Section 1: The Problem of Knife Crime in Britain. In June 2006, 15 old ages old Alex Mulumbu after observing the terminal of his GCSEs test became one more victim of Britain ‘s knife civilization. The victim after he got off a coach with friends in Lambeth, south London had an statement with a larger group of adolescents ( Woolcock, 2006 ) . During the difference members of the pack disappeared and returned armed with knives, baseball chiropterans and hockey sticks. Alex was stabbed in the bosom and was left prevarication in a pool of blood on the paving ( Verkaik, 2006 ) . His male parent visited the scene of his boy ‘s violent death where he stated to the media that Alex was a good male child and had nil to make with knives and packs ( Sturcke, 2006 ) .
The instance sketch above is a clear illustration of how knife offense is portrayed by the media. A adolescent who is acquiring off a coach and it happens to acquire stabbed by the culprit. However, the world of knife offense is non merely a black-white issue of good versus bad. The nature of such a job is complicated and the responses towards it must hence be multi-faceted ( House of Commons ) . After all, if knife job was that easy, it would hold been solved already.
One complexness is that the victims are non ever good honest citizens who were in the incorrect topographic point at the incorrect clip. The victims are frequently victimized before and are besides those who are transporting knives in the first topographic point ( and really their ain knife is used against them ) . ( www.direct.gov.uk ) .
Furthermore, the wrongdoer ‘s and victim ‘s position in non ever differentiated, since the victims carry knives because they are frequently linked to packs or have some sort of association with street civilization. This, in bend, could intend that a important proportion of stabbings relate to street force ( www.docstoc.com ) , and as Professor Brohi claims “ a really little proportion of knife offense victims are guiltless people walking down the street who are stabbed ” ( House of Commons ) .
The media make knife offense even more complex as they frequently cloud people ‘s perceptual experience by bring forthing moral terror and by giving the feeling that knife offense is out of control ( Albertazzi, 2010:473 ) . This moral terror, in bend, leads to fear of offense and societal disorganisation.
Knife offense is besides complex in itself as it is a symbolic of deficiency of societal control within societies. Knife offense looks insolvable and as there is no connexion between adults-teenagers ( Hume, 2008 ) , although it involves immature people and shatters lives. In peculiar, knife offense in itself gives the feeling that somehow it is a affair of immature people ‘s universe since adolescents are on their ain, lasting on the streets ( Asthana, 2008 ) . Therefore, those who do non populate in that sort of environments ( foreigners ) can ne’er understand.
Finally, knife offense is complex because there is no reply to the inquiry why adolescents carry knives. We do non cognize whether adolescents carry knives for ego protection and because of the turning deficiency of trust in the ability of grownups to protect them ( Kelbie, 2003 ) , or whether carry knives for things like regard “ knife carrying is thought to be mostly driven by a concern for ego protection or to heighten position ” ( Muncie, 2009:36 ) .
Continuing the survey I am traveling to bring forth a study divided into three cardinal subdivisions. The first will be the extent of knife offense in Britain. The 2nd will look at the causes of knife offense and eventually the tierce will bring forth some enterprises covering with knife offense.
Section 2: The Extent of Knife Crime in Britain
Furthermore, knife offense is really complicated in footings of specifying whether it is a preponderantly black job. The media frequently give the feeling that all offenses are committed by black people and hence, make people follow misconceptions ( Wright, 2008 ) .
Therefore, it is of import to observe that even though the issue looks like it is black in London and the South-East ( www.london.gov.uk ) , at the same clip there are grounds that proposing that in the North-East ( i.e. Glasgow, Scotland, Manchester ) the job is white ( House of Commons ) . As a consequence, it might be preponderantly a black issue in London but surely non in other topographic points. Given that, I have concluded that the issue of transporting knives has little to make with being black or white, but on the contrary, it has to make with being immature and male ( Muncie, 2009 ) .
Besides, knife offense is complicated in footings of definition, since there is no clear Home Office clear definition of ‘knife offense ‘ . Harmonizing to that, the phrase ‘knife offense ‘ was adopted by the media and is now popularly used to mention chiefly to stabbings but besides to the illegal carrying of knives by immature people ( House of Commons ) . Hence, since there is no clear definition, so, it is likely for the legion to utilize different definitions in order to make statistics and hence bring forth more complexness.
Furthermore, knife offense is besides complicated because there are excessively many different types of statistics ( excessively much statistical informations ) . In peculiar, there are statistics for knife offense from the infirmary, the constabulary, the British Crime Survey and eventually the MORI ( House of Commons, 2009 ) . Each of these beginnings, step different samples and different topographic points ( parts ) in the state and hence, it is excessively complicated to understand what is go oning ( Summers, 2008 ) . For illustration, infirmaries define knife offense when person has severe internal hurts as a consequence of knife incursion, whereas constabulary define it when person is transporting a knife ( House of Commons )
Furthermore, seeking to mensurate knife offense is, once more, hard because there is besides the dark figure of offense. Therefore, this concealed offense makes statistics themselves debatable ( Messerschmidt, 1993 ) .
However, above all else, the complexness of knife offense is related to the media. The media manipulate the statistics and distort people ‘s perceptual experiences about knife offense, since they are powerful and so permeant in footings of their ability to make positions ( Jewkes, 2004 ) .
One deformation is that knife offense is preponderantly a black issue. Given that, even though grounds suggest that knife offense is besides a white job ( in other countries ) , yet, the media continue the deceit invariably impeaching inkinesss ( whipping boies ) . Harmonizing to that, I believe that this deceit leads to moral terror which, in bend, someway makes the statistics go up.
In other words, since adolescents interfere with the media ( moral terror ) , so, they may experience fright of the streets and hence through ego fulfilling prognostication, start transporting knives for ego protection. Hence, there is an interaction-interrelationship between the statistics and knife offense ( Newburn, 2007 ) .
Sing to the jobs associated with knife offense measuring, I believe that informations should be collected through a regional scene and this is for two grounds. First, because as indicated, knife offense is non a specific cultural issue of Blacks, and secondly, because the measuring of such a complex issue through national scenes, inevitable will bring forth excessively many complicated statistical informations.
Furthermore, and as Young ( 1988 ) argues, national scenes tend to lose some of import elements in the distribution of victimization ( Newburn, 2007 ) . Hence, I suggest a regional scene both in countries with the highest knife-crime rates, but besides to countries where offense rate is low. This, in bend, we will assist us understand why it is black issue in some topographic points whereas white in other.
Equally of import is to roll up informations utilizing qualitative attacks, since it would be more good to understand the lived experiences of those who carry knives ( principle behind knife offense ) alternatively of how many carry a knife ( What would be the point of cognizing that 4000 are transporting knives after all? ) . For illustration, it would be really interesting to understand how knife offense is perceived and interpreted by the juvenile delinquents ( ethnography research ) and therefore, find out why they carry knives. This manner, more grounds will come up such as whether knife offense relates to London ‘s ( for illustration ) rates of poorness, disregard, unemployment and want ( House of Commons ) .
Section 3: The Causes of Knife Crime in Britain.
The societal acquisition theory is one of the most abiding attacks among the criminological theories that underscore the nature of people ‘s engagement in societal relationships. Sutherland, considered old criminological theories and argued that anyone in society can be trained to follow and follow forms of offense and divergence ( Colombo, 2009 ) .
In conformity to Sutherland ‘s ‘differential association ‘ construct, the prestigiousness of felons, the continuance of contact between offenders-potential wrongdoers and the frequence of interactions with condemnable wrongdoers, are all lending factors in an person ‘s likelihood to busy condemnable activities. Sutherland besides suggested that attending with the development of condemnable behaviors in societal groups, for case ‘rough and tough ‘ attitudes, ‘boosts ‘ the person ‘s leaning to internalize condemnable attitudes.
Social larning hence, links to the causes of knife offense every bit good as links to maleness and rational pick positions. Harmonizing to differential association construct, male childs are turning up to be work forces. This procedure of confirming maleness promotes boys to develop a public character ( an outside ) of being tough, butch and fearless.
In the context of knife offense this means that work forces have to be hazard takers, aggressive and back up their competitory nature ( i.e. territoriality ) . Boys, if lose their repute in forepart of equals and person undermines their maleness, in bend, have to recover this repute by transporting knives and utilizing them in forepart of their couples.
Therefore, since they learn maleness ( via societal acquisition ) , they learn to act consequently to this societal function ( maleness ) and hence, move out like work forces ( tough, aggressive ) . Finally, in footings of using that to a knife offense, they make the ultimate determination ( rational pick ) on whether to transport knives by weighing the benefits ( position, regard ) against the hazards ( acquire stabbed, acquire caught ) . To reason, I believe that there is a nexus between malenesss and societal acquisition as what seems to be go oning today, is that street civilization ( stab offense ) is going masculine civilization ( i.e. through blame music ) ( Newburn, 2007 ) .
However, even though differential association theory is one of the most abiding theories about offense, yet, there are some troubles in explicating knife offense.
First of wholly, harmonizing to the first rule of differential association theory, condemnable behavior is learnt ( Colombo, 2009 ) . If that is the instance, I believe that we have to critically inquiry, how did the first “ instructor ” learnt the knife techniques ( i.e. conceal a knife, disposal one time used ) , so that to go through this ‘knowledge ‘ to others? Hence, differential association theory fails to explicate the beginnings of knife offense, since there are no beginnings.
Furthermore, there are no existent empirical grounds of links between larning and stab offense. For illustration, differential association theory does non explicate why in similar fortunes, ( balance of favorable-unfavourable definitions ) some persons choose to transport a knife whereas others do non.
Furthermore, societal larning theory fails to explicate why adolescents develop to tie in with those who carry knives. Alternatively, it focuses more on the equal influence and non on equal choice.
Additionally, differential association, supports that all condemnable Acts of the Apostless are rational ( maximase profit-minimise loss ) and systematic. However, it fails to explicate the self-generated, motiveless Acts of the Apostless of force, which have small intent or public-service corporation ( Siegel, 2004 ) .
Finally, it is really hard for societal scientists to mensurate such obscure variables like “ surplus of definitions favorable to jurisprudence misdemeanor ” ( Colombo, 2009 ) .
Section 4: Towards the Reduction of Knife Crime in Britain.
The Tackling Knives Action Programme ( TKAP ) is a multi-million-pound venture, against knife offense. Its chief intent is to restrict the carrying of knives and serious stabbings among adolescents aged between13-19. It involves five authorities sections and 16 constabulary forces ( www.homeoffice.gov.uk ) .
However, Undertaking Knifes Action Programme ( TKAP ) has some of import restrictions in relation to the information, since the recorded offense, particularly the less violent, can be affected by alterations in constabulary activity and public coverage to the information. Furthermore, there is a deficiency of comparing statistics in many countries. Finally, TKAP faced the heterogeneousness of the forces ( www.homeoffice.gov.uk ) .
Another anti-knife policy that has been introduced is via statute law to prohibit the sale of knives to anyone under the age of 18. Additionally, Police Operations like Blunt and Shield involve the rapid and random deployment of metal sensors in public topographic points such as Stationss, schools and so forth. The purpose of the policy is to place and collar anyone transporting a knife ( www.insight-security.com ) .
However, both the limitation of knives gross revenues under- 18s, every bit good as the deployment of metal sensors fails to undertake the job, since kitchen knives for case, would still be widely available. Hence, it is more a job of instruction, instead than entree to knives. Furthermore, metal sensors may be non observing all knives, as knives can be easy hidden and disposed one time used.
My sentiment about undertaking of knife offense is that one organisation entirely can non stop this issue. Given that, I suggest that the chief purpose of all anti-knife offense enterprises should be to increase the definitions against knife-crime ( rational pick theory ) so that immature people understand that transporting knives is immoral but most of all, it is hazardous ( maximise cost, minimise benefit ) .
Furthermore, I support that the best anti knife-crime policy would be to educate the adolescents about this job ( societal larning theory ) . Hence, immature people could larn about the effects of transporting knives at an early age through a compulsory faculty ( i.e. weapon consciousness ) at schools. Furthermore, I believe that the best inaugural to halt knife civilization would be if parents ( particularly the male parents ) could demo their male childs that transporting knives has nil to make with being a adult male ( masculinity theory ) .
As a decision, I argue that Alex ‘s instance highlights the demand for the governments to acknowledge that educating both adolescents and households from an early age is important in order to undertake knife offense. Concisely, I have concluded that knife offense is really complex issue because of many grounds. The chief one certainly is because there are tonss of statistical informations. Additionally knife offense is complex because the media create moral terror and therefore does non assist. Furthermore I have concluded that knife offense is non a black issue but a knife issue and therefore, anti knife policies should airt their focal point on the principle behind knife offense.
Ultimately, I would wish to seek to give an account of what could hold might go on in the instance sketch. Alex could hold been likely to the enemy ‘s district and showed discourtesy on the other male childs. He threatened the adolescents with his knife and made them run off. Then, the other male childs went to another estate, took knives and returned back in order to recover their repute and position. They have learnt ( societal acquisition ) that work forces ne’er back out ( maleness ) and eventually, they have made the ultimate determination to take the hazard and pang Alex ( rational pick ) .