Cooking a dinner, heating a house, illuming a street, maintaining a infirmary unfastened, running a mill – all these necessitate energy. Energy is therefore at the bosom of everybody ‘s quality of life and a important factor for economic fight and employment. As planetary population and energy demands are increasing hand-in-hand ; it is inevitable that options to the ruling production system of energy are required. This is where the CT Power undertaking – a coal based energy bring forthing system comes into drama. Unfortunately this dodo based energy system is said non to be sustainable as it contributes well to climate alteration and other impacts as good and depends to a great extent on imports. Consequently at that place seems to be the double challenge of fulfilling increasing energy demands and fulfilling the MID Vision for sustainability at the same clip. The cardinal aim here is to analyze how far this undertaking is lending to the MID Vision. In order to prosecute this work, secondary information has been collected in the signifier of on-line academic diaries and electronic articles.
Keywords: CT Power undertaking, coal based energy bring forthing, sustainability, MID Vision.
Table of Contentss
Maurice Ile Durable ( MID ) Vision
Though many people have heard of Maurice Ile lasting ( MID ) , the bulk can non give it a proper definition except for tie ining it with words like green or sustainability. In the wide sense, the words are just plenty but the construct itself is that of uninterrupted amendments to our life styles so as to cut down our ecological footmarks through advanced and responsible agencies therefore breaking the lives of future coevalss.
The MID procedure involves a participatory attack towards lucubrating a national scheme for sustainable development, taking to take on board the aspirations of the whole society in order to make a strong sense of belonging to the state.
To further consolidate the MID procedure, the Government constituted six working groups to work out on the undermentioned subjects, covering the 5Es of MID, viz. Energy, Environment, Education, Employment and Equity. The MID vision has every bit chief aim to do Mauritius a theoretical account of sustainable development.
CT Power ( Mauritius ) Ltd submitted by developers from Malaysia in coaction with the Central Electricity Board ( CEB ) is a coal-based power coevals undertaking, which is a publically unasked command. It was issued in 2006 to construct and run a coal power station of 110 MW capacities at Point-aux- Caves, Albion. The site of the new power works is an country of a 100 estates, which is located less than 150 metres from the beacon of Albion. Incredibly, 6 old ages subsequently, the undertaking is still mired in a legal and environmental embroilment with no terminal in sight. Very controversial undertaking and hazard on the one manus, because of the deficiency of transparence, and the other, the usage of coal, which, retrieve, is one of the most polluting fossil fuels. This undertaking has been waiting several months for its Environment Impact Assessment ( EIA ) Licence. Following strong protests from environmental organisations and public compared to existent hazards posed by this undertaking on the environment, the governments have decided to inquire experts ‘ advice.
Theories of Sustainability
In its actual basicss, sustainability means a capacity to keep some entity, result, or procedure over clip. Agriculture, forest direction, or fiscal investing might be deemed sustainable, intending that the activity does non wash up the material resources on which it depends. An correspondent usage of the term “ sustainability ” refers to dependent societal conditions ; for illustration, a peace pact, an economic policy, or a cultural pattern may be called sustainable if it will non wash up the support of a political community. In its progressively common usage, the construct of sustainability frames the ways in which environmental jobs jeopardize the conditions of healthy economic, ecological, and societal systems. ( Jenkins, n.d. )
Theories of sustainability effort to prioritise and incorporate societal responses to environmental and cultural jobs. An economic theoretical account looks to prolong natural and fiscal capital ; an ecological theoretical account looks to biological diverseness and ecological unity ; a political theoretical account looks to societal systems that realize human self-respect. Religion has entered the argument with symbolic, critical, and motivational resources for cultural alteration. ( Jenkins, n.d. )
The thought of sustainability came to public attending after a 1972 study, “ Limits to Growth, ” issued by the international think armored combat vehicle Club of Rome. In 1980 the World Conservation Strategy developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, in coaction with the U.N. The term “ sustainable development ” achieved international public prominence through the 1987 study of the World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future, frequently called the “ Brundtland Report ” after the name of its chair, former Norse premier curate Gro Harlem Brundtland. It presented the celebrated definition: “ Sustainable development is development that meets the demands of the present without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands ” . ( Jenkins, n.d. )
But settling what we owe to the hereafter involves moral challenges of precedence: Does the hereafter need capital more than community, beauty more than chance? Whose future-that of worlds? Of all species? Of the Earth? More significantly, cut downing sustainability to an duty to future coevalss ignores the relation of these duties to the demands of the present. Surely in its hunt for lasting responses to planetary jobs sustainability is a temporally prospective construct, but it does non cut down considerations of the hereafter because it includes modern-day jobs ( like get the better ofing utmost poorness ) . As the Brundtland definition indicates, sustainability must seek a manner to equilibrate duties to the present and the hereafter. So discourses and arguments of sustainability aspire to screen out connexions and precedences among an ecologically affiliated series of planetary duties. ( Jenkins, n.d. )
The United States has a long route in front in transforming its electrical coevals to greener beginnings of power, no uncertainty about that. But non every state faces the same energy challenges. Some states have it much easier, already utilizing a great trade of renewable energy. ( McDermott, 2009 )
It may be difficult to believe but there are a figure of states whose electricity comes wholly or really near to wholly from renewable energy beginnings. When it comes to doing the passage to low-carbon electricity, all of the clip that includes a brawny part of hydropower, which much of the clip is n’t precisely green in footings of environmental impact ( or sometimes societal impact ) but in footings of existent electricity coevals is carbon-free and does utilize a renewable resource. ( McDermott, 2009 )
Whether spread outing hydropower truly is a sustainable option in the long-run is surely up for argument, but it is manner better than firing fossil fuels. ( McDermott, 2009 )
Leading the universe green electricity race are Iceland and Norway, both bring forthing a full 100 % of their electricity from green beginnings — Norway gets 99 % from hydro and 1 % from other renewable beginnings of energy ; Iceland has, as many people know, a good trade of geothermic power ( 27 % ) , with hydro doing up the staying 73 % . ( McDermott, 2009 )
Coming in 3rd place is Costa Rica, which gets 94 % of its electricity from green beginnings: 76 % hydropower and 18 % from other renewable beginnings ( mostly geothermic ) . ( McDermott, 2009 )
Fourth topographic point is occupied by 4 ) Brazil, with 87 % hydropower and other renewable beginnings of electricity. 5 ) Colombia holds down 5th topographic point with 80 % renewable electricity ( all but 1 % , once more, hydropower ) . ( McDermott, 2009 )
Manner at the other terminal of the graduated table are some states which have it much, much worse. A smattering of states which are wholly dependent on a non-renewable and extremely Cs intensive manner to bring forth electricity: Coal.
At the underside of the pile is Poland which has the fastest-growing economic system in the European Union and the power that drives it comes from the dirtiest of fossil fuels, coal. Coal produces about 93 % of Poland ‘s electricity and the industry employs more than 100,000 people. It ‘s a inexpensive manner to bring forth energy but it provides an tremendous concern for any authorities seeking to keep economic growing and besides run into ever-stricter EU nursery gas emanation marks. ( Easton, 2012 )
Much of that power – around fifth part of the state ‘s electricity – is produced from merely one works, Elektrownia Belchatow, in cardinal Poland. It is Europe ‘s largest thermic power works and its biggest defiler, breathing the equivalent of stopping point to 39 million metric tons of CO2 last twelvemonth, a rise of 31 % from 2010 thanks to the commissioning of a new unit in September. Poland ‘s future usage of coal is determined mostly by the EU ‘s Emissions Trading Scheme ( ETS ) , one of the cardinal policies introduced by the 27-member axis to cut down nursery gas emanations. ( Easton, 2012 )
Similarly South Africa piled right on top of Poland. While the cost of electricity in South Africa is among the universe ‘s lowest, the state ‘s strong economic growing, rapid industrialization and a mass electrification programme led, by early 2008, to demand for power surpassing supply. ( south Africa info, n.d. )
South Africa ‘s economic system is structured around large-scale, energy-intensive excavation and primary minerals benefication industries, forcing its “ energy strength ” to above norm, with merely 10 other states holding higher commercial primary energy strengths. ( south Africa info, n.d. )
South Africa besides uses coal, its major autochthonal energy resource, to bring forth most of its electricity and a important proportion of its liquid fuels. Because of this, South Africa is the fourteenth highest emitter of nursery gases. ( south Africa info, n.d. )
However, the state is committed to cut downing emanations, and is a signer to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. Eskom has said it is committed to cut downing coal ‘s current 88 % portion of South Africa ‘s primary energy mix to 78 % by 2012 and to 70 % by 2025. ( south Africa info, n.d. )
The power supply crisis has accelerated the demand to diversify Eskom ‘s energy mix and its move towards alternate energy beginnings such as atomic power and natural gas, every bit good as assorted signifiers of renewable energy. ( south Africa info, n.d. )
And so there is the 10,000 lb elephant in the room: China. The universe ‘s figure one manufacturer of nursery gases gets 80 % of its electricity from coal.
China is the 2nd largest energy consumer in the universe and most of its energy ingestion is coal. This laterality of coal is non expected to fall significantly even as China ‘s energy demand grows. The Chinese rely on coal for about two-thirds of their entire energy production. And with comparatively abundant militias of coal, and comparatively scarce militias of other fossil fuels, as China increases energy production, coal will stay their chief beginning of energy. ( Feller, 2008 )
Meanwhile coal production in China additions at an amazing gait, and most of the operating coal workss in China deficiency modern scrubbers to take gross air pollution. In this respect, concerns over CO2 may be misplaced. It could be that black carbon black that settles on north-polar ice is warming the northern polar parts more than the CO2 that accompanies that carbon black. And the ill-health attender to that carbon black is beyond argument. The costs to take echt pollution, N dioxide, sulpher dioxide, C monoxide, particulate affair and toxic metals – is far, far less dearly-won than trying to sequester the CO2 emanations. And the engineering to make this is good established. ( Feller, 2008 )
It is traveling to take decennaries for clean renewables to replace coal. In the interim, the international community should promote the Chinese to at least clean up their coal emanations. Geting rid of the particulates and other pollutants would better the wellness of 100s of 1000000s of people, it would forestall black carbon black from runing northern ice, and unlike strategies for CO2 segregation – or stoping coal firing all together – it is executable in the short term. ( Feller, 2008 )
While China ‘s coal resources are deemed sufficient for its demands in the coming two decennaries, the environmental cost of coal usage is already get downing to take its toll, peculiarly through SO2 and NOX emanations which are the prima causes of acerb rain. In 2002, approximately 34 per centum ( or 6.6 million dozenss ) of China ‘s SO2 emanations were released from power workss. Acid rain falls on an estimated 30 per centum of China ‘s land mass and can go a menace to agricultural end product. China ‘s CO2 emanations, now even exceling those from the United States, are besides a menace to the planetary environment. A combination of clean-coal engineerings at the input, processing and end product phases of the power coevals procedure, the enforcement of emanation control ordinance, and sector policies ( such as pricing ) have the possible to extenuate the environmental impact of coal usage. Significant decreases in environmental impact in the long-run will necessitate a major attempt.
( Anon. , 2006 )
Mauritius has no known oil, coal or gas militias and is to a great extent dependent on imported beginnings of energy. More than 70 % of the state ‘s electricity demands were met from oil in the 80 ‘s. With the volatility of the monetary value of oil and instability in the middle-east, there has been increasing concerns about the exposure of the Mauritanian economic system as a consequence of its dependance on oil. The scheme of determination shapers has been to diversity the beginnings of energy with the debut of coal and bagasse in the power production mix. ( Balnac et al. , n.d. )
The power landscape is characterized by the Central Electricity Board ( CEB ) and the Independent Power Producers ( IPPs ) . The CEB, a duty to bring forth 40.7 statute law has the monopoly over the transmittal, distribution and commercialisation of electricity. CEB ‘s production is fired by fuel oil and kerosine and, to a minimum extent, air current. There are nine hydro workss and merely three are able to bring forth all twelvemonth unit of ammunition during peak hours. IPPs are private power generators of the Sugar Industry who produce the electricity demands of the bagasse ( a byproduct of sugar production ) hours a twenty-four hours. IPPs can be classified as uninterrupted manufacturers, firing from bagasse merely in the harvest season, and house manufacturers, firing bagasse and coal all twelvemonth unit of ammunition. ( Balnac et al. , n.d. )
Analysis of CT Power Project ‘s Contribution to MID Vision
For the analysis of the CT Power undertaking ‘s part to the MID Vision, it will be tested against the four major pillars of sustainable development.
Creation of occupation
Direct Impacts are the initial, immediate economic activities generated by a undertaking. The figure of lasting occupations for locals will turn from 60 to 150 over clip. These occupations will be managerial/administrative, professional and skilled occupations in the chief, with merely a few semi- and un-skilled occupations. As workers will be trained by C.T. Power the ensuing transportation of accomplishments is a benefit to the persons trained and to the economic system as a whole. This impact is good and lasting.
Planned investings in this undertaking are about Rs 5 billion. CT Power argues that cardinal economic benefits accruing to the CEB from the Government of Mauritius include uncluttering CEB incurring debt and equity avoiding, cut downing the overall debt duty of Government Estimated U.S. dollars by twelvemonth 139 140 000, and there should be a net economy from runing more dearly-won oil workss owned by CEB. However here the economic benefits seem to be merely for the authorities and CEB, but from a consumer point of position will be it sustainable.
Interrupting Monopoly of energy production
Sugar estates which enjoy a monopoly of independent electricity coevals particularly the Independent Power Producers ( IPP ) will be threatened as the monetary value at which PPIs sell electricity to the CEB is two times higher than that proposed by CT Power. And so they sell or non electricity to CEB, established under the understanding, it must still pay them.
Decrease in monetary value of electricity
CT Power will let a 40 % lessening in electricity monetary values harmonizing to Murday Menon, president of the Mauritius Tamil Temples Federation. The excess money will decidedly better criterion of life.
The most of import issue here is “ Import escape ” . Neither a province economic system nor its constituent sectors are self-contained. All sectors require imports, either from abroad or from elsewhere in the domestic economic system. A high rate of imports ( which tends to be a larger in an unfastened market ) consequences in a important escape, outside the local economic system, of the initial investing stimulation and, therefore, a smaller impact on that economic system. The smaller the part is, the larger the escape would be as more industrial merchandises can non be produced domestically like the coal that will be imported. Therefore, in an unfastened and little economic system such as Mauritius, there would be a leakage consequence from the undertaking.
Supplanting of other economic activities
The building and operation of power works may hold deductions for bing nearby touristry developments and for the hereafter development of the local country in footings of non-energy sectors such as touristry and agribusiness. At this clip, the closest touristry development is represented by the La Plantation d’Albion Club Med hotel and IRS resort about 5km from the proposed development. A Club Med representative has revealed concerns for the possible negative impacts on the profitableness of the resort originating from a diminution in room tenancy as prospective invitees ( largely Gallic tourers with a likely negative perceptual experience of coal-burning energy coevals ) decide non to remain at the resort. The fiscal cost and benefits can non be quantified accurately. It is really likely that the being of the power station will hold some negative impacts on the possible clients of the resort ( and those who arrive non cognizing about the power station ) although it is considered improbable that it the negative impacts will be big plenty to coerce Club Med to close down.
Few states are at greater hazard from semisynthetic clime alteration than Mauritius. Rio+20 is naming for planetary understandings to cut nursery gas emanations. So why is our authorities sabotaging the cause by repeatedly declaring its committedness to char?
Is it because Mauritius is such a little state, our emanations are undistinguished compared with the major defilers ; hence, we can make what we like – it is up to the larger states to alter. While true on a national degree, it is less on a per capita footing. Why would a citizen of the US feel compelled to cut down his C footmark if a Mauritian is determined to increase his? Previous UN conferences turn toing clime alteration have revealed the reluctance of states to move. This surely does non travel for the sustainable vision of MID undertaking
The Environment Appeal Tribunal has at long last delivered its findings on the instance of C.T. Power against the Minister of Environment non to allow an EIA licence for the building and operation of a 2X55 MW coal fired power station at Pointe-aux-Caves.
What is alone about the farther development of this undertaking remains the hastiness with which the proceedings are brought by developers, although major shadows looming on the skyline.
Besides Government indecisiveness and the hold in finding the entreaty of the C.T. Power instance confront CEB with a hard pick: either to continue with C.T. Power or transport on with the installing of another 2X15MW engines at St-Louis. All these are taking to turmoil among the population and all stakeholders involved and hapless transparence on the undertaking.
Ironically, the Government of Malaysia has late rejected programs to construct a coal power station at Sabah on the island of Borneo on environmental evidences.
Flora and Fauna
Whilst here in Mauritius we are non witting about the serious apprehensivenesss that are maintained on the Marine vegetation and zoology with the pumping of sea H2O for chilling demands and discharge of effluent into the sea or the transit of some 1600 dozenss of coal per twenty-four hours at Pointe-aux-Caves.
This pumping of H2O will impact the presence of certain species of marine wildlife that find safety in this portion of the Indian Ocean at critical periods of development particularly for some fish species sing which come in the country for feeding besides the transition of giants and dolphins off the West seashore at different times of the twelvemonth. This will in bend affect the fishermen activities.
Flic-en-Flac and Albion are considered first-class point of views to bask this show which is every bit good as the tourer attractive force of the West seashore. Argument about the saving of the marine ecosystem off the seashore of Albion is merely get downing. There seems no saving of Marine wildlife which is one time once more against the MID Vision.
Water and Waste Water ingestion
The proposed building of the thermic power works in Pointe-aux-Caves is a major consumer of H2O in a part enduring from a deficit of supply. The maximal capacity of 50 three-dimensional metres of H2O per twenty-four hours from the Central Water Authority will be far from sufficient to run into the demands of about 2500 three-dimensional metres. Therefore, treatments are afoot to deviate some of the H2O for irrigation. The job will be more critical during the building stage of the power works.
Furthermore for the operation of the power works, CT Power will utilize a contract for the usage of recycled H2O from the Wastewater Management Authority to an norm of 4,500 three-dimensional metres of “ Treated sewerage H2O ” per twenty-four hours.
How can this be sustainable when the whole state is in deficit of H2O, due to lesser rainfall together with the hapless grapevines installing we have and CT power undertaking will devour tremendous sum of H2O. Is n’t the peoples ‘ poorness more of import?
The coal-burning CT Power will needfully be equipped with the latest engineerings in the field of environmental protection. A new set of specifications will shortly be issued to boosters. CT Power will be forced to put in equipment “ eco-friendly ” for its proposed coal works in Albion. The list of conditions to be attached to the EIA License is being finalized by the proficient commission of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. In the National Assembly it has been confirmed that strict demands are imposed on CT Power. Yet there is the inquiry of value for money? Will it truly bring forth eco-friendly effects? What are the latest engineerings and their costs?
Filters – Reduce emanation of nursery gasses
It is chiefly filters that will be used by developers in Malaysia. The Minister has indicated that they will needfully put in Fabric Filters for the hearth. Use of Pulverized Coal and an Electro Static Precipitator should assist, to cut down the emanation of nursery gas emanations by 20 % .
Transportation system of coal
With the riddance of the conjectural port of droping coal Albion, CT Power boosters are left with another mystifier of transporting an norm of 1,600 dozenss of coal daily from the port country to the thermic power Pointe aux Caves. Technically, this represents the supplanting of 54 trucks with a capacity of 30 dozenss each between 6 am and 17 autopsy, or one truck every 20 proceedingss on one of the chief roads of the more saturated the island. The chief impact on the environment will be caused by the addition in traffic which will be ineluctable.
A Survey on the Traffic Impact Assessment is inexorable about the jobs that must be overcome for the transportation of coal stack pace in the port until the thermic works in Pointe-aux-Caves. Most of the junctions have already reached impregnation and over-saturation besides, note experts.
The study Environment Impact Assessment ( EIA ) on CT Power should besides propose how to avoid constrictions when truckloads of coal leave every three proceedingss, the port to link Albion. The building of a breakwater at Albion to let boats to dock to unload coal, alternatively of utilizing the route, has besides been earnestly studied.
Noise pollution for occupants
Trusting on the fact that the nearest home works projected to Pointe-aux-Caves is none other than that occupied by the beacon keeper of Albion, which is about 150 metres, study says that CT Power noise will non be a large job with an norm of 70 dBs at any clip of the twenty-four hours and dark. The closest residential country is located at approximately 475 metres from site towards Albion.
Engagement of sociocultural groups
Harmonizing to newspaper the Tamil Community feels “ really deceived ” by the determination of non implementing the CT Power Project. The tenuous nexus being that the household of the Malayan booster originated from Tamil Nadu. If such a undertaking is in the national involvement, so why was the proclamation made before a specific community?
There is besides the Hindu Common Front ( FCH ) who said: “ Is it because they are people of Indian beginning – the black tegument – that for the offer of this undertaking they are treated this manner? ”
Even worse, harmonizing to the president of the Sanathan Dharma Temples Federation, there is a policy of “ two weights, two steps ” . “ When presenting contracts to foreign investors ‘ undertakings of other investors, including Whites, are approved as in the instance of CT Power, one is loath because of ‘These Asians “ said Krit Munohur, president of the Voice of Hindu ( VOH ) .
The words of these sociocultural groups are difficult ; the common front speaks of “ economic racism ” . How can such a undertaking be sustainable if is it is already encouraging communal division?
Albion beacon and the next country are visited by local occupants chiefly at the weekend and besides during school vacations. Lord’s daies are the most popular twenty-four hours with about 50 households sing the country, the bulk arriving by auto which comprises about 250 people. Families gather with nutrient already prepared, to bask the sundown which can be seen over the West seashore of the island ; legion schools visit the light house for educational intents, to see and discourse the manner in which marine pilotage is controlled for safety of transition, with up to 10 coachs geting with school kids in a individual hebdomad. With the building of CT power such a leisure activity will be disappear.
There will be no physical resettlement of people or economic supplanting impacting people ‘s supports because there is no habitation on site or affected by the building of the entree route that requires removal and no individuals/households/communities rely on on-site resources for their supports or even a constituent of their supports. But how come people are go forthing the milieus? Probably because of contaminated air by dust signifier coal.
Peoples populating nearer the power station will decidedly ‘suffer ‘ more sick wellness than people farther off. In general everything is based on the air quality theoretical account, it is besides necessary to see, heavy metals, particularly quicksilver, Persistent Organic Pollutants, HCI, HF etc.
We believe that the building of a new coal-burning power station would be a strategic error for Mauritius. Mauritius is vulnerable to climate alteration and particularly sea degree rise. Reputable scientists predict that sea degrees will be 1m higher by 2100 and up to 6m higher beyond that. Such scenarios would be ruinous for our state.
For our really survival Mauritius needs to go a leader in naming on developed and developing states to cut down their CO2 emanations. How can we anticipate anyone to listen to us if we are constructing a coal-based power-station, the fuel that emits the largest sum of CO2 per unit of energy produced? We must put the illustration by demoing that energy efficiency and renewable are economically feasible options to fossil fuels. If we do non so who will?
Mauritius is a comparatively comfortable state whose Prime Minister has committed to going a sustainable island. We have the chance be a innovator and a leader and non merely another sheep following the crowd and intoning the mantra “ coal is here to remain ” . If we do non travel against the flow and persuade others to fall in us so we will be consigning the hereafter of our kids ‘s kids to a watery grave.