Albanian society during the old ages has incurred different and of import societal and economic transmutations. Albania a little state with a surface of 28.748 km2 and with a population about 3.5 million people has a population rather immature and it is one of the states with the youngest population in Europe. The mean age of Albanian population is 33 old ages old. One of the major phenomenon which have associated Albania during the old ages is Migration. Migration has been a really of import portion of passage procedure in Europe and in the whole universe. It continues to be important for topographic points that are in passage. This is the ground why we chose this subject. We chose ( 1992-2001 ) , because this was the period when Albanians have migrated more.
“ Migration is the phenomenon that is at the bosom of economic, societal and cultural alteration in Albania over the past 15 old ages ”[ 1 ]. It is the motion of people from one topographic point to another for different grounds. There are two types of migration: External and Internal. External migration is the motion of people from one state to another. Until 1990 external migration was n’t allowed by the authorities. Internal migration is the motion of people within the same state, which was one of the most dramatic characteristics of the Albanian passage. The intent of this paper is to see the effects of migration on economic system and how migration has influenced on Albania society. The biggest portion of these migrations, both external and internal has affected the viability of many rural communities in the North and the South of the state.
In this paper we will concentrate on societal and economic facets of migration after 1992. We will handle migration ‘s causes to understand the grounds why people migrate and the chief motions inside the state, we will see the most of import effects of migration on economic system, that are remittals and the consequence of the migration on the society. Main impacts of migration are: remittals, return migration and demographic effects, but we will handle merely remittals which have an of import function in the development of Albanian economic system. We will see this consequence during ( 1992-2001 ) , because INSTAT makes these enrollments one time in 10 old ages.
2. Migration ‘s causes
Cipher leaves his/her topographic point because he/she wants. Even “ voluntary ” migrations where it is expected an betterment of societal and economic conditions have a “ prehistoric culture ” , a ground that can be a migration cause.
Causes that make people migrate are economic and non-economic. We can advert as economic factors the employment chances and as non-economic the security and political persecution. They are besides divided in push and pull factors. Push factors are negative because they make a individual leave his/her part or state while pull factors are positive because they make a individual move to a certain part or state. In Albania push factors are: deficiency of employment chances, poorness, natural catastrophes, clime conditions, political persecution and instruction. Pull factors are: employment chances, safety and security.
Dates show that 2/3 of Albanians want to migrate for economic grounds, such as: to better the life criterion ( 36.7 % ) , to happen a occupation ( 19.7 % ) and because the occupation they have it ‘s non satisfactory ( 9.3 % ) . These were three chief grounds to migrate.
The desire for a better life makes people migrate. In the internal migration largely, people move from small town to the metropolis, which has a better criterion of life and assortment on chances of employment. In the small town the lone chance to cover with, is agribusiness. A chief ground why internal migration exists is that except the occupation chances there are: clime conditions, deficiency of security and the large distance between small towns and infirmaries, universities etc. Traumatic experiences such as wars are besides really of import grounds that make people migrate.
States where Albania has more emigres are Greece and Italy. After 1990 Albanians has emigrated more in this two states because they are near our state and offer better conditions. The rewards are higher and the living criterion is better.
3. Main motions
During these old ages Albanians have moved inside their topographic point and abroad for different grounds that we mentioned above. Internal migration involves these chief motions:
Inter-regional: These motions include people ‘s motion in different part inside the state. These are largely in this way: from the north and north-east such as Tropoje, Puke, Kukes, Diber, Mirdite etc. to the cardinal portion of Albania such as Tirana and Durres, which nowdays are overpopulated.
Intra-regional: On this sort of motion we can advert rural-urban migration. “ The metropolis of Shkoder has become a major finish for immigration from the rural backwoods in the North of the state ”[ 2 ]. “ For case more than half of in-migrants in the metropolis of Shkoder originate from the territory of Malesia e Madhe ”[ 3 ]. “ The same exists for Gjirokastra, where the bulk of the metropolis ‘s population addition is due to immigration from the territory ‘s ( particularly mountains ) rural countries and from bordering territories such as Tepelene and Permet ”[ 4 ].
Inter-prefecture: The prefecture of Tirana has been for a long clip the finish of about the half of internal migrators. After Tirana there is Durazzos with 20 % of all internal migrators. Of peculiar involvement in this class of motions is the urban-bound portion, which accounts for about 60 % of entire inter-prefecture migrators[ 5 ].
Inter-district: These are motions from one territory to another. They can be inter-regional or moves in the same part. Even within territories that are considered as beginnings of emigration, there are little pockets of immigration, normally around the municipality of the territory. “ We can advert the instance of Saranda as a major directing territory, versus Saranda municipality, a clear immigration zone within the territory itself ”[ 6 ].
Rural-urban: This is the motion of the people from small towns to the metropoliss. The most serious population loss is observed in the rural North, every bit good as in the rural South, peculiarly small towns
high up in the mountains. “ The state ‘s urban population increased from 35 % to 42 % of the sum between 1989 and 2001 ”[ 7 ]. The biggest addition of 45 per centum was recorded for the urban population of Durres-Tirana-Elbasan.
Urban-urban: This is another motion of Albanians. “ For case in 2001, two-thirds
of in-migrants in the metropolis of Tirana came from other urban centres ”[ 8 ]. These inter-urban flows are directed peculiarly from the smaller urban industrial centres created during the Communist epoch, towards the larger and more of import metropoliss along the seashore.
Rural-rural: This motion was n’t so development in Albania, but we could n’t negligible. INSTAT[ 9 ]claims that 40 % of internal migrators is made in this manner.
4. Demographic position of Albanian migration
During these old ages Albanian migration has changed the demographic position. We will show the states where Albanians have emigrated more in 1999. Besides we will show the prefectures where Albanians have largely moved.
Table 1. Estimates of Albanians populating abroad in ( 1999 )
Beginning: Barjaba ( 2000 )
Figure 1. The per centum of people moved from Dibra ( 1989-2001 )
Beginning: INSTAT ( 2002 )
Sum of migrators moved from Dibra during the old ages 1989-2001 was 49084 people. Main motions were to Tirane, Durres and Lezha. The ground of these great motion was the great poorness, unemployment and the low degree of the industries development.
Figure 2. The per centum of people moved from Elbasan ( 1989-2001 )
Beginning: INSTAT ( 2002 )
Sum of migrators moved from Elbasan during the old ages 1989-2001 was 26645 people. Main motions were to Tirane, Fier, Durres and Korce. The ground of these motion was unemlpoyment and the destroy of old industries during the period of passage.
Figure 3. The per centum of people moved from Kukes ( 1989- 2001 )
Beginning: INSTAT ( 2002 )
Sum of migrators moved from Kukes during the old ages 1989-2001 was 43178 people. Main motions were to Tirane, Durres and Fier. The ground of these motion was poorness, 40 % of the households in Kukes survive with the economic part. Unemployment was another factor like the other topographic points that push them to populate their topographic point.
5. Impact ‘s of Migration
During the old ages 1992-2009 migration has had really of import impact on Albanian economic system. Main issues where migration impacts are: remittals, return migration, demographic effects and poorness relief. All this factors are really of import but we will concentrate on the chief factor on economic system which are remittals and effects that migration has on society.
5.1 On Economy
Remittances are one of the chief factors that influence on economic system. In an analysis of remittals flow, during the passage period, we see a considerable addition during the old ages. Estimates of the Bank of Albania[ 10 ]show that in the twelvemonth 1992 immigrant remittals amounted to 150 million US dollars, whereas in twelvemonth 2001 remittals reached to 620 million US dollars. Mentioning to the Bank of Albania Report for the twelvemonth 2001, we see that remittals represent about 15.2 per cent of GDP.
Figure 4. The sum of remittals sent during ( 1992-2001 )
Beginning: Bank of Albania ( 2002 )
During the old ages 1992-2001 we see that the sum of remittals has been turning from 1992 to 1996. In 1997 sum of remittals reduced with 232.7 million dollars because of political jobs in Albania. In 1998 sum of remittals grows with 185.4 million dollars, but non for a long clip because in 1999, clip when Kosovo was in crises, the sum of remittals reduces with 84.2 million dollars. In 2001 and on, we have a growth of entire remittals.
Figure 5. The per centum of remittals in GDP ( 1992 – 2001 )
Beginning: Bank of Albania ( 2002 )
As we can see from the in writing remittals has had a really of import function in GDP of Albania. In 1993 the per centum of remittals in GDP arrived maximal with 23,3 % . After this twelvemonth, it reduced, because there were even other things that influenced in GDP of Albania.
Remittances have been a really of import issue on migration development. They are a factor of particular importance for the socioeconomic development of the state and besides they are one of the chief beginnings of income for Albanian households. In these households, remittals are used to ease the poorness. There are besides particular instances where they are used as a pecuniary fund for the development of concerns. The remittals of Albanian immigrants continue to represent a valuable economic assistance non merely for their households, but for the socio-economic stabilisation of the state as a whole.
They are used in different ways to develop our economic system. First remittals are used for primary ingestion goods, such as nutrient and vesture. Second they are used for household events, such as nuptialss, funerals etc.[ 11 ]Third, remittals are used to finance the instruction of immature household members, to see a better hereafter for them. Fourth, remittals are saved, frequently informally, and intended for usage in exigencies, frequently related to ill-health[ 12 ]. Some remittals have been invested in economic activities[ 13 ]. Another type of remittals are what Levitt[ 14 ]calls societal remittals: ‘the thoughts, behaviours, individualities and societal capital that flow from different way.
5.2 On Society
Migration has had a really of import influence and on society. Migration, except positive sides that have on society and in single degree related with the net income of remittals and on the decrease of unemployment has and negative sides. Some of these points are:
It is companied with the absence of immature males from their house. This is the ground why the most of the houses in Albania are composed of adult females, kids and aged people. Other societal jobs of migration are household separations and the forsaking of many older people. This has caused that many married womans and fiances are separated from their emigrant hubbies and spouses, kids besides suffer for the absence of their male parent, but people that can experience this more are older people who have lost their household and the economic support.
Although Albanian usage obliges the youngest boy ( and his married woman! ) to take attention of his parents in their old age, this tradition is interrupting down through out-migration. Abandoned by their emigrant kids and with worsening societal support and pensions in the new neo-liberal Albania, many older people, particularly in stray rural countries, are going lonely ‘orphan pensionaries ‘[ 15 ].
Albania has had a development on internal and international migration, after 1992. The grounds of these migrations are in by and large to better their life to hold better conditions. Migration ‘s causes are divided on push and pull factors. More favourite topographic points for Albanian emigres during these old ages was Greece and Italy. Peoples from Diber, Elbasan and Kukes have moved more to Tirana and Durres than other metropoliss. Main motions inside the state are: inter-regional, intra-regional, inter-prefecture, inter-district, rural-urban, urban-urban and rural-rural. All these motions have changed the demographic position of Albania. Migration largely influences on economic system via remittals. Remittances has effected in a positive manner in the development of Albanian economic system during these old ages. Remittances are a factor of particular importance for the socioeconomic development of the state and besides they are one of the chief beginnings of income for Albanian households. In society, except these economic net incomes, there were a batch of negative sides as we can advert the separation of the households and the Albanian traditions are interrupting down. What makes us believe is: Has migration a positive or negative consequence in Albania and other topographic points including all the facets where it influences? Is this economic development every bit worthily as to cover the negative societal effects?