The National development programs of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ( KSA ) emphasised the cardinal doctrine for its successful modernisation ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) . This doctrine centred on the two major rules of developing the needed human resources via instruction and preparation and building ample economic substructure ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) .
Under The First Development Plan initiated in 1970, the dramatic quantitative development in the instruction sector has been overshadowed by the promotion in the qualitative development of instruction ( MOE, 2006 ) . This is borne out by the fact that, whilst the pupil Numberss in the system increased six times during the 1970s to the 1990s, the figure of full-time instructors grew by over nine times ( MOE, 2006 ) . The student-teacher ratio, at 15 pupils to a instructor, in The Kingdom is among the lowest worldwide ( MOE, 2006 ) .
The instruction sector has been among the foremost and most outstanding donees aboard and ensuing from the development of modern-day Saudi Arabia ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) . The Directorate of Education was instituted in 1925, and followed in the subsequent twelvemonth by the “ Basic Instructions ” that laid the basis for a centralized authorities system ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) . The initiation of the Ministry of Education ( MOE ) in 1953, under the Council of Ministers, led to the following phase of development of the modern instruction system in Saudi Arabia ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) .
Subsequent to the MOE being established, legion more schools were started which led to the nationwide enlargement of public instruction ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) . This fleet growing in instruction necessitated the formation of “ school territories ” all over the state to assist the Ministry in administering some of its duties of choosing and preparation of the module ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) . The KSA, in 1958, together with other Arab League members decided on a standardised instruction system that offered six old ages of simple instruction, three old ages of intermediate instruction followed by a three twelvemonth secondary stage with a discrete higher instruction plan ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) .
This survey evaluates the modus-operandi of the choice of instructors in the MOE in Saudi Arabia. It besides attempts to measure the benefits of the improved instruction system and the extent to which the reforms have been successful in fostering the societal, economic and spiritual causes of the Saudi Arabian state.
3.1 Overview of Saudi instruction system
With peculiar mention to the instruction system, the MOE ‘s ambitious Ten Year Plan is aiming, inter alia, its end of bettering the quality of its instructors and increasing the citizens ‘ engagement in the instruction sector to tackle the full potency of the Saudi human capital ( MOE, 2005 ) .
The elaborate aims emanating from these ends are: ( a ) to develop instruction and instruction methodological analysiss ( B ) to develop the procedures of educational supervising in conformance with the targeted development of the educational model ( degree Celsius ) to raise by 20 per centum the credence rate at instructor colleges of both female and male pupils specializing in Arabic, Science, Mathematics, Computer Science and English ( vitamin D ) To implement a reclamation agreement for the male and female module to be employed for five old ages and to be allowed calling pattern licenses ( vitamin E ) to spread out and from clip to clip run incorporate criterion trials for the male and female instructors ( degree Fahrenheit ) to transform the work system to allow the continuance of the distinguished professionals ‘ module at schools ( g ) to explicate a rewards and wagess construction to forestall the loss of high instruction professionals ( H ) to assemble and extend specific educational criterions for the male and female module public presentation supported by an answerability system and ( I ) to achieve a 95 per centum Saudinisation rate in all phases of the instruction and occupations stairss ( MOE, 2005 ) .
3.2 The Selection Process
The choice mechanism for the choice of instructors can be categorised under the six categorizations as follows: ( a ) one-year planning ( B ) making occupation requisitions ( degree Celsius ) sourcing campaigners ( vitamin D ) showing appliers ( vitamin E ) choosing appliers and ( degree Fahrenheit ) hiring appliers. The one-year planning procedure is used to set up the type and sum of employment that the MOE expects to bring forth every twelvemonth. The procedure is initiated with the creative activity of a occupation requisition for make fulling a vacancy based on the determination of the MOE on the quantum of visas that need to be issued for abroad enlistings. For bring forthing the needed figure of occupation requisitions, the MOE liaises with the different educational establishments to consider on their demands in footings of the occupations being replacings or fresh places, whether they are impermanent or lasting and whether they are accessible to abroad campaigners. Based on the figure of requisitions furnished by the establishment, the MOE sanctions the figure of enlistings based on the budgeted allotments. To beginning the appliers, the concerned occupation descriptions are forwarded to the outsourced external bureaus that are in charge of the choice procedure.
The procedure is taken frontward with the enlisting bureau executing the thorough preliminary showing and telephonic interviews against the submitted demands as per the occupation requisitions with the MOE, Saudi Arabia. Subsequently, a reappraisal of the short-listed campaigners ‘ is provided to the MOE which decides and provides feedback on whether there are equal suited campaigners. Based on the appliers and the recruiters ‘ interactions sing the handiness agenda of the appliers, the recruiter confirms the specific day of the months, times and coordinates of the interviews. The interviews are so held as scheduled and the interviews ‘ feedback is submitted for all the appliers. The recruiter so examines the interview feedback and communicates to the unsuccessful appliers. Based on the results, the recruiter makes to the campaigner a verbal offer and at the same time confirms the consequences to the MOE. In instance of the applicant declining the initial offer, deliberations on possible alterations to the offer are held by the choice bureau. On finalisation of the offer, the HR disposal squad completes the offer paperwork and the necessary formalities.
3.3 The value and slow advancement of reform
Prince Turki al-Faisal in USA Today ( 2006 ) avers that Saudi Arabia is sing dramatic introspection in that each aspect of Saudi Arabia ‘s civilization and society is being overtly discussed. He adds that there has been acknowledgment that an across-the-board, crystalline and modern instruction system utilizing its modern-day text edition is indispensable to the state ‘s growing and prosperity. Further, it has been opined that a considered alteration of this system is indispensable which is already good in advancement ( Ghafour, 2006 ) .
The mission statement of the Ministry of Education Centres on the development of rating procedures and educational measuring ( GDME, 2005 ) . The strategic ends associating to instructors ‘ development include: ( a ) the standardization and building of trials for the basic competences of instructors, school principals, pupil counselors and educational supervisors and ( B ) carry oning the rating surveies of the appropriate instruction methods, educational plans and course of study ( GDME, 2005 ) .
Jamal Khashoggi, in his interview with Foreign Exchange ( 2006 ) , stated “ aˆ¦the tide finally will be won over by the reformers to convey about a better instruction system which will better educate our young person to be more ambitious peculiarly after Saudi Arabia is going more and more incorporate with the universe. ” ( Ghafour, 2006, p 1 )
Sarah Whitson, the Middle East manager of Human Rights Watch stated that, in malice of the current educational reforms, the Saudi Arabian authorities is still incarcerating the school instructors for carry oning open arguments with their pupils. She added that the Saudi kids will go on to lose out every bit long as the instructors are hounded for making their occupations ( Whitson, 2005 ) . The Saudi Arabian bench is seting behind bars the advocators of legitimate instruction reform alternatively of supporting freedom of look ( Whitson, 2005 ) .
3.4 Good quality instructors and preparation plans
In Saudi Arabia, the instructor preparation programs have grown to be an indispensable portion of the instruction system ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) . During the last 50 old ages the criterions for the preparation of instructors have risen increasingly, fiting the general growing of the Kingdom ‘s educational system ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) . The current minimal making for learning at any educational degree is a four old ages unmarried man ‘s grade ( Sacm.org, 2006 ) .
The development, choice and preparation of module is another major focal point country of the undertaking and Saudi Riyals ( SR ) 2.94 billion has been allocated towards this intent of which a peculiar course of study development proposal will have SR 980 million ( Ghafour, 2006 ) . The Ministry of Education intends to implement seven developing plans for over 400,000 instructors, concentrating on their critical countries of educational supervising, single specialisation, computing machine scientific discipline, school direction, self-development and the betterment of soft and difficult accomplishments ( Ghafour, 2006 ) .
3.5 Causes of hapless occupation satisfaction
The probe of the relationship between occupation satisfaction and the selected critical variables through the non parametric Kruskal-Wills statistical trial disclosed of import disparities between occupation satisfaction ( in footings of relationship with the relevant direction, morale, caput instructors ‘ authorization, the school environment, and overall occupation satisfaction ) with mention to the educational supervising Centres ( Alzaidi, 2008 ) .
Additionally, a farther Kruskal-Wills trial exposed important divergencies between occupation satisfaction among the caput instructors ‘ patterns in relation to the completion of the programmes associating to the caput instructors ‘ preparation ( Alzaidi, 2008 ) . Conversely, there were no major differences in occupation satisfaction related to the parametric quantities of experience, head-teachers ‘ makings and ages, pupil Numberss and school edifice types ( Alzaidi, 2008 ) . It was further identified that the highly centralized Saudi educational system and the absence of liberty are the standards that affect occupation satisfaction ( Alzaidi, 2008 ) .
The analysis highlights the factors involved in groking the mechanism for the choice of instructors in the MOE. It is revealed that a serious consideration is required by the Saudi Education Ministry to understand how the modern-day enterprises need to be implemented to augment the choice and working environment of the modules across the board ( Alzaidi, 2008 ) . This choice procedure will besides necessitate to see the societal and psychological properties and attitudes of the prospective module employees ; this has been sorely missing in the choice procedure to day of the month.
The findings demonstrate that premium educational quality is chiefly correlated to the significance of the caput instructors ‘ map in looking the educational procedure. ( Alzaidi, 2008 ) Furthermore, the MOE must give peculiar consideration to the topic of the consequence of the highly centralized construction by intrusting more of its powers to the schools ‘ head-teachers and instructors with the aim of restricting the consequence of the centralized construction and maximising the schools ‘ liberty ( Alzaidi, 2008 ) . This will enable the maximization of the value-addition of the instructor choice mechanism in footings of greater instructor keeping and lower abrasion degrees ( Alzaidi, 2008 ) . In order to heighten the value of this analysis, future research would be necessitated, utilizing the factor analysis technique to descry exactly the most of import standards which affect secondary school caput instructors ‘ occupation satisfaction ensuing subsequent to their successful choice through the enlisting procedure ( Alzaidi, 2008 ) .
In visible radiation of the above analysis, it is recommended that the choice mechanism for enlisting of instructors to the MOE takes into history the socio-economic environment every bit good as the gait of reforms of the Saudi economic system, apart from the standard makings and demands. It is farther observed that the choice mechanism will necessitate to turn to the defects of the institutional spreads due to the past enlisting procedures and policies. This will enable the fulfillment of the societal, spiritual and economic norms in footings of the choice, preparation and keeping of quality modules in all the educational establishments in Saudi Arabia.