation. It is anticipated that at least five will be interviewed. Teachers who are team leaders or are involved straight in the pastoral attention of pupils but besides carry a teaching function will do up the 2nd group of participants. It is anticipated that there will be at least two of this type of participant from each school. These people are involved with the pupils at the most basal degree – in the schoolroom – and must postulate with disciplining every bit good.
Finally, the representatives from the disposal squad will consist the concluding group. These representatives will really much depend on the construction of the school but it is likely that they could include the Principal, the Deputy Principal in charge of Student Services. The lone judicial admission of these participants is that they have been delegated the power to censor. The beliefs of these people will be valuable as they choose the concluding effect for the pupil ‘s behavior, irrespective of the instructor ‘s penchants. They are besides chiefly responsible for any options to censor that the school offers.
The school which agree to be a pilot school will polish the informations assemblage procedure. It may besides be possible to include this school in the survey if comparatively small alteration of the procedures has to be made.
Confidentiality will be assured to all participants. All transcripts, notes and audiotapes will be stored in a lockable cabinet at the research worker ‘s place. Name callings of schools will be disguised, as will names of participants.
When the principals have consented, permission will be sought to turn to a staff meeting or other assemblage to explicate the research and inquire for voluntary participants. These voluntaries will be contacted either via electronic mail or phone and interview times will be finalised.
There will be two phases of informations aggregation. The first phase will dwell of questioning the participants. Participants who consent to be interviewed will be given the chance to see the basic interview agenda prior to the interview in order to hold clip to see their responses, with the account that this agenda is a usher for the interview and inquiries may non needfully be asked in that order. It is hoped that this will promote more meaningful answers, which, in bend, will supply richer information. Spontaneous answers will be able to be included by inquiring clear uping inquiries. Therefore, it will be possible to arouse both planned and unplanned responses that will once more help in garnering meaningful informations. It is intended that the interviews take no longer than 30 proceedingss and permission will be sought from each participant to utilize a recording equipment to enter the interview.
It is anticipated that most interviews will take topographic point at the participant ‘s topographic point of work and at a clip that is most suited for them. The interview itself, although based around the guiding inquiries, will be conducted in a more colloquial mode in order to put the participant at easiness and to help resonance.
The type of interview technique that will be employed is that of the semi-structured or focussed interview. Minichiello, Aroni, Timewell and Alexander ( 1995 ) argue that this manner of questioning allows research workers to utilize both a structured attack every bit good as a more ‘conversational ‘ manner in order to reply the research inquiries. This manner of in-depth questioning – “ conversations with a intent ” ( Burgess, 1984 ) – is appropriate for this survey as the intent is to reap every bit much information refering to the participants ‘ positions on censoring pupils from UMPIC. The research worker will be familiar with techniques in making resonance, which is expected to be well aided by the fact that the research worker is a member of the instruction profession. At the decision of the interviews at a school, each participants will each have a written transcript of their interview and will be invited to do any alterations they deem to be necessary.
The 2nd phase of informations aggregation will happen one time the initial information has been analysed and subjects emerged. It is intended that a focal point group interview will take topographic point at each site to corroborate or rebut these subjects. Those who had participated in the one-on-one interviews will be invited to take portion. The natural information itself will non be discussed but any other information that is revealed during these Sessionss will besides organize portion of the concluding analysis.
As the intent of this survey is to develop subjects sing the beliefs of school staff, it is necessary to take the most suited methods of informations analysis to guarantee that the information is treated exhaustively and the decisions drawn can be substantiated. Miles and Huberman
( 1994 ) developed a theoretical account of informations analysis that assists the research worker by supplying a ocular mention as to how informations can be tackled.
This theoretical account presents analysis as a uninterrupted, iterative procedure that involves four stages that invariably impact upon each other and are carried out at the same time. These four stages will be built-in to this survey and their application is outlined as follows:
1. Data aggregation: As described in the old subdivision, information for this survey will be collected by constructing a profile of the behaviour direction at the schools through analyzing their procedures, processs and options to censor pupils from UMPIC ; and questioning those who participate in the instruction, pastoral attention or disciplinary functions.
2. Datas show: When covering with the informations from schools such as the figure of incidents associating to mobile phone that have occurred over one school twelvemonth, tabular arraies will be constructed to ease cross-case analysis and to be able to find the policies and patterns sing behaviour direction that a school employs. This will help in profiling the school and will give context to the beliefs held by the practicians at that place.
Interview informations and school ‘s behaviour direction policies will be transcribed foremost into a Word papers with borders down either side for future analysis. Inductive coding techniques will be employed, aimed at detecting the codifications from within the informations itself. The concluding behind non making a database of codifications prior to analysis is to extinguish as much research worker prejudice as possible. As the research worker presently works with at-risk pupils, it can be assumed that some prejudice and prepossessions may infiltrate the procedure so fetching safeguards is logical. Codes will be written in the left manus border and memos in the right, in different colorss, so as to help the ocular representation of the informations.
3. Further into the analysis, these codifications will be displayed without the transcripts in order to group together like-phenomenon and get down to progress the analysis conceptually to the degree where subjects can be crystallised. Ocular shows such as matrices, construct maps and spreadsheets will help in explicating the constructs as connexions are made. Continually re-displaying the information visually will help in a stronger, more meaningful analysis.
4. Conclusions – drawing/verifying: As the shows of the informations are invariably being refined, it will be possible to get down to pull decisions. These decisions will be verified by looking back at earlier phases of the information analysis, including the natural information, and corroborating the significance of the guesss.
During each of these phases, particularly as informations is being coded, the research worker will look into for consistence by taking random pages of the transcripts or policies and re-coding them. In add-on, the cardinal and guiding inquiries will ever be displayed so as to repeat the focal point of the survey and forestall the analysis from rolling.
CRITIQUE AND EVALUATION OF THE TWO METHODOLOGIES
Making quantitative or qualitative research does non intend the research worker ‘s position is positive or interpretative. The research worker ‘s perspective depends on their research doctrine, epistemology and technique. As indicated, I do my first survey by quantitative attack with post-positivistic position and the 2nd by qualitative attack with interpretative position. Therefore, in my ain position in this paper, to knock and measure these two methodological analysiss, quantitative research and qualitative research are the researches with post-positivistic and interpretative position severally.
There are some differences between quantitative and qualitative research. First, in quantitative research the research worker ‘s contact with the people being studied is reasonably fugitive or even nonexistent. For illustration, in my questionnaire studies or in my experimental survey, I may merely detect while others conduct the experiment. By contrast, qualitative research entails much more sustained contact. The qualitative research workers have to reach with their topics closely because they need to see the universe through their topics ‘ eyes ( Bryman, 1993 ) , particularly in the interviewing in my above survey. In add-on, the quantitative research workers adopt the position of an foreigner looking in on the societal universe. They apply a pre-ordained model on the topics being investigated and are involved every bit small as possible in that universe. While, for qualitative research workers, it is merely by acquiring near to their topics and going an insider that they can see the universe as a participant.
Second, the theoretical account of quantitative research implies that theories and constructs are the get downing point for probes carried out within its model. By contrast, qualitative research workers frequently reject the thought of utilizing theory as a precursor to an probe because it may non reflect topics ‘ positions about what is traveling on and what is of import. In other words, the intent of the qualitative research is to detect theory instead than verify theory. Punch ( 2005, p. 235 ) provinces that “ quantitative research is thought to be more concerned with the deductive testing of hypotheses and theories, whereas qualitative research is more concerned with researching a subject, and with inductively bring forthing hypotheses and theories ” .
Third, quantitative research tends to follow a structured attack to the survey and its samples are typically larger than in qualitative surveies. “ It is good developed and statute methods for informations analysis ” ( Punch, 2005, p. 238 ) . For illustration, in my above experimental design, independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups are all portion of the preparatory phase. By contrast, qualitative research tends to be more unfastened and flexible. Prestructuring of design and information is less common. The practician can meet the unexpected and perchance alter the way. Its methods in general are more multidimensional and more variable than quantitative methods.
Fourthly, the informations emanating from quantitative surveies are frequently depicted as difficult, strict, and dependable. They are collected by systematic processs and are more persuasive. The consequences of the analysis do non depend on the research worker making the analysis and it brings objectiveness to the research. However, these informations besides tend to be depicted as superficial. By contrast, the qualitative informations are described as rich and deep although they can be influenced by the peculiar accents and sensitivities of the research worker. Because qualitative methods are flexible, they are good suited for analyzing of course happening real-life state of affairss including people ‘s significances and intents ( Punch, 2005 ) .
Harmonizing to Punch ( 2005 ) , despite the differences between quantitative and qualitative attacks to research, the two attacks besides portion many similarities. While quantitative research is the most favoured attack for proving theories and qualitative research is largely be used for bring forthing theories, “ both types of informations can be productive for descriptive, scouting, exploratory, inductive, opening up intents. And both can be productive for explanatory, confirmatory, hypothesis-testing intents ” ( Miles and Huberman, 1994, p. 42 ) . This means that each attack can be used for assorted intents.