Education in R.Moldova in the Past

Education in the past in our country The education system in Moldova consists of preschool, primary, secondary and higher education. The preschool education is for children up to the age of seven years. The primary education is between grades one through four and typically involves children between the ages of 8-12. The secondary education consists of two tracks: general and vocational. General secondary education from grades 5-9 is called the gymnasium, and grades 10-12 is called liceul (lyceum).

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The vocational track is called the professional liceul. Higher education consists of two stages, short-term college education and university education. These institutions were traditionally awarding Diplomas but, in the year 2000, were also using the titles of Bachelor and Master to conform to international standards. The first higher education institution on the territory of Bessarabia, located in Chisinau, was devoted to the study of music. Named Unirea Conservatory, it opened its doors in 1919.

Later on, the Unirea Conservatory became the Gavriil Musicescu State Conservatory In the decades prior to independence, the Moldavian SSR’s education system made substantial progress toward being available to all citizens. At the beginning of the twentieth century, illiteracy had been common among Moldova’s rural population. But by 1992, the adult literacy rate had risen to 96 percent. In 1990 the mean duration of schooling was six years, and 30 percent of the population aged fifteen and older had completed general secondary education.

Under the Soviet education system, 1,025 Romanianlanguage primary and secondary schools; 420 Russian-language schools; and 129 mixedlanguage schools . Change occurred slowly at the university level, however, and 55 percent of students continued to study in the Russian language as of 1992. Under Moldova’s education system, ten years of basic education are compulsory, followed by either technical school or further study leading to higher education. In the early 1990s, the Moldovan government restored the Romanian language in schools and added courses in Romanian literature and history to the curriculum.

The governments of Romania and Moldova established strong ties between their education systems; several thousand Moldovan students attended school in Romania, and the Romanian government donated textbooks to Moldova to replace books from the Soviet era. As Moldovan society became more industrialized and more complex under the Soviet regime, the role of higher education also expanded . In early 1995, Moldova had ten institutions of higher education; four of these institutions had been established since independence.

The republic also maintained institutes of agriculture, economics, engineering, medicine, the arts, pedagogy, and physical education. The language of instruction under the Soviet rule was Russian. However, since 1989, Moldovan was adopted as the official language and in the year 2000, nearly two-thirds of all pupils were studying in schools where Moldovan was the language of instruction. However, schools serving the needs of minorities and schools with Russian, Gagauzian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian as the language of instruction are also present.

Students of other nationalities (Jewish, Polish, and German) have the opportunity to study these as a separate subject. Nonetheless, state policy emphasizes that all citizens should study Moldovan. Since its independence the Moldovan government has also added substantial courses in Romanian literature and history to the curriculum. Strong ties have been established between the education systems in Romania and Moldova. Throughout the 1990s Romania extensively donated textbooks to replace books from the Soviet era. At the university level, change is coming slowly and Russian still remains the predominant language of instruction.

The academic year starts on September 1 and continues until June with a winter break in December and January. In 1994, there were 2,062 preschools with an enrollment of 223,300 students and 20,100 preschool teachers. In 1994, there were 1,692 primary and secondary schools with 731,000 students and 50,300 teachers. The number of colleges was 62 with an enrollment of 43,800 students. The higher education institutions were 18 in number and enrolled 55,200 students. In addition, there were 87 vocational institutions with 39,800 students.

Since the late 1990s, private education as an alternative to state education has also begun in Moldova. The institutions follow the regulations established by the Ministry of Education and Science. In 2001, there were 137 private institutions with 20 universities, 9 short-term colleges, 14 pre and primary schools, 12 gymnasiums and lyceums, and 82 schools of trade. In 2001, there were 19,800 students in these institutions. There is a growing emphasis in promoting the private sector for meeting the educational needs of the country. This is evident from several governmental olicies. In December 1999, the Government proposed an Action Program that prioritized the agenda in the educational sector as improving the hierarchical-organizational and institutional structure of professional and higher education system; developing the private sector and accrediting private educational institutions; developing and widely using national education standards; upgrading the qualifications and training level of experts within educational institutions; and orienting public funds towards improvement of preprimary, primary, secondary, and vocational education.

SMCG – Intermediate general culture school (grades X-XI). ISCE – International Standard Classification of Education. Description of the Levels of Education – Preschool and Kindergarten: In the new school structure, enrollment in pre-school and kindergarten, between the ages of 3 and 5, is optional. Starting with age 5 to 6, children must be enrolled in a mandatory preparatory class for a period of one year. – Basic education: includes grades I to IX, structured in two cycles: primary (grades I-IV) and gymnasium (grades V-IX) and is compulsory. Primary schools: in which children are enrolled (grades I-IV) at the age of 6 or 7. – Gymnasia: After graduation from primary school, pupils can enroll in a gymnasium (grades V-IX), the lower stage of general secondary education. Gymnasium-leavers are issued a Gymnasium Study Certificate if they take and pass the graduation examination. They are offered the possibility of pursuing one of three educational paths with a view to continuing their studies: enrollment in a high school (grades X- XII), enrollment in a general intermediate school (grades X-XI), and enrollment in a technical-vocational school (2-5 years). Upper Secondary Schools: Traditional upper secondary schools (grades X-XII) represent the highest level of general secondary education and offer two groups of study fields: the exact and the natural sciences and the socio-humanistic fields. Admission to secondary education takes place on a competitive basis. After having passed the baccalaureate examination, secondary school graduates are awarded a Baccalaureate Diploma, which entitles them to continue their studies in colleges and universities. Intermediate general culture schools (grades X-XI): This type of secondary school offers instruction according to modernized and de- ideologized programmes dating back to 1990. This type of school will continue to operate until 2005, at which point the authorities will reach a decision as to its continued existence. Admission to an intermediate general culture school is based on the availability of openings. At graduation, each student receives an attestation that entitles him or her to continue his or her studies in higher education institutions and/or colleges.

Upon admission to higher education, graduates of an intermediate general culture school have the same rights and responsibilities as do the graduates of upper level secondary schools. However, the duration of university studies for them is one year longer than for other students. The grading scale consists of 10 points, from 1, the lowest grade, to 10, the highest, with 5, as the minimum passing grade. A pass/fail grading system may also be employed.

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