Economic agents


The economic agents in India presently have a bill of fare of nonprescription ( OTC ) merchandises, such as forwards, barters and options, available to them for fudging their currency hazard and the markets for these are rather deep and liquid. However, in the context of turning integrating of the Indian economic system with the remainder of the universe, as besides the continued development of fiscal markets, a demand has been felt to do available a wider pick of fudging instruments to the market participants to enable them to get by better with their currency hazard exposures.

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In India every bit good, currency hereafters have so far non been allowed in position of the jussive moods of the controls on the capital history. However, in the context of the increased capital history liberalization, wider hedge chances could beef up economic agents ‘ ability to get by with market-induced currency motions. International experiences, though of choice states like South Africa and South Korea, suggest that currency hereafters could coexist with the OTC currency markets every bit good as capital controls. However, it must be noted that Currency Futures normally operate in the markets which are to the full exchangeable. Full Account Convertibility ( FAC ) could be a solution as against the Partial Account Convertibility ( PAC ) , since it will increase the assurance of foreign investors and consequence in more foreign capital influx into the state. However the job with FAC is that, if any set of factors, domestic or external, generates the outlook that the domestic currency ( say, the rupee ) is traveling to deprecate, the issue from domestic assets would be far greater & A ; the foreign investors would hold the right to choose out without any limitations. The ensuing escape could take to outlooks being realized, in the signifier of an existent depreciation of the currency, which can ensue in capital flight. This is merely one of the many dangers, though an of import one, that full CAC would open the state to.

India has been sing heightened cross-border flows in recent times with globalisation and relaxations in the regulations regulating external minutess. The flows have been strong on both current and capital histories. There has besides been some addition in volatility in exchange rates due to planetary instabilities and altering dimensions of the capital flows. Harmonizing to the Bank for International Settlements ( BIS ) Triennial Central Bank Survey 2007, the portion of India with day-to-day turnover at USD 34 billion ( day-to-day norm ) has increased from 0.3 per cent in 2004 to 0.9 per cent in 2007.


The principle for set uping currency hereafters market is manifold. Both occupants and non-residents are exposed to currency hazard when occupants purchase foreign currency assets and non-residents purchase domestic currency assets. If the exchange rate remains unchanged from the clip of the purchase of the plus to its sale, no additions and losingss are made out of currency exposures. But if domestic currency depreciates ( appreciates ) against the foreign currency, the exposure would ensue in addition ( loss ) for occupants buying foreign assets and loss ( addition ) for non-residents buying domestic plus. In this background, unannounced motions in exchange rates expose users to currency hazards. Currency hereafters enable them to fudge these hazards.

Currency hazards could be hedged chiefly through forwards, hereafters, barters and options. Each of these instruments has its function in pull offing the currency hazard. The chief advantage of currency hereafters over its closest replacement merchandise, viz. , forwards which are traded nonprescription ( OTC ) lies in monetary value transparence, riddance of counterparty recognition hazard and greater range in footings of easy handiness to all. Currency hereafters are expected to convey approximately better monetary value find and besides perchance lower dealing costs. Apart from pure equivocators, currency hereafters besides invite arbitragers, speculators and noise bargainers who may take a stake on exchange rate motions without an underlying or an economic exposure as a motive for trading. From an economy-wide position, currency hereafters contribute to hedge of hazards and aid bargainers and investors in set abouting their economic activity.

USDINR Volatility:

The motion of US Dollar ( USD ) against assorted currencies is the major issue of concern for the fiscal markets all over the universe. In past 8-10 months the INR has been really volatile against the USD, traveling from 45/USD to 39/USD, and so to 52/USD. The strengthening of INR against the USD by 13 per centum has taken away the advantage from the exporters, nevertheless, at the same clip profiting the importers therefore bettering the BOP. On the other manus, the depreciation of rupee by 28 per centum has impacted the importers adversely but benefited the exporters. The above can be explained as follows:

The grasp of USD or depreciation of INR will ensue in the loss to the importer and addition to the exporter. On the other side, if the USD depreciates or the INR appreciates, the importer would derive and the exporter will lose.


Hedging is taking a place in future market, a place which is merely opposite to the already bing place in the hard currency market. The aim of hedge is to minimise the bing hazard associated with the unpredictable alterations of USD/INR rate. In this procedure, it should be observed that the aim is to lock in peculiar USD/INR rate and non to be exposed to favourable every bit good as unfavorable exchange rate motion.

  • A long hereafters hedge is appropriate when one knows that he would purchase a foreign currency in future and want to lock in the monetary value.
  • A short hereafters hedge is appropriate when he knows that he would sell the foreign currency in future and want to lock in the monetary value.
  • The profit/loss in the hard currency place is offset by the tantamount loss/profit in hereafters place


The importer is affected by the volatility of the foreign currency ( USD/INR ) rate in which the payment is to be made. If INR appreciates he makes net incomes by purchasing goods and services at lower monetary value. However, if the INR depreciates the importer makes loses.

Say For e.g. on January 1st 2009, an Indian Importer enters into a contract to purchase 1000 barrels of Crude oil with the payment to be made on 1st June 2009 The monetary value of each barrel is fixed to USD at 70/barrel as per the exchange rate of 1USD= 47.5INR. The cost of one barrel comes out to be Rs. 3325 ( 70 x 47.5 ) . The importer has the hazard that the USD would beef up more and make a degree of 48.85 in following few months doing oil to be more.

On 1st June if the USD appreciates to 48.5INR/USD. The importer had fixed his monetary value in dollar footings. Hence, if the USD appreciates so he stands at 1USD=48.5INR. Therefore, the oil will now be Rs. 3395. Hence 1 barrel will be him 70 Rs. ( Rs.3325-Rs.3395 ) more. Therefore, 1000 barrels will be 1000*70= Rs. 70000 more to the importer.

Hedging Scheme:

Suppose the same importer pre-empted that the INR is traveling to deprecate more against USD sing the basicss of macro-economics, the current history shortage & A ; FII escapes and decides to fudge his exposure on an exchange platform of currency hereafters.

Since the importer has to purchase the USD in future, he is concerned with the grasp of USD, so he will travel long on currency hereafters, which means he purchases USD/INR hereafters contract as a hedge scheme. This protects the importer because strengthening of USD would gain net incomes in long hereafters place, which will guarantee that the loss in the hereafter market would be mitigated.


The exporter gets affected by the volatility of the foreign exchange rate ( USD/INR ) in which he receives the payment. If INR appreciates he incurs loss for the goods and services he provides at lower monetary value. If the INR depreciates against USD the exporter additions net income for selling the goods at a higher monetary value. Hence, the inauspicious motions of the currency rates affect the exporters.


Suppose a Copper exporter enters a contract on 1st April 2009 to sell 1MT of Copper with payment to be received in USD dollars on 1st July 2009. The monetary value of each MT of Copper is USD 2318/MT at the predominating rate of 1USD= 47INR. The monetary value of MT in INR would be 2, 09,700Rs. The exporter can confront a hazard if the INR appreciated against USD.

Now on 1st July if the INR appreciates to Rs.44 against USD, so, he would have 1Dollar at the prevalent exchange rate on 1st July 2009 than what was quoted in the contract before. This means the exporter who was traveling to have USD 2318/MT will now have USD 2170/MT i.e. a loss of 148 USD/MT. So if the exporter trades in immense contract of 1000MT so the Loss suffered by him is 148000 USD.

Hedging Scheme:

Suppose the Cu exporter pre-empted that INR would appreciate against USD given the current macro-economics, cut downing trade shortage, stable current history shortage, strong FII influxs, the exporter so decides to fudge his exposure on an exchange platform of currency hereafters.

Since the exporter would sell the USD in future, he is concerned with the depreciation of USD, so he shorts on currency hereafters, which means he would sell USD/INR hereafters contract as a hedge scheme. This protects the exporter because weakening of USD would take to countervailing the net incomes in short hereafters place.

Small & A ; Medium Enterprises ( SME ‘s ) :

Small & A ; Medium Scale Enterprises represent over 90 % of the endeavors worldwide. They are the driving force behind big figure of inventions and contribute to the growing of the national economic system in footings of employment creative activity, investings & A ; exports. In India the SME ‘s drama a critical function in the overall industrial economic system of the state. It is estimated that in term of value, the SME ‘s history for 39 % of the industrial end product and 33 % of the entire exports of the state. Further, in recent old ages the sector has reported a high & A ; rapid growing to the overall industrial sector.

The Vision and mentality of these industries is bounded by skylines, Skills & A ; experience of the leader who runs them, besides the force per unit areas of the day-to-day of direction and resource restraints. These houses have tactical instead than a strategic attack, nevertheless when the house matures, it starts to diverge from ego centred and employs procedure and systems to accomplish larger aims.

The SWOT analysis shows the challenges that the SME ‘s are confronting today against the fastest and strongest emerging economic systems of the universe e.g. China, Brazil, etc.

As a consequence of Globalization & A ; liberalisation, the Indian SME ‘s are go throughing through a transitional period. Due to nature of their concerns, SME ‘s are by and large involved in trades denominated by the currency brace, i.e. big volumes of imports/exports. Hence, SME ‘s are exposed to interchange rate fluctuations. At one point of clip, the exporters convert their dollar retentions into rupee under the given that onward March of rupee would go on. However, when the dollar started appreciating, the exporters were caught on the incorrect pes.

Forex market is a really dynamic market and exchange rates fluctuate on a uninterrupted footing. Harmonizing to the survey, the exchange rate of US Dollar vis-a-vis Indian Rupee would alter one time in four seconds. It means exchange rate of a currency changes 21,600 times during 24 hours ( 24*60*15 ) . Therefore, the USD/INR exchange rate is really volatile and is easy affected by the Macro every bit good as Micro economic factors.

If we study the above graph we can see that the INR has fluctuated from high degrees of 52 Rs to 46 Rs and back to the degree of 50 Rs which has badly affected the exporters in recent times. The Data of the volatility of USD/INR is provided at the terminal of the study for the mention of the reader.

Volatility is a step of how much an exchange rate-or any asset-has varied, on norm, over a specified period, in the above instance the period taken is 150 yearss. As its name suggests, historical volatility is rearward looking. This step has the advantage of stating the bargainer something about expected volatility over the tenor of the contract. These steps nevertheless are independent of tendencies in the implicit in topographic point rate.

The value 0.2751 Tells us how much the portfolio of the bargainer may fluctuate during the tenor of the contract. However, this value holds no significance when assorted macroeconomic factors affect the volatility of the dollar market.

The survey of volatility would ever assist the SME ‘s whose volume of trading is really less in comparing to Large Caps, nevertheless, fluctuation in Forex market impact them adversely impact SMEs. Hence, each and every SME should find how much exposure it has to foreign currency hazard and if the hazard is important so it should fudge to the extent required. SMEs should ever maintain in head that while it is really hard to foretell exchange rate motions, it is relatively easier to fix for inauspicious fluctuations by analyzing the volatility for in old period. Prevention hence, is the best manner for SMEs to maintain themselves protected from the inauspicious effects exchange rate fluctuations.

Around the Clock Trading:

Forex is a extremely dynamic market with tonss of monetary value oscillations in a individual minute, this feature of the Forex market allows bargainers to come in the market many times a twenty-four hours and draw some net income from these figure of trades. If the bargainer wants to happen an appreciable figure of profitable trades he needs to come in the Forex market at the best period of clip, i.e. , when the activity, the volume of minutess, is the highest.

With the development of the foreign exchange market, the Futures/forward trading continue about 24 hours a twenty-four hours. Futures contract chiefly trade in Singapore, London, Chicago & A ; Tokyo, because these markets trade during the local daytime hours, they cover different periods of clip. Among them, these exchanges trade for more than 20 hours of the 24 hours in a twenty-four hours. London is largest market due to its geographical location. Understanding Forex trading hours therefore becomes really of import when 1 chooses to merchandise currencies. Since the bargainer can merchandise 24 hours a twenty-four hours, 5.5 yearss a hebdomad, he non merely receives greater freedom but besides more clip to merchandise the Forex market.

In many cases, the trading hours of the exchanges overlap. First Singapore & A ; Tokyo have about indistinguishable trading hours, which one can anticipate since they lie in the same clip zone. Before Singapore exchange stopping points, the London stock exchange clears. The Chicago market opens during the afternoon hours of the London Stock Exchange ( LSE ) . Virtually the full twenty-four hours witnesses trading in some market and the trading hours continue to spread out.

The day-to-day foreign currency trading volume is determined by which Forex market hours are unfastened. For illustration, when planetary fiscal market unfastened times overlap, such as when the U.S. and British market are unfastened at the same time, there is greater trading volume.

The chart below shows the exchange timings of assorted states. The Indian exchange timings overlaps with most of the South-East Asiatic markets, the European markets & A ; Australian market giving chance to the investors in India to merchandise on assorted exchanges and acquire the best out of the Forex Market.


Futures market depends on well-developed fiscal markets and on the being of the widely available homogeneous trade goods. Futures market, about by their nature, serves a geographically dispersed group of participants.

Although Futures merchandising is believed to be a hazardous enterprise, a defensive bargainer, can through a series of witting determinations, guarantee that the hazards do non overpower him or her.

  • First, the bargainer must rank the viing chances harmonizing to their several return potency, thereby finding which opportunities to merchandise.
  • Second the bargainer must make up one’s mind the fraction of sum that he or she would be merchandising & As ; how to apportion this sum across the chances.
  • Last, the bargainer must make up one’s mind upon the latitude up to which he could let the market before acknowledging himself to be either on the incorrect side or right side

The Futures market do non ever vouch a good return. However, Futures trading is a game where the victor is the 1 who can outdo command his or her losingss. Mistake of judgement are inevitable in trading ; nevertheless a successful bargainer merely prevents an mistake of judgement from turning into a annihilating blooper.

Currency Futures is a new construct to the investors in India. Forward trading boulder clay now is much popular than Currency Futures, it grew out of the demand to minimise the Forex hazard. Futures markets have emerged as a particular sort of sophisticated forward catching. It now depends upon the regulative organic structures in India & A ; the exchanges as to how expeditiously the trade happens in Futures market and how bargainers take the benefit of the most sophisticated trading in Forex market.


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