Education and ICTs
If you have personal experience of ICT and Education in developing states, you are encouraged to incorporate that into your replies.
Besides, do mention to the readings for this hebdomad:
A§ Unwin, T. ( 2005 ) Towards a model for the usage of ICT in instructor preparation in Africa, Open Learning, Vol.20, No.2, June 2005, pp113-129.
Using all the information contained in the instance surveies and set about the followers:
- Identify two chief benefits of utilizing ICT in Education in developing states.
- Identify two chief restraints associated with utilizing ICT in Education in developing states.
- How appropriate are ICTs to the context of instruction in developing states? For illustration, should they be used chiefly to construct accomplishments or as an assistance to acquisition ( teaching method ) ; do their benefits outweigh their costs?
- Identify two cardinal lessons or best patterns for execution of ICTs in instruction in developing states
Case 1: ICTs and Education in Rural Ghana
Can information communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) better larning in rural Africa? When exposed to new engineering, how do kids, grownups and instructors use it to stand for their lives and chances?
Research from the University of Sussex ‘s Centre of International Education shows what happened when occupants of a Ghanese small town were given their first opportunity to roll up and demo digital images of their lives. The survey non merely brought out attitudes towards ICTs and the community ‘s debatable interaction with presently available schooling, but besides explored the deductions of technological alteration for development enterprises.
Ethnographic research in the community painted a black image of demoralization and under-resourcing of instruction. Teachers posted to the small town feel defeated and uncommitted. They are frequently absent. Students are largely unable to follow lessons, due to jobs such as the deficiency of apprehension or coverage of old work and trouble in understanding English, the linguistic communication of direction. Bodily penalty is frequent. Many kids – particularly girls – bead out or go to infrequently because they and their households see few existent returns to basic schooling.
It is non the deficiency of schools that is impacting registration and keeping, so much as the determination of households non to put in ‘worthless ‘ goods. The quality of the schooling available is non deserving the attempt and committedness needed from parents and kids. Decentralization of instruction is non working as the community engagement it depends on comes from a misplaced, over-romanticised position of what motivates communities.
The study besides notes that in the small town:
A§ Successful instruction is equated with scrutiny base on ballss and migration to towns
A§ Parents feel that schools and instructors are responsible to the province, non to them
A§ Migration means that people do non needfully wish to put in the community where they live and educate their kids
A§ Erosion of traditional matrilinear household constructions ( where descent is traced through female parents and their blood relations ) means that the duty for kids ‘s attention and instruction is frequently blurred.
Could ICTs resuscitate religion in instruction?
The study highlights the enthusiasm with which villagers embraced chances provided by the undertaking, developed positive images of their manner of life, valued local cognition and took pride in links to a esteemed planetary community.
The research is non optimistic about the capacity of information engineering to bridge the digital divide either globally or within low income states. However, within a context where engineering is available it has some of import suggestions for pattern. It speculates on how accessible small town information engineering centres – powered by solar power and satellite communicating engineering – might catalyze community spirit and inspire culturally appropriate practical acquisition environments ( VLEs ) based on user engagement and interaction.
Greater entree to ICTs might besides enable schools to undertake parts of the course of study – such as wellness instruction around HIV/AIDS – that are hard to present by conventional methods. Dispersed households could maintain in touch and husbandmans entree critical selling information. ICTs could actuate instructors to remain in the profession and further their ain instruction even when populating in rural countries.
Beginning: ‘Understandings of instruction in an African small town: the impact of information and communicating engineerings ‘ , Report on DFID research undertaking ED2000-88, by J Pryor and J Ghartey Ampiah, April 2003
Case 2: Teachers and Technology in South Africa and Egypt
While issues of entree and the comparative virtues of orbiters or solar power are being discussed internationally, a undertaking in South Africa and Egypt is researching what really happens at the schoolroom degree when ICTs are introduced. How do ICTs alter the manner instructors learn? How make students react to ICTs-enhanced instruction?
Research from the Open University, UK, high spots DEEP ( the Digital Education Enhancement Project ) , a new undertaking funded by the Department for International Development, that is assisting instructors use ICT to better instruction and acquisition in primary schools. Although still in its babyhood, the undertaking already shows that the impact of utilizing ICTs extends further than pupil accomplishment and schoolroom pattern to besides profit instructors ‘ professional individualities and the community as a whole.
In the Eastern Cape, DEEP is working with 12 deprived primary schools, the bulk of which are rural, three have no electricity and four have no telephone connexion. The undertaking uses rechargeable laptops ( little, lightweight computing machines ) and relevant web sites on CD-ROM to assist instructors where they have to get the better of jobs of hapless or delicate substructure.
A brace of instructors from each of the schools has been given developing stuffs such as website mediated activities and survey ushers. At workshops, they tried out a assortment of course of study focused ICTs activities such as researching scientific information about endangered species, or composing illustrated autobiographies. As instructors discover new ICTs-enhanced instruction methods, they present them to co-workers from other undertaking schools in the part. For illustration, one instructor created an alive common people narrative in Xhosa and English to back up literacy work. Each undertaking brace portions a laptop computing machine and each instructor has a handheld computing machine back uping electronic books every bit good as picture and audio files that focus on learning schemes. Extra equipment such as digital cameras was introduced bit by bit in order to avoid ‘technology overload ‘ . Most of the undertaking teachers meet on a regular basis in informal groups for extra support.
Prior to the undertaking, 16 of the 24 instructors had ne’er used a computing machine but after four months they all considered ICTs of import or really of import for larning and felt confident in their usage of ICTs.
The research workers besides found that:
A§ By presenting a pressman halfway through the undertaking, instructors learn to utilize the computing machine to back up new attacks to classroom instruction, instead than for reproducing stuffs or for school disposal, unlike many of their opposite numbers elsewhere in the universe.
A§ Students are utilizing the equipment to larn in new ways such as making spreadsheets on carnal categorization from informations found on web sites, making multimedia texts and playing Afrikaans linguistic communication games.
A§ Where computing machines are used in rotary motion by little groups, pupils work on ICTs- enhanced activities which span several yearss such as transporting out research, instead than have occasional ‘computer lessons ‘ .
A§ The equipment has been used widely outside the schoolroom for undertakings such as community council proceedingss, school meeting dockets, funeral proclamations, or entering a address by Mark Shuttleworth, the first African spaceman, for students to analyze.
A§ Teachers say that their assurance, enthusiasm and standing in the community has increased since being involved in DEEP. One of the undertaking ‘s schools was featured on a wireless programme, while another has experienced a rise in registrations.
Beginning: ‘Building instructors ‘ professional cognition through ICT: experience and analysis across the “ digital divide ” ‘ , presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Lisbon, by J. Leach, R. Moon and T. Power, September 2002
Case 3: Business Training in Senegal
In Africa the digital divide has prevented electronic bringing of womb-to-tomb acquisition. A programme in Senegal has shown that it is possible for pedagogues to work with employers to set up a distance professional preparation strategy utilizing appropriate information and communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) .
Entree to ICTs in Africa is still inordinately low. There are around 5.2 telephones per 100 dwellers. Broadband is merely available in a few states. The geographical distribution of telecommunications substructure is uneven: 67 per centum of fixed telephone lines in Senegal are concentrated in the capital. Merely a 1000 of the state ‘s 14,200 small towns have telephone connexions. African linguistic communications are conspicuously absent on the Internet as the majority of available information is in English.
Cybercafes are frequently proposed as locales for distance acquisition but are by and large unsuitable due to miss of required hardware and package, limited bandwidth shared by crowds of users, high connexion rates and, above all, an ambiance that tends non to be compatible with acquisition.
Faced with falling pupil Numberss, in 2001 EBAD began an experimental six-month distance larning certificate class for concern certification specializers. EBAD contacted 50 private and public sector companies, non-governmental administrations, local governments and associations. It was agreed that:
A§ Employers would supply scholars with a computing machine and Internet entree for at least two hours a twenty-four hours.
A§ EBAD would supply preparation, charge scholars a tuition fee and necessitate them to go on working for their host concern for the continuance of the class.
A§ Learners would be closely supervised by coachs via telephone, treatment forums and electronic mail.
A§ The company would hold the services of a new information worker for six months without holding to pay excess pay costs or be under any duty to engage the worker one time the class was over.
A§ Learners were awarded a concern certification.
This acquisition system has opened up new chances for information workers and given them marketable accomplishments without necessitating to halt work or go forth their households for a long and dearly-won stay abroad.
The EBAD experiment has shown how partnership between concerns and developing suppliers can supply companies with better-trained staff who are acquainted with the universe of work and have relevant accomplishments.
EBAD ‘s experience highlights the demand to:
A§ make local preparation Centres equipped with IT hardware and low-cost broadband Internet entree
A§ promote grownup instruction and promote preparation Centres to work with local concerns to develop preparation classs
A§ persuade concerns to see the importance of upgrading and geting new cognition and let employees to take classs
A§ promote the construct of larning through experience
A§ promote the development of short certification preparation faculties suited to the demands of concern.
Beginning: ‘Lifelong Learning in the African Context: A Practical Example from Senegal ‘ by Olivier Sagna in ‘Perspectives on Distance Education, Lifelong Learning & A ; Distance Higher Education ‘ , edited by Christopher McIntosh and Zeynep Varoglu, Commonwealth of Learning / UNESCO Publishing, 2005.
Case 4: China commits to ICT-based distance acquisition and e-learning
China has a vision of womb-to-tomb acquisition in which information and communicating engineerings -based ( ICTs ) distance instruction and electronic acquisition are cardinal constituents. China now has three of the universe ‘s mega-universities, establishments in which over 100,000 pupils use mostly distance larning methods. It hopes its scheme for advancing womb-to-tomb acquisition will be adopted worldwide.
Due to funding restraints merely ten per centum of school-leavers can be enrolled in colleges or universities and competition for topographic points is intense. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has identified modern distance instruction ( MDE ) – the proviso of ICTs-based DE utilizing multimedia computing machine installations and the Internet – as a fast and cost-efficient manner to ease the force per unit area.
This has been made possible by the explosive growing of the Internet and demand for e-commerce, e-publishing, e-advertising and e-entertainment. By the terminal of 2004 some 94 million people in China were on-line, about half of them with broadband entree. By the terminal of 2003 there were 2.3 million registrations registered for MDE programmes in 68 pilot universities. China has a web of independent wireless and telecasting universities ( RTVUs ) coordinated by the China Central Radio and Television University. Most e-learning establishments work closely with the private sector.
The development of e-learning requires monolithic investing. The authorities is supplying basic substructure and web connexions and monitoring quality. Public and private-sector capital will fall in with the e-learning establishments to develop high quality learning resources. With the debut of market mechanisms, more learning chances should go available for the poorer populations. Some universities have reduced tuition fees for scholars in the lower-income western parts of China.
E-learning is playing a cardinal function in run intoing demand for higher instruction, but there are jobs:
A§ Due to the big figure of companies viing to develop e-learning systems, there is a demand to organize technological criterions.
A§ Learners are frequently stray and can miss motive through non being in a acquisition community.
A§ Many instructors have hapless understanding about e-learning and how to plan and carry on ICTs-based classs.
A§ Infrastructure is frequently unequal: some e-learners lack appropriate computing machines or broadband connexions.
E-learning should be presented non as a complete option to campus-based formal instruction, but as one portion of a womb-to-tomb acquisition system. If other states are to larn from the Chinese theoretical account they need to accept the critical function of cardinal authorities in:
A§ supplying ICTs substructure, puting proficient criterions and supervising accreditation, ordinance and standardization
A§ promoting universities to help each other in their e-learning programmes, sharing research stuff posted on the Internet and supplying entree to each other ‘s classs
A§ actuating the private sector to put in e-learning
A§ developing instructors with accomplishments in ICTs-based instruction
A§ popularizing ICTs-learning by public information runs and reassuring pupils by proviso of guidance and mentoring
A§ guaranting handiness to less-developed countries to broaden entree between geographical parts and between urban and rural countries.
Beginning: ‘The Chinese Approach ‘ , by Dinging Xingfu, Gu Xiaoqing and Zhu Zhiting, pages 63-78, in ‘Perspectives on Distance Education, Lifelong Learning & A ; Distance Higher Education ‘ , Commonwealth of Learning / UNESCO Publishing, edited by Christopher McIntosh and Zeynep Varoglu, 2005.
ICTs and Education: Some Additional Readings
Angrist, J. and V. Lavy ( 2002 ) New Evidence on Classroom Computers and Pupil Learning, Economic Journal, 1, pp. 735-765.
Perraton and Creed ( 2000 ) Using New Technologies and Cost-efficient Delivery Systems in Basic Education. World Education Forum Education for All. [ uncomplete mention ]
Bloome, T. ( 2000 ) “ Zimbabwe – The Bindura Internet Learning Center: Modest in Size, but Mighty in Impact ” , TechKnowLogia, November – December, 2000. Available online at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.techknowlogia.org/TKL_active_pages2/CurrentArticles/main.asp? FileType=PDF & A ; ArticleID=203.
Capper, J. ( 2003 ) “ Complexities and Challenges of Integrating Technology into the Curriculum ” , TechKnowLogia, January-March 2003. Available online at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.techknowlogia.org/TKL_active_pages2/CurrentArticles/main.asp? FileType=PDF & A ; ArticleID=471.
Cawthera, A. ( 2002 ) “ Computers in Schools: an unaffordable luxury? ” Available online at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.id21.org/education/E4ac2g1.html.
Daly, J. ( 2003 ) Education, Information and Communication Technologies, and the Millennium Development Goals ” . Available online at: hypertext transfer protocol: //topics.developmentgateway.org/ict/sdm/previewDocument.do~activeDocumentId=840982.
Filmer, D. ( 2004 ) If you build it, Will they come? School handiness and school registration in 21 hapless states. World Bank Group Working Paper, No.3340, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Fletcher, J. ( 2003 ) “ Does this material work? A reappraisal of engineering used to learn ” . Techknowlogia, January-March 2003, pp. 10 – 14. Available online at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.techknowlogia.org/TKL_active_pages2/CurrentArticles/main.asp? IssueNumber=19 & A ; FileType=PDF & A ; ArticleID=457.
Hawkynss, R. ( 2002 ) “ Ten lessons for ICT and Education in the Developing World ” in the Global Competitiveness Report, 2001-2, pp. 38-43. Available online at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cid.harvard.edu/cr/pdf/gitrr2002_ch04.pdf.
Hodas, S. ( 1993 ) “ Technology refusal and the organisational civilization of schools ” . Education Policy Analysis Archives 1 ( 10 ) . Available online at: hypertext transfer protocol: //epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v1n10.html.
International Society for Technology in Education ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.iste.org )
Kremer, M. and Vermeersch, C. ( 2005 ) School repasts, educational accomplishment and school competition: Evidence from randomised rating, World Bank Working Paper, No.3532, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Leach, J. ( 2005 ) An probe of the usage of information and communicating engineerings for teacher instruction in the planetary South, Knowledge and Research, Report No.58, Department for International Development.
McKinnon, D. et Al ( 2000 ) A longitudinal survey of pupil attitudes towards computing machines: Deciding an attitude decay paradox. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32, pp. 325-335.
Murelli, E. and L. Delgrossi ( 2000 ) Internet: a new medium for the developing states in the educational field, IFIP WG9.4 Conference 2000 – Information Flows, Local Improvisations and Work Practices, Cape Town, 24-26 May 2000.
Osin, L. ( 1998 ) Computers in instruction in developing states: Why and how? Education and Technology Series, 3 ( 1 ) , Washington DC, World Bank. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www-wds.worldbank.org.
Potashnik, M. ( 1996 ) Chile ‘s acquisition web. Education and Technology Series, 1 ( 2 ) , Washington DC, World Bank. Available at:
Recommendations for a Pro-Poor ICT4D Non-Formal Education Policy. Final Report for Imfundo: Partnership for IT in Education [ Wagner 2004 ]
Resnick, M. ( 2002 ) Re-thinking Learning in the Digital Age ” in the Global Competitiveness Report, 2001-2, pp. 32-37. Available online at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cid.harvard.edu/cr/pdf/gitrr2002_ch03.pdf