Cultural Identity

Understanding the nexus of High Commitment Work Practices ( HCWPs ) to public presentation has been of great involvement to both faculty members and practicians in the field of Human Resource Management ( Becker and Huselid 1998 ; Combs, Lui, Hall, Ketchen 2006 ; Marchington, Zagelmeyer 2005 ) with tremendous attending being focused in this country of research over the last 15 old ages ( CIPD Sparham and Sun ) as it non merely allows faculty members to construct on HCWP theory, but besides enables practicians to warrant investing in HPWPs and therefore Human Resource Management as a whole. Beardwell et al 2004 in their gap chapter identify two of the largest subjects which have dominated this country of research:

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“ The first subject is that of HRMs replacing of older tradition [ … ] The 2nd subject concerned to analyze the specific impact of focussed types of HRM such as High Commitment Management in order to measure their high quality over [ … ] traditional methods ” ( Beardwell, Holden and Claydon, p5 ; 2004 )

There has been increasing research being carried particularly with respects to the 2nd subject ; the impact of HCWPs ( Tamikin 2004 ; Beardwell et Al 2004 ; Combs et Al 2006 ) with the bulk of the grounds indicating to HCWPs holding a more positive nexus to both organizational productiveness and fiscal public presentation over more traditional methods. It is illustrated amongst many research grounds that HCWPs lead to positive results for employees as it leads to heighten preparation and accomplishments, greater staff committedness and higher net incomes for many employees which in bend leads to greater productiveness additions and profitableness as these better employee conditions lead to a lower staff turnover, better teamwork and greater staff committedness ( CIPD… . ) , with many of these research workers indicating to an extended usage of HCWPs within the UK.

However, non all administrations within the UK are seen to hold adopted HCWPs within their administration, or they have adopted HCWPs but non extensively adequate to thoroughly harvest the benefits of those links of HCWPs to public presentation. Many grounds have been given for this ranging from the execution of merely one or two of the HCWPs instead than ‘bundles ‘ , the wrong combination of HCWPs implemented into different organizational contexts. Reflecting the first subject noted in Bearwell et Al 2004 earlier, one country which has prevailed is whether HCWPs have replaced the traditional methods of direction. Within the UK many argue that traditional direction methods still exist and follow scientific direction methods ( Combs, Lui, Hall, Ketchen 2006 ) non merely this but in some instances administrations are utilizing traditional methods such as occupation design to present HCWPs into the workplace, with Tamikin 2004 observing how in the UK less than a one-fourth of administrations adopt HCWPs to any important context.

From this it can be seen that in order to thoroughly analyse the grounds which links HCWPs to organizational public presentation in the context of the UK an scrutiny and logical thinking of the usage of traditional methods coupled with occupation designs based on rules of scientific direction of HRM within the UK is required. To win in this in depth analysis four countries shall be followed. First, an debut to HRM theoretical accounts and patterns ; secondly a elaborate analysis of the literature associating HPWPs to public presentation giving illustrations of administrations which have successfully adopted these ; thirdly discoursing the grounds that administrations are go oning to utilize traditional direction manner coupled with occupation designs based on rules of scientific direction and eventually looking at the concluding why some administrations are go oning to make so, before reasoning the grade to which HPWPs are in fact linked to public presentation.

To acquire an apprehension of the HRM manners of direction which are in usage in the UK and their links to organizational public presentation and overview of HRM theoretical accounts and different manners of directions are needed as these will enable a more thorough apprehension of HPWPS and traditional manners of direction and besides gives AIDSs in understanding the concluding why administrations are go oning with these traditional direction methods. There are two chief positions of HRM the unitarist position where there is the position that the ends and purposes of the administration stakeholders can be aligned and everyone within the administration works together to accomplish these ends, this position is closely associated with the Hard Model of HRM which every bit Beardwell et al 2004 provinces are the ‘particular policies that stress the cost minimization scheme ‘ which is the deployment of people meet concern aims, labor is viewed s a resource. It is about the control of people to take down cost and the usage of labor as a resource. These positions and theoretical accounts are more closely linked to those traditional and scientific control direction methods which will be discussed subsequently.

The other position is that of Pluralism this position is the designation that there are conflicting ends and aims with people within the administration for illustration stockholders want high dividends while employees strive for higher wage as possible, and the function of the HR directors are to happen different ways to pull off these. This pluralist position is linked closely to the Soft HRM theoretical account which is viewed as the developmental humanitarianism in which person is integrated into a work procedure that values trust, committedness and communicating ( Beardwell and Claydon 2004 ) , it is viewed within this theoretical account that there are a figure of best patterns that can be used for occupation enrichment, and efforts are made to heighten committedness and quality of workers.

This links to our chief organic structure of analysis which is that of the ‘High Commitment Work Practices ‘ which arrived into treatment in the late eightiess ( ARTICLE 1 ) , nevertheless over the decennaries this has been researched under a overplus of different nomenclature which doubtless could do much confusion to faculty members and practicians. In some instances HCWPs are called ‘high commitment direction ‘ ( Walton 1985 ; Wood 1996 ) , ‘high engagement direction ‘ ( Lawler 1986 ) or more extensively used is the term ‘high public presentation management/work patterns ‘ ( Combs et al 2006 ; Marchington, Zagelmeyer 2005 ; Huselid 1995 ; Tamikin 2004 ; Thompson 2000 ) . For the instance of this analysis nevertheless HCWPs shall be used to mention to each of the grounds being analysed.

HCWPs definition is capable to uninterrupted argument with the figure of work patterns included besides differing amongst research workers, for illustration it can be defined as a set of complementary work patterns covering three wide classs ; high engagement patterns, human resource direction patterns and wages and committedness patterns which are seen to cover 35 different work patterns ( Sung and Aston? ? ? ? ) . Tamikin ( 2004 ) besides identifies in his survey how Guest ( ? ? ? ) identifies 18 cardinal patterns and Thompson ( 2000 ) identifies 30 in his probe into the usage of HCWPs in the UK aerospace. Pfeffer ( 1998 ) identified seven best patterns for which it was viewed employees needed in order to be committed, these being employment security ; selective hiring of new forces ; Self managed squads and decentralization of determination devising ; high rewards linked to steadfast public presentation ; extended preparation ; reduced position differentiations and barriers and communications engagement. Overall it can be viewed that high committedness direction purpose is to promote employee committedness to administrations in order to better organizational public presentation which can be done through transfusing a figure of different of work patterns. These differing work patterns used amongst different research workers are illustrated in Appendix One.

Now that we have an apprehension of what constitutes HCWPs, cognition as to how it is thought to take to increased public presentation shall be illustrated. HCWPs attacks are seen to supply a figure of of import beginnings for enhanced organizational public presentation and research workers point to three go-betweens through which HCWPs consequence organizational public presentation. First HCWPs addition employees knowledge accomplishments and abilities which are needed to finish occupation undertakings ( Delery and Shaw 2000 cited in Combs et al 2006 ) . Second HCWPs empower employees to move and HCWPs are seen to actuate employees to work. Jointly these three go-betweens encourage people to work harder because of an increased engagement and committedness which comes from holding more control and say over their work i.e. more control over their occupation designs and by puting more duty into the custodies of employees farther down the administration it saves on disposal operating expenses and other costs associated with holding an alienated work force related to traditional direction methods ( Pfeffer 1998 ) . These in bend lead to greater occupation satisfaction, lower absenteeism ( Sparham and Sung ) , reduced employee turnover and greater productiveness ( Combs et al 2006 ) and corporate fiscal public presentation ( Huselid 1995 ) therefore taking to improved organizational public presentation.

There is significant grounds of these links to public presentation in the UK which through analyzing a big sum of diary articles, studies and books it can be clearly seen that this grounds demoing a nexus of HCWPs to high organizational public presentation has changing consequences in both industry and organizational broad context but besides in the existent method of acceptance of HCWPs, with Combs et Al ( 2006 ) gauging that for each unit addition of HCWP usage administrations can increase their public presentation by.20 of a standardized unit. Other grounds identifies how certain ‘bundles ‘ of the work patterns illustrated in appendix one can increase public presentation more than others ( Sung and Aston, Sparham and Sung ) . For illustration Thompson ( 2000 ) when analyzing the usage of HCWPs in the UK aerospace industry he identified that the aerospace public presentation comprises of ‘three distinct and complementary packages of patterns – human resources, employee, engagement and industrial dealingss ‘ , with the execution of certain ‘bundles ‘ as being more effectual at bettering public presentation than implementing merely one of the HCWPs.

As stated earlier there is grounds that HCWPs exist in different industries for illustration Walton ( 1985 ) notes that non merely do uninterrupted procedure industries benefit from HCWPs but besides traditional fabrication industries. This is besides supported by other research, Combs et Al ( 2006 ) stated how they believed how HCWPs had larger effects among fabricating industry as they are better aligned with fabrication work, for illustration HCWPs accent on teamwork are effectual as they help workers work out complex jobs originating from high undertaking mutuality among fabricating phases. Thompson ( 2000 ) besides notes concluding for makers for following HCWPs is due to the current fabrication environment. The altering market kineticss such as planetary competition has forced administrations to greatly better their competiveness and derive competitory advantage through making competitory advantage by implementing HCWPs into their administrations taking to higher net income rates. This was besides proved in the UK by Edwards in 1987 ( cited in Fernie and Metcalf ( 1995 ) ) when he interviewed 230 directors and found that fabrication houses that used HCWPs had a higher net income rate than those that did non.

There is grounds of the usage of HCWPs within UK administrations in order to better organizational public presentation within a big proportion of the literature analysed. Evidence of administrations within the UK context following HCWPs includes administrations from both service sectors and fabricating industries. They include Nissan, IBM and Hewlett Packard ( Wood 1996 ) ; GM motors ( Osterman 1994 ) ; Aspect and Capital, , Data connexion, Flight Centre, i-level, Quest Diagnostics, St. Lukes, Timpson, W L Gore ( CIPD ) ; Pannone & A ; Spouses and Bacardi & A ; Martini ( CIPD and Sparham and Sung ) . In order to thoroughly analyse the grounds within the UK a more elaborate expression into the two instance surveies of Bacardi & A ; Martini and Pannone & A ; Partners will be analysed as this demonstrates the grounds of the usage of HCWPs in both a fabrication context and service sector context.


These two instance surveies discussed and grounds shown antecedently have illustrated the successful execution of HCWPs into the UK organizational context, those that have successfully implemented this soft theoretical account attack to HRM wholly are seen to hold taken the ‘high route ‘ to accomplishing enhanced public presentation ( Guest and Conway 2007 ) through implementing HCWPs as a agency to heighten employee committedness and engagement. However through carry oning an analysis into the literature there are still those that criticise whether a significant nexus between HCWPs and organizational public presentation exists and debating the grounds of administrations within the UK really following HCWPs.

( ARTICLE one ) through analyzing the UK Workplace Industrial Relations Survey ( WERS ) found that there was a low acceptance of single HCWPs and an even lower sum of administrations utilizing the HCWPs as a whole bundle, back uping this is Tamikin ( 2004 ) where he described surveies in the UK on this informations have come to differing decisions as he illustrates the HCWPs incursion was shown as runing from 2 % to 26 % of companies. Marchington and Zagelmeyer ( 2005 ) note that most surveies lacked consistence and reported atomization and short-termism when implementing HCWPs instead than the deployment of consistent and incorporate HCWPs. Walton ( 1985 ) besides noted how most administrations made a limited set of alterations when implementing HCWPs in a passage to a committedness attack. Guest et Al ( 2000 ) ( cited in Tamikin 2004 ) that merely one per centum of the companies in the WERS used three quarters of the HCWPs.

Many statements are given for the concluding why directors have non to the full implemented HCWPs into their administrations. One country is that the usage of legion different nomenclatures for HCWPs, the differing histories by research workers as to which work patterns are involved in high committedness direction, non merely this but the variable literature on what ‘bundles ‘ of work patterns are successful, there is besides no prescribed manner as to how or what work patterns to implement into each administration as it is dependent on a assortment of factors. This grounds shows that despite the positive effects on public presentation illustrated earlier directors are either non positive that acceptance of HCWPs work or they find the procedure of implementing them excessively hard ( Tamkin 2004 ) . Guest and Conway ( 2006 ) expand this noting that there is grounds that though the bulk of the linguistic communication of soft HRM theoretical account is apparent the bulk of employers are still taking the ‘low road’/hard HRM theoretical account attack to public presentation and non effectual used of high committedness theoretical account, there is besides grounds that a manner in which administrations have taken this ‘low route ‘ attack is by following HCWPs within the administration though scientific direction methods such as occupation design ( CIPD, Patterson et Al, Kling, Guest and Conway ) .

This ‘low road/hard theoretical account ‘ attack adopted by directors in implementing HCWPs into administrations in the UK leads us onto the 3rd country of analysis. The difficult theoretical account of HRM is strongly associated with traditional methods of HRM and there is significant grounds within literature that many administrations are following attack to following HCWPs. In order to grok the grounds demoing this acceptance an apprehension of what is traditional direction more significantly the attack to Job design based on the scientific rules are required. Frederick W Taylor is seen by many to be the male parent of traditional direction manner ( Walton 1985 ) , for which he followed the impression that the best direction “ is a true scientific discipline, resting upon clearly defined Torahs, regulations and rules as a foundation ” ( Taylor? ? ? ? . A outstanding component of this traditional scientific method of direction is the thought of interrupting down of undertakings. For which the work of every adult male could be to the full planned out by direction, depicting in item as the undertaking which an employee demands to carry through, in this position direction begins from a capitalist point of position instead than a humanistic position ( Braverman? ? ? ? ) which HCWPs follow, in the latter labor is viewed as a agency to deriving capital. It is really much a control orientated attack to HRM as shown earlier.

Under this controlled attack there is a immense difference in the occupation design rules ( Walton 1985 ) compared to high committedness direction attack for which as illustrated antecedently single employees are encouraged to work as squads, there is a flexible definition of their responsibilities and the occupation design emphasises the whole undertaking including both the thought and making of it. Traditional occupation designs nevertheless are based on scientific rules for which there is a fixed occupation definition, squad work is non encouraged and answerability is focused straight on the person whose attending is besides limited to executing single undertakings ( Walton 1985 ) and which is extremely controlled for which committedness does non boom.

Since the 1970s the traditional Ford manner of mass production has run into much trouble and has needed to alter its attack to direction in order to derive competitory advantage, as due to globalisation the rapid demands of both clients and employees has changed ( Biazzo, Panizzolo 1999 ) . In many instances this has led to many administrations who used to follow the traditional direction attack trying to follow the HCWPs mentioned earlier in order to go competitory, nevertheless they do so they are maintaining the occupation designs already in topographic point. Truss et Al ( cited in Marchington, Zagelmeyer 2005 ) found that in those administrations that are trying to follow HCWPs, while the linguistic communication of the HCWPs was apparent in them so excessively was the difficult theoretical account or traditional direction underscoring fiscal control. In many of the literature it was seen that these administrations whilst trying to implement HCWPs and promote employee engagement and committedness are making so utilizing occupation designs associated with traditional scientific rules.

A immense illustration of this is the instance of McDonalds ; though this administration does non arise in the UK it is found widely here. McDonalds which can be seen as a quintessential illustration of the using occupation designs based on scientific direction. As McDonalds efforts to authorise employees through employee engagement, with the offer of McDonald ‘s concern grades to some of their staff, an accent is besides placed on taking employees ideas into history. However what is apparent is that McDonalds is trying to follow such HCWPs of squad work and employee engagement in one manner but is making so with occupation designs that are strongly associated to that of scientific methods. As each and every occupation is within McDonald ‘s is clearly defined particularly at the lower degrees of the administration, this is farther shown by the similarities in every McDonalds across the UK and nationally. However, in making this McDonalds is still really profitable but this attack to occupation design and non following HCWPs right may be the ground McDonalds is seen to hold a big labor turnover ( Royle 1999 ) and as Lashley ( 1996 ) illustrates the purposes behind McDonald directors is non to increase employee committedness or engagement but to it is a desire to supply more focal point on the organizational net incomes. Other illustrations of administrations utilizing traditional direction manners include Ryanair and besides Asda.


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