Eating Out Is A Common Phenomenon Among Malaysians

Eating out is a common phenomenon among Malaysians. However, the choice of a eating house is dependent on the eating house assortment, the consumer personality and the ingestion context.

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With the addition in discretional income and alteration in life style, dining out has become a common experience among university pupils. Peoples begin to hold more experiences in dining that lead to client anticipate more from the eating houses and are more hard to fulfill.

Restaurant ingestion life style is really related to nutrient life style. Kesic and Piri Rajh ( 1993 ) stated that nutrient life style can be desribed through behavior of consumer as a map of single features and this can be create through the societal interaction of psychological and besides the past experience of consumer.

Dine out is known as ingestion of nutrient and imbibe eaten outside the place which is non obtained from the family ‘s stocks. Dine out is easy accesible, as in expensive peddler centres, java stores, air-conditioned nutrient tribunals and fast-food eating houses whereas consumers have the ability to take types of nutrient and monetary value ( Dittmer,2002 )

Restaurant ingestion life style among pupils depends on convenience of nutrient and besides restaurant itself, traditionalism of nutrient that they serve, refering about wellness and nutrition, environment or ambiance at the eating house, the assortment of bill of fare that eating houses provided and besides the monetary value of nutrient. Food-related life style has five constituents fisrt is higher-order properties of nutrient merchandises, second is effects of utilizing nutrient merchandise, 3rd is shopping book, Forth is meal readying books and fifth is usage state of affairss.

The dramatic societal, economic transmutation, the additions in the types, the absolute figure of retail locales and the greater assortment of nutrient merchandises can act upon the consumer buying behaviour in eating house ingestion life style. In the facet of eating house ingestion life style, the frequence that they dining outside of the place can give an thought what do them to dine out, with whom they normally go to dine out, where the location that they prefer and why they choose that topographic point.

Dine out is non an option for those who are merely has a limited clip, it is besides has become the favourable pick for those who like to obtain new eating environmnet, altering of bill of fare, and for people who want to pass clip with friend, co-workers or household. In order to carry through the demands, peoples will sponsor foodservice constitution. Peoples have certain appraising foodservice constitution standards in their head, such as the quality of the nutrient and service provided atmosphere and the monetary value.

1.2 Problem Statement

Restaurant ingestion life style is really general if we want to discourse among all types of consumers. However, in this research will seek to understand about the eating house ingestion life style between two major cultural groups of university pupils. This research will come out what the motive buying among two races in eating house choice standards.

Besides that, this research will happen out what type of tendency nowadays consumers preferred to travel to the eating house, for illustration what the eating house choice standards of eating house consumers more preferable, why they choose that eating house, when normally they go at that place, what they expect when they go to the eating house and with whom they normally go at that place.

These surveies have addressed issues such as the relationship between consumer behavior, the demand form of eating house ingestion life style and factors act uponing consumer buying behaviour. All of these issues are related with eating house ingestion life style between two races of pupils because these issues are more to societal scientific discipline and behaviour of consumers.

1.3 Aims

The aims of this survey are:

To look into the eating house ingestion life style between two cultural groups of university pupils.

To analyze the motive buying in devouring their repast at eating house.

To find the difference of eating house choice standards in normal and particular dining out juncture.

1.4 Research Questions

Specifically two basic research inquiries underline this survey:

Does the consumer behaviour influence in the eating house ingestion life style?

Is it hold differences between two ethnics group of university pupils in eating house ingestion life style?

What the motive buying in eating house ingestion life style between Malay and Chinese pupils?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This paper consists of information on consumers ‘ ingestion form and factors that influence consumers ‘ buying determination. Indirectly, can understand why university pupil select one eating house over the other, the seller can utilize selling scheme efficaciously to derive market and net income.

Besides that, directors besides can understand the critical factors that influence client ‘s behaviour, trueness and satisfaction in the nutrient service industry and assist them to better in critical portion or countries.

All the factors that consequence consumer ‘s eating out in nutrient service constitution may besides straight affect the profitableness of the nutrient service operations. Therefore, this survey is of import to look into the factors lending to overall client ‘s satisfaction and redemption behaviour. A nutrient service director needs to understand this relationship in order to heighten their client ‘s demand and satisfaction.

Chapter 2


2.1 Eating Out

In this survey, eating house ingestion life style related with the modern-day forms and the symbolic association of eating out and besides related with forms to societal and demographic features of families. Eating out has of import deductions for comprehensive apprehension of state ‘s diet. Eating out become celebrated tendency in many people ‘s lives now ( Koo et al, 1999 ) .

Eating out is familiar among single-parent family and besides career adult female ( Elmont, 1995 ) . Harmonizing to Finkelstein ( 1989 ) , eating out can give the leisure motivation of what they seeing and being seen in public besides it can give the entertained by others. Britain showed that consumers progressively consume their nutrient outside the place ( Driver, 1983 ) . As a proportion of nutrient spread outing, eating off from place has been increasing since 1950s.

Food and its ingestion can analyze at several different degrees and these will depend for one ‘s intent, whereas attending demands to concentrate of the undermentioned foods, ingredients, dishes, repasts and culinary art. Eating out has both practical and symbolic significance. Peoples eating out because sometimes out of their necessity and sometimes they eating out because of for pleasance.

British Family Expenditure Survey had suggested that people eating out depends on their manners and could be expressed through nutrient ingestion ( Warde & A ; Tomlinson, 1995 ) . The recent functionary informations in UK stated that difference in the societal group will give the consequences difference in the frequence of eating out. The income, age, gender, part, category and family composing will act upon consumer eating out.

The major leisure motivation of eating out can based on Mill ‘s belief which is relates to the psychological demands of human being ( Mill, 2001 ) . Eating out more than to forestalling from enduring because of non adequate nutrient. In this research, consequences can back up that people genuinely enjoy eating when psychologically as a portion of leisure motivation.

In add-on, the another facet of motive on what causes of behaviour, Herzberg ‘s two-factor theory such as hygiene factors and motive can be apply in happening the consequences. Lack of concern about hygiene factors can do of client dissatisfaction.

Eating out had its function in modern ingestion ( Warde and Martens ( 1998 ) and eating out besides had its important because eating out can increase the incursion of commodification and consumer civilization in mundane life. Riley ( 1994 ) stated that in Britain there were no cultural and psychological factors because consumers tend to measure their meal experience at the eating house they went to.

Hygiene factor direct specializer to basic ingestion on cheap nutrient whereas, incentive give signal for self-identity will move to actuate the client. People who ‘s have different repast options for different motivation will bring forth the relationship between different types of dining experiences. This is can stress that repast can act upon the consumer ‘s pick of a eating house repast ( June and Smith, 1087 ) .

The frequence of eating out may change, every age group, civilization group, societal category, and geographical community makes eating out an of import from diversion. Eating out on a big graduated table is an interesting phenomenon of our altering society. Specifically, eating out is defined as patronize to any foodservice constitution by respondents of this survey.

In this modern society, people eating out for assortment of ground, which included avoiding from ennui, to socialise, to hold different type of nutrient, gustatory sensation and convenience ( Tom Powers. 2002 ) .

Lewis ( 1981 ) considered five factor for eating out which are nutrient quality, bill of fare assortment, monetary value, atmosphere and convenience factors. On the other manus, Jones ( 1996 ) identified six basic grounds as to why people eating out which are convenience, assortment, labour, position, civilization or tradition and urge.


This factor includes those people who are off from some ground, who are physically unable to return at place during normal clip and out it concurrence with some other leisure activity.


Assortment of nutrient is an of import factor to pull consumer to one nutrient premiss. Peoples, who live in fortunes where the repast experiences are limited, such as in the peddlers stall, may take to eat out for this ground.


The desire to hold person else to fix nutrient, cook, service and rinse up a repast most surely influences some people ‘s determination to dine-out.


Both for personal and concern grounds people may take to affect their conjecture by taking them out to a stylish and expensive eating house.


Eating can be described as a portion of our civilization heritage and a manifestation of affinity. For illustration, in Malaysia, jubilation of particular events such as day of remembrances and birthday are frequently associated with eating out.


This is instead similar stating that sometimes people have to no peculiar ground for eating out, they do so on the goad of motion. However, impulse purchasing is really important and that it contributes to gross revenues in the nutrient service industry.

2.2 A Theory of Motivation Consumption Values

This theory will discourse about ingestion values, explicating why consumer choose to purchase or non to purchase a specific merchandise. Besides discuss why consumers choose one merchandise type over another and why consumers choose one trade name over another. This theory consists of five ingestion values that can act upon consumer pick behaviour. The five ingestion values are functional value, societal value, emotional value, epistemological value, and conditional value. In doing a determination, any or all of the ingestion values can act upon of that.

2.2.1 Functional Value

Functional value is defined as option ‘s capacity for functional, profitable, or physical public presentation. An alternate receive the functional value through the useful or profitable and besides physical attitudes. Functional value can mensurate the profile of pick properties. By and large, functional value is assumed to be the chief driver of consumer pick. This premise comes from Marshall ( 1890 ) and Stigler ( 1950 ) , that purely expressed in footings of ‘rational economic adult male ‘ . Reliability, lastingness and monetary value are features that derived from option ‘s functional value. For illustration, the determination to buy nutrient in the all right dining eating house must based on their income and ability to purchase it.

2.2.2 Social Value

Social value is an option ‘s association with one or more specific societal groups and through positively and negatively stereotyped demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural- cultural groups. The pick imagination can be measured in profile of societal value. The picks involved touchable of extremely merchandises and besides for goods or service need to be shared with others are frequently lead by societal value. For illustration, consumer choose to eat at all right dining may be chosen more for societal image than for their necessity. Hyman ( 1942 ) research about mention groups said that single behaviour is strongly can act upon by their group rank. Rogers ( 1962 ) and Robertson ( 1967 ) besides suggested that interpersonal communicating and information airing can act upon in consumer pick.

2.2.3 Emotional Value

Emotional value is perceived from an option ‘s capacity to elicit feelings or affectional provinces. An option ‘s acquire the emotional value when specific feelings continue those feelings. The feeling which associated with the option can be measured in profile of emotional value. Normally, goods and service are correlated with emotional responses and aesthetic options. More touchable merchandises have emotional value for illustration, some nutrients can lift the feeling of comfort through their correlated with childhood experiences. Harmonizing to Dichter ( 1947 ) , carried out in motive research that consumer pick may be lead by noncognitive and unconscious motivations. A good and interesting of advertisement and ornament of environment in selling and publicity can heighten the emotional responses to marketed merchandises ( Martineau, 1958 ; Zajonc, 1968 ; Kotler, 1974 ; Holbrook, 1983 ; Park and Young, 1986 ) .

2.2.4 Epistemic Value

Epistemic value is an option ‘s to heighten the wonder, supply freshness, and fulfill a desire for cognition. Epistemic value can acquire from questionnaire points mentioning to wonder, freshness, and cognition. Epistemic value normally provide the overall new experiences and the option can be chosen because consumer is already bored or satisfied with their current merchandises or trade name for illustration they want to seek new type of java trade name and they curious in sing a new eating house or they have desire to larn in sing another civilization. Harmonizing to ( Katz and Lazarsfeld, 1955 ; Howard and Sheth, 1969 ; Hansen, 1972 ; Hirschman, 1980 ) , construct of epistemological value has been influenced by theory of exploratory, freshness seeking, and assortment of motivations that suggested triping the merchandise hunt, test, and exchanging the behaviours.

2.2.5 Conditional Value

Conditional value is a consequence by an option of the specific state of affairs confronting the pick shaper. Conditional value presence of antecedent physical or societal eventualities that can heighten its functional or societal value. The pick eventualities are mensurating profile of conditional value. The options normally depend on the state of affairs for illustration, some merchandises of nutrient merely have when seasonal value or some of nutrient merely have one time in a lifetime events. Many merchandises of nutrient have non more obvious conditional association. Hull ( 1963 ) and Howard ( 1969 ) recognized the importance of acquisition will take topographic point a consequence of experience with a given state of affairs.

2.3 Restaurant Properties

Customers have their ain ground to desire to return to any eating house. They are invariably seeking quality, value and desirable environment off from the force per unit areas of day-to-day life. Offering good nutrient and good service is non plenty to pull and retain clients. To derive a competitory advantage, eating houses need to offer good value in a favourable atmosphere.

Harmonizing to Auty ‘s survey ( 1992 ) , there are 10 factors act uponing eating house choice determination which are nutrient type, nutrient quality, and value for money, image and atmosphere, location, velocity of service, urge, new experience, runing hr and installations for kids. However, image and ambiance were found to be the concluding pick between eating houses which were similar, and nutrient quality and nutrient type were the most of import factor of eating house choice.

2.3.1 Food Quality

Quality of nutrient which contain the fresh ingredients has already been rated as the most of import ground why clients return to the eating house ( Brumback, 1998 ) . Technology plays an of import map to keep the quality of nutrient. It means computing machine french friess in iceboxs or friers or ice-makers need to ever keep the temperature to avoid from any waste of nutrients.

2.3.2 Monetary value

The monetary value is to paid for a service is known as the degree of quality to be demanded ( Davis and Vollman,1990 ) . Therefore, dining out becomes an built-in portion of consumers ‘ life style, experienced consumers due to their outlooks with respect to quality, while seeking a better value for their budget ( Cullen,1994 ) .

2.3.3 Environment

Atmosphere may give eating houses competitory border and eating houses need to update their decor and constructs if they want to pull more clients and vie with others successfully. Belman said that: “ Today, the most of import thing is design and construct. The proprietor of eating house demand to put money to make a good of ornament. It can be a good enjoyable and a merriment dinner for societal able people.

2.3.4 Location

Location plays the chief of import factor in consumer determination devising. It is a critical location facet of selling scheme. As Hughes ( 1996 ) said that: “ Good location allow ready entree, can pull big Numberss of consumers and significantly change consumer buying forms. As eating house with really similar nutrient offerings proliferate, even little differences in location determination represent long-run fiscal committednesss and altering hapless locations can be hard and dearly-won ” .

In a survey by Bitner ( 1992 ) besides found that convenience location and low monetary values are the top-ranked determiners of backing.

2.3.5 Service Quality

Presents, clients have besides been concerned about the quality of service. Service quality is viewed as an ancestor to satisfaction. Since the client ‘s interaction with the service supplier and the service-producing procedure have a important impact on the client ‘s perceptual experience of service quality and later act upon client ‘s satisfaction, selling construct, such as client satisfaction should be incorporated into the direction ‘s operational determination devising procedure.

2.4 Factor Affect Restaurant Attributes Consideration

The importance of the eating house attributes harmonizing to three chief factors which are restaurant types, dining out juncture and business, age and income.

2.4.1 Restaurant Types

Harmonizing to Lewis ( 1981 ) , importance of eating house properties varied harmonizing to the four types of eating house, which are categorized as all right dining, household, subject and convenience. Fine dining eating house are friendliness of waiting staff, quality of nutrient and environment. While household eating house has top four pick variables are location, cleanliness, cost of nutrient and velocity of service. The subject eating houses are ambience factors, prestigiousness, quality of nutrient and location.

2.4.2 Dining Out Juncture

Restaurant chosen harmonizing to dining out juncture which are categorized as a jubilation for case birthday, a particular juncture and concern repast. The top three determiners variables for jubilation juncture are quality of nutrient, type of nutrient and bill of fare point assortment. Whereas for particular juncture are cleanliness, service and type of nutrient. On the other manus, for concern repast are quality of nutrient, prestigiousness and atmosphere factors ( Kivela, 1997 ) .

2.4.3 Occupation, Age and Income

Kivela ( 1997 ) has suggested that the deciding pick variables besides changes harmonizing to business, age, and income sections. Fiscal people make their concluding eating house pick on the footing of cost of nutrient because of limited budget, location due to convenience, velocity of service and quality of nutrient.

2.4 Consumer Behavior in Food Service Industry

Consumers have potentially to trades with all ways people that may move in their function harmonizing to analyze about the consumer behaviour ( Schiffman and Kanuk, 1991 ) . In pattern of consumer behaviour there are more tends to concentrate upon behaviour that related to seeking, purchasing, used the merchandises and besides services. Normally, consumer will be assumed as groups and they will be identified through geo-demographic noticeable quality and they besides will take as true to hold common attitudes.

Food service literature consist illustration of cleavage studies for illustration demand for different types of eating house to different socio-economic sections. It shows that different of demographic and income will give the consequence less of demand in consuming of nutrient compared with population denseness of metropolitan countries.

In this survey the purchase behaviour is related to the act of consumers towards restaurant ingestion life style and harmonizing to Blackwell ( 1998 ) , consumer behaviour in nutrient service industry ever related with how people buy, when they buy, what they buy and why they buy. He besides stated that consumer behaviour in nutrient service is a subcategory of selling that combines all the elements from psychological science, sociology, socio-psychology, anthropology and economic sciences.

However, Gordon ( 1980 ) was used the behavioural scientific disciplines specifically for societal psychological science and sociology to understand more what clients wants and demands. He mentioned that through consumer ‘s psychological backgrounds can look into the consumers in order to set up the extent to which factors like attitudes, motivations and personality traits affect purchasing behaviour. Whereas, societal can act upon such as category, position and besides household. These were contributed to the apprehension of consumer determination devising.

Mattila et Al. ( 2002 ) had mentioned that the buying of nutrient is a complex phenomenon. This is because the nutrient must be available when consumer wants it, ever at an low-cost monetary value and quality of nutrient is in acceptable degree. All of these will set up consumer to choose the right sorts of eating house in order to eat their nutrient for overall good being every bit good as to run into nutritionary demand.

Food service industry has features in an apart of the service sector which is in fiscal and professional services. However, Campbell-Smith ( 1967 ) , it is much related with nutrient pick and quality but at the same clip nutrient service offer meal experience to which many factors. Some of the eating houses characteristic in happening the consumers are pick and quality of nutrient and drink, the monetary value or value, service, atmosphere, location and convenience. ( Auty, 1992 ; Gregoire et Al ( 1995 ) .

However, Pettijohn et Al. ( 1997 ) found the three most of import for consumer in choosing the eating house are quality, cleanliness and value. Whereas, the ambiance in the eating house and besides the assortment of bill of fare which offered in the eating house were non comparatively of import. Many surveies showed that quality of nutrient was really importance and consumers merely see the service as several factors that influenced in quality of eating house offered.

Harmonizing to Kara et Al. ( 1995 ) , demographic of consumer will give the different outlooks of the type of nutrient served, location of eating houses and besides the cost of the nutrient they spent. Not merely the property values concerned with consumer satisfaction, but the broad value besides can refer in consumer satisfaction for case, the pick devising in the person at the clip they purchase is really important point that can impact in restaurant consumer ‘s satisfaction.

Chapter 3


3.1 Introduction

This research used the qualitative method which is single interview. The information obtained from this research is good to nutrient service industry to understand what the consumers expect from them and can assist nutrient service industry to better the satisfaction among consumers. In order to make so, methodological analysis and process were designed to guarantee high quality and criterion of the survey in obtaining dependable information. This survey will include the location of the survey, trying process, informations aggregation process, and research instrument and informations analysis.

3.2 Location of the survey

This research demand to compare the eating house ingestion life style between pupil and working people, so the interview was conducted to the full in Universiti Putra Malaysia. This topographic point was used because there is a batch of Malay and Chinese pupils therefore, dependable information can be obtained among the respondents.

3.3 Sampling Design

The sampling method used in this survey wwas convenience sampling. This trying method is selected because it is convenience and comparatively speedy. The respondent will easy to acquire to make the interviewing. In this survey, a sum of respondents are 30.

3.4 Research Instrument

In this survey, the interview inquiry was unstructured inquiry and the reply will depends on the respondents. However, in this research there is still have inquiry for the respondents. Respondents were inquiring about:

Where and what sort of topographic point or eating house they eat most frequently.

What type of nutrient they eat frequently and why they choose that type. Respondents need to depict the nutrient due to savor, coloring material and visual aspect.

In what manner the nutrient is convenience for them.

What the intent or motive factor they eating out?

If they have particular dish to eat, when they will travel out, what they want to eat and why they want eat it.

Did they will travel merely eating house that sell of the nutrient for illustration they will travel Italian Restaurant or Pizza Hut if they want to eat Italy nutrient.

In one hebdomad, how many times they eating at the eating house?

What the standard they will take if they eating at the eating house? Why?

Monetary value




3.5 Data Analysis

This research was analyzed through interview content. The information from interview demand to transcribe carefully and so get downing to analyse each of the respondent interview. The content analysis consists of reading and re-reading the transcripts looking for similarities and differences in order to happen nonsubjective and to develop classs.


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