Distinctions Between Quantitative And Qualitative Data Marketing Essay

A figure of research methodological analysiss are utilised for different types of research that help identifying and analyzing day of the month to make a decision sing the research ‘s purpose ( Collies, and Hussey, 2009 ) . Saunders et Al. ( 2003 ) described he research methodological analysis as the “ wide program classifies the intent, procedure, logic, and the result of research ” . It consists of the research objectives derived from research inquiries and detect the beginnings of informations aggregation ( Saunders et al. , 2003 ) .

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This chapter discusses the research design and methodological model of the survey. It starts by clear uping the research aims and research inquiries used, followed by the particularization of the hypotheses. The research schemes and methodological analysis are so presented and discussed, followed by the mark population and sample method, the information analysis and eventually the research cogency and dependability.

3.2 Research Aims

Our research aims are the undermentioned:

Identify the factors that influence clients exchanging in the retail banking industry of Qatar.

Determine the most and least of import factor that influences clients exchanging behaviour in the retail banking industry of Qatar.

3.3 Research Question

In order to make the research objectives, research inquiries were formulated as follows:

What are the most noticeable factors behind Bankss ‘ client exchanging behaviour in Qatar?

What influences the picks of clients to exchange Bankss and follow viing retail banking merchandises and services?

3.4 Hypothesiss

In order to reply the research inquiries and accomplish its aims, the undermentioned hypotheses were proposed based on the theoretical accounts presented as shown in Figure 3.1 below. The hypotheses are at that place following:

H1: The retail banking clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar is significantly influenced by Bankss ‘ monetary values.

H2: The retail banking clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar is significantly influenced by Bankss ‘ service quality.

H3: The retail banking clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar is significantly influenced by Bankss ‘ merchandise quality.

H4: The retail banking clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar is significantly influenced by Bankss ‘ repute.

H5: The retail banking clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar is significantly influenced by Bankss ‘ advertisement.

H6: The retail banking clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar is significantly influenced by Bankss ‘ nonvoluntary shift.

H7: The retail banking clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar is significantly influenced by Bankss ‘ convenience.

H8: The retail banking clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar is significantly influenced by Bankss ‘ exchanging cost.

H9: The retail banking exchanging behaviour in Qatar is significantly influenced by clients ‘ spiritual believe.

aˆ?Figure 3.1: Customer ‘s Switching Behavior Model Research Model 1 Hypothesiss

Banks ‘ monetary values

Banks ‘ service quality

Banks ‘ repute

Banks ‘ convenience

Banks ‘ advertisement

Banks ‘ exchanging cost

Involuntary shift

Banks ‘ merchandise quality

Religious believe

Based on the research methodological analysis of many researches ‘ documents ( ref Garland, 2002, Matthews and Murray,2007, and Dagger and David, 2012 ) , the general hypotheses are proposed as followers:

H10: There are important differences between genders when analyzing clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar retail banking.

H11: There are important differences between nationalities when analyzing clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar retail banking.

H12: There are important differences between age group when analyzing clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar retail banking.

H13: There are important differences between degrees of instruction when analyzing clients ‘ exchanging behaviour in Qatar retail banking.

3.5 Research Strategies and Methodology

Many research methodological analysiss are designed for assorted types of research which are helpful in placing and analyzing day of the month to organize a decision sing the research ‘s purpose ( Collies, and Hussey, 2009 ) . Saunders et Al. ( 2003a ) has defined research methodological analysis as “ the wide program classifies the intent, procedure, logic, and the result of research. ”

The undermentioned discuses in more inside informations the research schemes and methodological analysiss adopted for the intent of this paper.

3.5.1 Inductive and Deductive Approaches

In order to reply the research inquiries, the research worker had to choose the most appropriate research mean. There are two methods of logical thinking, deductive attack and inductive attack. et Al. ( 2007 )

Harmonizing to Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) deductive attack is a research attack that focuses on analyzing the theoretical hypotheses by following a certain research scheme seamster made for the intent of its testing. It is sometimes called a “ top down ” attack as shown in Figure 3.1. This attack starts by using a theory about a peculiar country of involvement and subtracting hypotheses by demoing a causal relationship between two or more variables. We so narrow down the hypotheses by roll uping observations to turn to the hypotheses, which leads to analyze the hypotheses of certain informations refering the verification of the original theory or its denial ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) .

Figure 3.2: Deductive Approach

Beginning: www.socialresearchmethods.net

Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) has defines the inductive attack as “ the research method that involve theory development harmonizing to the informations observed ” . The writer stated that this average begins with certain observations, after that detects regularities and forms to construct up hypotheses and roll up informations, in conclusion explicating decisions which the theory will be based upon. Inductive attack is called the “ underside up ” attack as it is the antonym of deductive attack, as shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.3: Inductive Approach

Beginning: www.socialresearchmethods.net/ ( 2006 )

In this research paper, the deductive attack is found to be more appropriate since the purpose of this research paper is to explicate the relationship between variables whereby hypotheses are suggested based bing theory.

3.5.2. Applied and Basic researches

A standard categorization of research divides undertakings into applied and basic researches. Applied research is defined as a designed survey taking to work out a specific bing job, in which the end product of the research contributes to organisations ‘ audience intent. The basic research, in the other manus, is a less specific in nature and purpose chiefly to better the apprehension of a wider issue. It is more appropriate for analyzing personal characteristic influencing people pick, e.g. factors that influence client picks. Furthermore, it is seen as the most academic signifier of research, since the rule end is to do a part to wide cognition instead than work outing a certain bing quandary ( Saunders et Al. 2003 ; Collies, and Hussey, 2009 ) .

3.5.3. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

The usage of qualitative and/or quantitative research technique is extensively known in assorted studiers ( Saunders et al. 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Collies and Hussey ( 2009 ) , the research could be based on integrating factors of both attacks in which analysing informations could be quantitative and/or qualitative technique ( s ) . For the ground of the research paper, the quantitative and qualitative research attacks are brought frontward to acquire deep apprehension of the appropriate mean.

Polkinghorne ( 2005 ) concludes that qualitative research is an enquiry aimed to clear up and depict human experience as it occurs in a individual ‘s life. The same writer describes qualitative informations as informations gathered chiefly in the signifier of written or spoken linguistic communication, instead than in the signifier of Numberss. As such beginnings of informations can be through single interviews, focal point groups, observations and action research. This signifier is normally unfastened ended in nature and relies on interviews and instance surveies where no alone answering is required ( Polkinghorne, 2005 ; McDaniel and Gates, 2006 ) .

A qualitative attack, harmonizing to Yin ( 2003 ) , cited in Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) , emphasizes that the inductive attack uses the qualitative method. McDaniel and Gates ( 2006 ) depict the qualitative attack as an attack that depends on assemblage, analysing and construing informations by observation. They continue to province it is a utile method to derive a good apprehension and cognition about a state of affairs.

In contrast, the quantitative research method is based on hypotheses-testing research, comparing the collected information with what theoretically is expected to happen. It normally starts with theory from which hypotheses are built or derived ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . A formal attack is built upon structured closed-end inquiries in which the responses are limited and necessitate a big population to reply them ( McDaniel and Gates, 2006 ) .

The intent of the quantitative research method is to quantify the happening of a peculiar state of affairs through processing and analysing the gathered informations by utilizing statistical procedures to happen a precise measuring that reflects the relationship between variables ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . Many differences exist between qualitative and quantitative research as summarized in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1: Differentiations between Quantitative and Qualitative Data

As this research structured by close-end questionnaire to explicate the relationship between independent variables including monetary value, service quality, merchandise quality, repute, convenience, advertisement, exchanging cost, nonvoluntary shift and spiritual believe with the dependent variables, the client exchanging behaviour in Qatar banking industry. A quantitative research attack is found more appropriate for acceptance based on the research intent and scheme.

3.5.3 Exploratory, Descriptive and Explanatory

Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) sort research harmonizing to their intent into the undermentioned classs: exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. Each of these classs is now discussed further:

Exploratory survey is defined as “ Finding out what is go oning ; to seek new penetrations ; to inquire inquiries and to measure phenomena in new visible radiation ” ( Robson, 2002, cited in Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . Exploratory is important when the research worker needs to clear up a certain issue or understand a job, if the nature of the job is non clear. It can be applied in three ways:

Seeking in literature ;

Interviews with the field research experts ;

Arranging focal point group interviews.

One of the chief advantages that differentiate this research method is flexibility and adaptability to alter ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) . Robson ( 2002 ) , cited in Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) , points out that the purpose of the descriptive survey is to pull exact profiles of people state of affairss and events. However, descriptive research has one chief disadvantage in that the relationship among variables does non be.

On the other manus, the explanatory research method builds causal relationships between variables. The focal point of this method is analyzing a job or a state of affairs to happen the relationship between variables ( Saunders et al. , 2007 ) .

This survey is chiefly based on a combination of descriptive, explanatory and explorative research. It is descriptive as descriptive information has been gathered from the questionnaires that were distributed and the research discusses research conducted on client shift and satisfaction in retail banking. It can besides be considered as explanatory, because it will demo the relationship between the research variables, exchanging behavior and client satisfaction after exchanging.

Finally, it could besides be exploratory to some extent as we explore the grounds behind bank exchanging in the Kuwaiti banking sector and measure the degree of client satisfaction after exchanging takes topographic point.

3.5. The Questionnaire

Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) argue that in order to reply research inquiries and fulfill aims, eight informations aggregation schemes are proposed including study, instance survey, experiment, action research, grounded theory, and/or descriptive anthropology. A client feedback study questionnaire attack is used to garner the information from the Qatar banking clients for the intent of this research paper.

Collies and Hussey ( 2009 ) mentioned that a questionnaire is: “ a wide practical mean for garnering informations in which a figure of people are asked to reply an indistinguishable set of inquiries independently. The inquiries sing the research country, hence, are directed to a sample population ( respondents ) who stand for the big population of people ( Jankowics, 2005 ) . It is popular and often used scheme in concern and direction research which allows ample population to reply ‘what, where, how many and how much ‘ inquiries in order to reply the research inquiries and hypotheses. The questionnaire scheme, furthermore, is widely linked with the deductive method and it allows the assemblage of quantitative informations, which could be easy compared and analyzed to advance a relationship among variables ( Saunders et al. , 2009 ) .

In consistent with the manner used in old exchanging research, study signifiers were designed to guarantee uniformity of reading and standardisation of responses ( Philip, and Cunningham, 2004 ) . It is utilised to roll up the information from the Qatar banking clients. It includes inquiries linked to factors that may act upon the banking clients ‘ exchanging behaviour through the clip between 2011 and 2013 in Qatar that discussed above.

The questionnaire was distributed on 250 clients, 160 of them were sent through an on-line study tool called ”Zoomerang ” “ www.zoomerang.com ” The questionnaire was distributed electronically through the site engine to a indiscriminately chosen population of 160 clients ‘ belonging to QNB ‘s client database. Merely 23 respondents responded to the questionnaire and merely 17 of them were solve to the full and considered valid.

Due to the little figure of respondents, the research worker had to administer the questionnaires by manus. 90 questionnaires were distributed hand-to-hand from which merely 7 questionnaires were received back to the full completed.

. A clip frame of three hebdomads were given for participant to react. However, merely 15 valid responses received by utilizing this method.


Entire Response Distributed

Valid Response

Void/ No Response

Distributed Through zoomerang.com




Distributed by Hand




Entire Response


Therefore, the entire figure of valid responses was 24 questionnaires while the remainder were considered as nothingness.

The study signifier had five subdivisions. The first subdivision contained a elucidation of exchanging the rule bank history so that possible respondents would be able to acknowledge if they are qualified as a bank whipper for the intents of this survey. To measure up as such, they needed to hold switched between two different Bankss account including Islamic Windowss of the same bank during the between 2011 and 2013.

The 2nd subdivision is concerned with general demographic information such as nationality gender, age, and degree of instruction so followed by a general banking information subdivision.

The former subdivision trades with the type of the banking history ( current, salvaging, investing ) and with clip continuance covering as a client of the old bank, or bank history, before exchanging. It besides includes an overall comparing inquiry that evaluates the client penchant between the old and the new bank, or bank history.

Fourthly, a subdivision is dedicated to mensurate the influence of the faith facet on the client exchanging determination. It contain merely two inquiries refering the consequence of spiritual believe on taking the old and the new Bankss, or bank ‘s histories. Unlike all other exchanging factors that influence client pick, the needed reply for the faith influence has merely two dimensions as conditions it has an impact on the client determination, for that ground a subdivision is dedicated.

Finally, those who satisfied the definition of being a bank whipper were asked in each inquiry to measure switching factors and influence on the shift procedure. The subdivision is designed by 20 nine inquiries covering the above mentioned exchanging factors including service quality, merchandise quality, pricing, repute, convenience, advertisement, exchanging cost, nonvoluntary shift. The measurement graduated table employed in this subdivision is a five-point type graduated table in which the respondent response ranges vary as ( 1 ) = strongly disagree to ( 5 ) = strongly hold in each inquiry. The last inquiry is an unfastened inquiry with proviso for participant suggestions and remarks.

The questionnaire is designed in two linguistic communication versions: English and Arabic. The Arabic version was translated from the original designed in English.

3.6 Target Population and Sampling Method

In this research, the mark population was banking clients who had switched Bankss in the past five old ages. The sample was distributed indiscriminately in order to roll up an equal sample size and to make an accurate determination. Of the 350 questionnaires distributed ( 242 ) were returned with ( 108 ) questionnaires invalid for analysis due to non being complete through human mistake.

3.7 Data Analysis

The information collected will be analyzed utilizing the Software Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS v.19 ) to profit from tools such as correlativity analysis, frequence analysis and cross tabular matter, to bring forth consequences so presented in tabular arraies and charts in Chapter 4 to clear up reading and analysis.

3.8 Research Validity and Reliability

Harmonizing to Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) cogency is the extent to which informations assemblage methods assess what they were supposed to mensurate and the extent to which research is what it asserts or affirms to be. They go on to claim cogency is about truth of the informations and it is important in descriptive research as it depends to a great extent on the collected information in order to formalize the results. Reliability is the ability of informations aggregation techniques used in the research to ensue in consistent findings that are compatible with the observations and decisions of other research. Validity and dependability of this research will be evaluated and discussed in item in Chapter 4.version was translated from the original designed in English.

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