At first sight, China is frequently perceived to hold a incorporate civilization with some separationist activities. Furthermore, there is small uncertainty about China ‘s political capacity to maintain a cheque on such breakaway motions, it is instead the inquiry by what means. On 2nd sight, nevertheless, I argue that China faces some serious challenges refering ethnicity. In the undermentioned treatment I will foremost analyze China ‘s ethnicity construct. Subsequently, I will analyze the breakabilities and the deductions derived from such a construct on China ‘s unity. Last, I will reason with some ideas on possible solutions to the ethnicity job.
China ‘s construct of ethnicity is mostly a constructed one, which can better be understood by taking an instrumentalist point of position. Under the political influence of Sun Yat-Sen, China ‘s different cultural groups were unified under the construct of the Five Peoples of China in order to set up national security. This thought of subsuming all cultural groups under one Han bulk group and four minority groups was taken up by the Communist party, nevertheless, they have enlarged the minority groups to 55 to day of the month ( Gladney, 2004, p.135 ) . As McCarthy ( 2009, p.41 ) points out, the Chinese individuality was a constructed one, based on and organized by the Confucian civilization. In other words, by following this civilization, everybody could go Chinese. With the turning interaction with the Western universe and the modernization tendency, this implicit in civilization of Confucianism has been replaced by values of “ modernization and technological advancement ” ( McCarthy, 2009, p.44 ) accompanied by “ turning order and control ” ( ibid. , p. 44 ) .
The effects of such a constructed ethnicity construct on China ‘s unity can be divided into two countries of concern: the constructed Han bulk itself and the struggles in the country of regional liberty. First, the constructed Han bulk construct may shortly fall in in itself if the differences within the Han bulk continue to speed up. As Gladney ( 2004 ) argues, the Han bulk is a pudding stone of different groups, which are culturally, economically and socially diverse and divided. In admiting Stewards theoretical account of horizontal inequalities, a widening spread between those dimensions might crystallise tensenesss within the Han group. The cardinal authorities could hold assured political integrity so far. However, if those differences diverge farther, the political integrity might be questioned. Furthermore, the capital market influences the values and beliefs of people and they might besides wish to integrate those elements in their political domain. Against this background, existent regional liberty might go desirable for some cultural groups in the comfortable southern portion of China. Hence, in the context of diverseness within the Han group, the focal point on modernization in the construct of ethnicity might convey about its ain ruin.
The 2nd job with the constructed ethnicity in China is associated with the officially recognized minorities in the independent parts of Xinjiang. Even though minority rights and particular benefits are anchored in China ‘s statute law, they are non mirrored in the day-to-day life of those minorities. In the context of ethnicity in footings of modernization, the Chinese authorities might intent to develop those countries with its relocation policies in good religion and in conformity with a wide reading of its statute law. However, it ignores the position of those minorities and the effectual impact it causes by such policies. To give an illustration, Xinjiang ‘s minority group, the Uyghur, has ne’er truly “ accepted the Chinese domination merrily ” ( Moneyhon, 2005, p.5 ) . From a primordialist point of position, the Uyghur perceive the Han in-migration as a menace to their laterality over their land, their resources and their civilization. However, it besides reflects a sort of colonization of the Uyghur by the Han bulk, even though that latter can be questioned itself. The definition of colonization in this context is to be understand in a broader, more symbolic sense, viz. it stands for the modern and successful Han ethnicity, which helps to maturate the developing Uyghur. The development of natural resources and China ‘s atomic trial site in Xinjiang can besides be subsumed under the header of colonization, which gives Uyghur instead a sense of lower status than a well-intended modernization attempt by the Chinese authorities. Besides, international events besides influence the struggle in Xinjiang. Even though the autumn of the Soviet Union and the constitution of the Shanghai Six have a political impact on the separationist motions, the function of the Internet and the displacement from an cultural to a faith struggle can fuel the state of affairs even more and convey new histrions into it ( Moneyhon, 2005 ) . As Moneyhon notices, the making of Uyghurs as terrorists helps China to “ beat up international support for its run against Uyghur separationists ” ( 2005, p.17 ) . Contrary, Muslim Uyghur might besides prosecute the Muslim universe ‘s understanding for support if the struggles intensify to be stigmatized in a faith tone. In general, the constructed Chinese ethnicity around modernization and the subsequent policies besides instead estrange the minorities from the constructed Chinese ethnicity.
After holding reviewed China ‘s ethnicity construct and its deductions, the inquiry about possible policies to relieve China ‘s ethnicity challenges can be posed. Turning economic, cultural and political inequalities between minority groups, but besides within the Han bulk are likely at the nucleus of the challenge. However, before seeking to turn to them, the authorities has to admit that its construct of ethnicity is non shared within the population and out of day of the month. Ironically, the construct of ethnicity around modernization will even lend itself to its autumn. Modernisation surely brings economic procedure, nevertheless, it besides brings other values, such as democracy as Gladney ( 2004 ) besides asserts it. Whether democracy is a solution, one may see one twenty-four hours. For the short term, the focal point may be on the violent struggles in the independent parts such as Xinjiang. In conformity with Moneyhon ‘s ( 2005, p. 21 ) suggestion, the Central authorities has to do an attempt in footings of its willingness to implement the sound legal model on minority rights. In other words, it should allow Xinjiang more political freedom. In bend, the Uyghur should forbear from violent actions. In short, both sides have to reconsider their policies and seek to collaborate alternatively of oppress and onslaught each other.
To reply the initial inquiry, China does hold a job with ethnicity. It has constructed ethnicity around the term of modernization. However, this construct is non able to unite the Chinese people under this individuality. At both degrees, within the Han group itself but besides between the Han and several minority groups the construct instead enhances the differences and fuels present and likely besides farther struggles. In footings of policy recommendations, the authorities has foremost to understand what civilization truly means. In order to further stableness and peace, it has to show his willingness to float off from his subjugation policies and to populate up to its promises anchored in the fundamental law. This might be the lone manner to truly unite the Chinese state by the agencies of a constructed ethnicity.