Two different theoreticians come into our sight: Skinner and Vygotsky. Walker ( 1975 ) indicates that B.F.Skinner ‘s theories of behaviourism are based on the impression that acquisition is by and large a inactive map that changes scholars ‘ behaviour while reacting to environmental stimulations. He asserts that unlike what Cartesians say, the alleged ‘voluntary behaviour ‘ is non determined internally as an “ act of will ” , but by the exterior environments. He suggests “ All Acts of the Apostless of witting and unconscious life are determined by eventualities of reinforcement. ” ( p.46 ) . Furthermore, Sheehy asserts that instead than being a span to understand the psychological procedure, the behaviour itself should be the focal point of analysis. As portion of his theories, Skinner introduced cardinal constructs such as ‘operant conditioning ‘ and the application of both positive and negative support in the acquisition procedure, which have greatly shaped our formal instruction system. Operant conditioning involves both support and penalty by severally scheduling wagess and hedging dangers, which has been considered as a powerful tool in altering human behaviours. Harmonizing to Walker ( 1975 ) , support can either be positive ( accomplishing ends or obtaining wagess ) or negative ( inclination to avoid uncomfortableness or suffer ) while penalty is likely to give rise to aversiveness and lose reinforcing stimuluss. As one of the applications of operant conditioning, the Teaching machine, an instrument requires participants to reply a set of inquiries by utilizing this machine and they can be rewarded for each correct reply and hence positively reinforced through this learning procedure. Skinner ‘s theory focuses on the environmental conditioning of human larning behavior whereas Vygotsky ‘s constructivism sees larning in a different manner. Harmonizing to Dimitriadis and Kamberelis ( 2006 ) , Vykotsky ‘s theories involve the conceptual development in which he contends that larning is a extremely social-cultural related procedure where scholars analyze and synthesize thoughts and cognition from the environmental contexts with an accent of the importance of linguistic communication, which he recognize as the most powerful tool of mediation. They contend that private address is considered useless in Piaget ‘s position, but Vygotksy see it as a manner of self-regulation in larning. They besides emphasize that acquisition is non merely about building new cognition upon the previous-learned 1 but a more complex development that can non be isolated from its societal or historical contexts which is called “ internalisation ” , the method which he believes can take to higher accomplishments in acquisition. The construct of ZPD ( Zone of proximal development ) besides constitutes his theory of constructivism, which harmonizing to Dimitriadis and Kamberelis ( 2006 ) , can be defined as “ the distance between the degree as determined by independent job resolution and the degree of possible development as determined through job work outing under grownup counsel or in coaction with more capable equals ” ( p.196 ) . They suggest that ZPD should non be seen as merely puting a restricting frontier for acquisition, but on the contrary, a constant-changing infinite where scholars can get the hang societal tools and resource within a social-historical context. By using the theory of ZPD, pupils can come on faster with the “ staging ” of either/both teacher or/and more competent equal pupils and finally make a higher point in their acquisition that they can non perchance achieve merely by their independent surveies.
In footings of its significance, Skinner ‘s theory of behaviourism has enormously revolutionized our perceptual experience on both acquisition and instruction. His celebrated operant-conditioning theories have been applied to our mundane school instruction: the more effectivity of positive support than penalty. Evans ( 1968 ) asserts that human existences can more likely to be affected by positive support while the most common human reaction for penalty is to avoid it instead than rectifying his/her ain misbehaviours. Therefore many learning accomplishments such as “ get downing from the simple to complex ” or “ reinforce right actions by wagess ” are really influenced and even framed by the theories of Skinner. But meanwhile he besides points out the restriction of his theories besides emerges. Although the researches in behaviour commanding have achieved great success with no uncertainty, the application of his theories in practical instruction and larning seem to be non ever effectual. One of the major statements is that the Garcia consequence which normally happens in the acquisition procedure has obvious defied the consistence with his theory of behavior alteration. The Garcia consequence, harmonizing to Sheehy ( 2004 ) , refers to “ the phenomenon whereby an animate being that falls badly after eating a fresh nutrient may get a lasting antipathy to it – even if the nutrient is eaten merely for one time ” ( p.208 ) . He indicates that this phenomenon can be attributed to the inherent aptitude of human or animate beings, but in Skinner ‘s theory there is no topographic point for the inherent aptitude, which might be one of its major restrictions. Dimitriadis and Kamberelis ( 2006 ) indicate due to some political grounds, Vygotsky ‘s theory of constructivism came into sight tardily in the western states, but it has greatly shaped the conventional perceptual experience of larning development by associating single acquisition with societal and historical contexts, which emphasizes non merely on the acquisition of cognition or constructs but besides the development of social-cultural knowledge. Rather than being egoistic in acquisition, the positions held by Piagetians, Vygotskians believe that kids really learn through interaction with social-historical contexts in a more dynamic and systematic manner and this statement has overthrown the traditional thought of acquisition by puting pupils in an stray context scene. Therefore the traditional function of instructor as an “ teacher ” or “ cognition giver ” no longer exists, harmonizing to Vygotsky ‘s reading, alternatively pupils would play a more active function in larning while the theories of ZPD requires the instructor to assist pupils easing their “ building ” of cognition and experience so as to allow pupils maximise their acquisition potencies every bit much as possible. The theories of ZPD and the thought of scaffolding have been influential in western states and have been widely accepted and applied by many schools in Australia as one of the major guidelines in learning. But merely like Skinner ‘s theory, Vygotsky ‘s 1 is limited every bit good. Gallic and Sim ( 2004 ) argues that Vygotksy ‘s perceptual experience of larning development as basically a map of the environment seems partial since alternatively of merely playing a inactive function by having cognition from the environment, pupils are actively take parting in the interaction with it.
As has been mentioned above, both theories have great impact on modern-day instruction, including determining learning methods of my learning country: LOTE ( Gallic ) . Harmonizing to reading of Richards and Rodgers ( 2001 ) , “ linguistic communication command is represented as geting a set of appropriate linguistic communication stimulis-response chains. ” ( p.56 ) . Therefore they declare the inefficiency of the traditional manner of linguistic communication acquisition by reiterating words and phrases since merely by set uping this “ stimulis-response concatenation ” relationship can we increase the possible happening of consolidating words and phrases in linguistic communication acquisition and finally enables pupils to bring forth their ain sentences in communicating in a foreign linguistic communication. Skinner ‘s theories besides indicate positive support as more effectual in organizing a wont in linguistic communication by giving correct and reliable responses instead than doing errors which can be considered negative supports. For illustration, although holding been employed by some instructors, error-correction seems to set up a negative “ stimulis-response concatenation ” between scholars and mark linguistic communication, enforcing negative supports that might slow their acquisition of reliable linguistic communication. On the contrary, by practising or imitating duologues right pupils can minimise the possibility of doing errors in utilizing linguistic communication. This learning procedure could besides integrate multi-sensory attack to heighten the “ stimulis-response concatenation ” by actuating pupils ‘ senses as positive support. For case, when learning fruits in French, teacher can convey some existent fruits in the schoolroom and allow pupils to fit words with the letter writer fruits. By touching, smelling and even eating these fruits, pupils can construct a more solid “ stimulis-response concatenation ” than merely demoing them images since all senses are engaged in linguistic communication acquisition every bit good. Apart from Skinner ‘s theories of support, Vygotsky ‘s accent on social-cultural contexts should besides be included in linguistic communication instruction since linguistic communication acquisition is more than merely memorising words or phrases, scholars ‘ cultural consciousness and social-historical position plays an every bit of import function in sharing cognition and building a constructivism larning environment that provides pupils with contextual experience while actuating them to larn by themselves. We can non merely show a Gallic lesson about Victor Hugo ‘s Les Miserables without holistically adverting the alterations, reforms and rebellions of Gallic society in 19th century, otherwise merely larning vocabulary and sentence structure will insulate scholars from the social-historical context. Therefore presenting pupils with an infusion from a celebrated novel might non be far from adequate, instructor should seek to prosecute pupils in a purposeful and meaningful reading which enables them to make an consciousness of the characters in that text, instead than merely analyse the syntactic points in it. Therefore Richard and Rodgers ( 2001 ) concur that instructor ‘s function should be a facilitator who encourages pupils to organize their ain reading of the text instead than enforcing his ain comprehension of the text upon pupils, although instructor can assist pupils get the better of the lingual and cultural trouble for their better apprehension of the context. In add-on, scaffolding can besides be adopted in LOTE instruction by prosecuting instructor every bit good as some more capable equal scholars. By working with equal in groups, comparing notes or discoursing their sentiment about the text, scholars can see how others perceive the same subject in a different manner, which will emancipate them from a teacher-centered acquisition environment.
Since the traditional teacher-centered schoolroom seems no longer effectual in assisting pupils construct their ain mental model that can non be cloned from instructor ‘s cognition whose personal experience differs from those of the pupils. Therefore Killen ( 2009 ) declares that instructor ‘s function in the schoolroom might be altered to a facilitator who encourages pupils to build their cognition construction based on their personal experience instead than merely reassigning cognition to pupils. Meanwhile Allan and Evans ( 2006 ) suggest instructor should be a interior decorator who combines pupils personal experience with reliable and social-historical related contexts, guaranting pupils are non larning isolated from the existent universe, looking for the connexions between different subjects and finally enable pupils to grok the complex relationship of cognition after their internalisation of what they learned. A good instructor should be capable of comprehending pupils ‘ troubles in acquisition and it is critical for instructor to anticipate that all pupils can accomplish successfully in their acquisition since pupils are less likely to give up when confronting troubles every bit long as they believe are in control of their acquisition. But meanwhile Allan and Evans ( 2006 ) besides expect teacher to use and dispute pupils ‘ old cognition and actuate them to suit new cognition while believing critically about non merely the cognition itself, but besides their values, their attitude of justness, their perceptual experience of truth, their mentality on life, etc. Finally, they suggest appraisal of pupils should be uninterrupted in day-to-day instruction in the schoolroom alternatively of utilizing scrutinies as the lone manner to measure pupil ‘s learning advancement so pupils can acquire feedback from the instructor instantly and accordingly they can set their learning manner while steering their acquisition activities on their ain.