Cross cultural awareness

Cross Cultural Awareness For The International Manager

Successful Cross Cultural Management And The Anticipated Characteristics Of France And Brazil


It has been commented that to understate or decide struggles between different civilizations they should foremost be grouped or categorized to mensurate their differences ( Trompenaar, 2006 ) .

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The UK scores reasonably low in the uncertainness turning away index, proposing that people in these civilizations are less risk averse and experience comparatively unafraid ( Gallic, 2008 ) . In footings of the workplace, this can be reflected in a high employee turnover and directors promoting hazard pickings and to anticipate alteration ( Overby, 2005 ) .

When taking Trompenaar ‘s dimensions of universal or peculiar ( the extent to which regulations are followed irrespective of the state of affairs and people involved ) into consideration, it may assist to explicate farther where this behavior or concluding comes from.

Merchandises and services are being offered on a planetary graduated table, presenting a serious job when a universalist civilization engages in concern with a particularist society, where the importance of relationship is ignored. Trans-cultural effectivity is non merely measured by the manner one civilization values another but besides by the ability to accommodate the quandary, deciding them quickly, and the extent to which both values are synergised as one ( Hemple, 2001 ) .

Hemple emphasises upon the importance of such an apprehension in the current globalization epoch. At present, when companies become planetary, there is preponderantly an inevitable move towards the universalist position ( Hemple, 2001 ) .

In order to travel about such a undertaking, Trompenaar ‘s dimension of cosmopolitan v specific is a helpful tool to mean the importance placed upon relationships and people compared to single demands ( Trompenaars F. H.-T. , 1998 ) .

Trompenaar ‘s Neutral V Affective

Trompenaar ‘s dimension of impersonal Vs affectional describes the extent to which a civilization displays emotion, either openly ( affectional ) or in a reticent mode ( impersonal ) ( Gooderham, 2003 ) .

A transverse cultural venture will affect communicating between a assortment of groups and people. The manner in which people communicate is diverse and accordingly the mode in which behavior and actions are inter-operated besides differs, go forthing room for miscommunication. For illustration, people from a impersonal civilization may comprehend shows of emotion in the workplace as unprofessional behavior whilst the deficiency of emotions displayed by those from a impersonal civilization may be perceived as fallacious behavior from the affectional civilizations ‘ point of position ( Snodgrass, 2002 ) .

With the show of emotions in affectional civilizations, it possibly that communicating is non merely seen as a verbal exchange, instead, value is placed upon gestures. Although, minimum or indirect address is made ; facial looks, actions, and organic structure linguistic communication may turn out to be more influential than words. Without the cognition of such civilizations and their patterns, there is a possibility of miscommunication. Peoples from a impersonal civilization may construe the deficiency of verbal communicating to be impolite, instead than picking up on the significance behind gestures such as organic structure linguistic communication.

Hall ‘s description of high and low context civilizations is evocative of impersonal V affectional, but chiefly focuses on the communicating manners of such civilizations, specifically, on how they communicate ( Gallic, 2008 ) .

Trompenaar ‘s Specific V Diffuse

This facet is utile in supplying an penetration into how employees perceive their place in the workplace. Those from the diffuse civilization value their work and make non divide their duty in the workplace from their personal life. In fact, both aspects of their life are integrated and are an indispensable component of who they are. Whereas, those from the specific civilization clearly separate their work life from their personal life. They deem their work to be a agency of geting a valuable aim, such as gaining an income in order to accomplish a better quality of life.

The penetrations obtained from this dimension may explicate any fluctuations in committedness over clip amongst employees. Although, neither civilization is inaccurate in their thought, it may still show differences that lead to conflict. For illustration, those of the diffuse civilization may experience obligated to remain behind outside their contractual working hours or work during their tiffin interruption in order to finish a undertaking, as opposed to those of the specific civilization who may take their full tiffin interruption and subscribe off at the terminal of the twenty-four hours upon completion of their contractual working hours. In bend, those of the diffuse civilization may experience thankless as they might see themselves to be sincere whilst sing their co-workers as insincere. Equally good as giving an penetration into employee behavior, the specific V diffuse dimension can besides lucubrate on how employees work and how their interaction with co-workers translates into their personal life ( Binder, 2007 ) .


France scores extremely on Hofstede ‘s uncertainness turning away index which is reflected in the accent placed upon regulations in the workplace with directors backing regulations, ordinances and control of employees. Employees in return seek occupation security and important benefits such as wellness insurance and extended vacations ( Overby, 2005 ) . This has an impact on the internal work civilization in that directors closely supervise and guide their employees and as a consequence employees frequently have small liberty in their occupation function.

This brings about the issue of HRM patterns in a transverse cultural venture ; whereas public presentation related wage, single assessments etc. are common pattern in UK administrations they may non be every bit successful in Gallic administrations where counsel and control are valued as being a sense of security due to low uncertainness turning away.

Gallic employees ‘ value squad work and to stand out or have single acknowledgment from the remainder of the squad may be seen to take down or demo up others in contrast to being seen as single accomplishment.

This is besides related to the clients ‘ perceptual experience of an organisation when purchasing products/services ; they would prefer to construct up relationships carefully and to keep them as opposed to a speedy sale ( Trompenaars F. H.-T. , 1998 ) .

However, similarities are evident between the UK and France in the usage of end scene ( in a HRM context ) but with an accent on joint end puting every bit opposed to single.

This demonstrates the indirect effects of uncertainness turning away, ab initio it may be thought of as a opposition to alter and heighten cautiousness towards new people and new processs. However, the manner in which work is organised demands to be adjusted in order to acquire the most out of employees in a common context. For illustration, ( Trompenaars F. W. , 2001 ) research high spots an illustration of the Gallic nature when alteration is to be implemented into an administration:

“…..The Gallic, in bend, were so much worried about the brotherhoods and how to maintain their people motivated…..When I came back some three months subsequently to look into how the execution was traveling, I noticed in France and Germany nil had started yet ( Trompenaars F. W. , 2001 ) .”

This should hence be something to see when UK directors communicate, organise and develop people and administrations from different civilizations. Not merely for a smooth passage but besides for the impact it can hold on accomplishing corporate aims.

Inter-Relational Dimensions



Universalism: regulations

Middle – Universalism / Particularism: regulations, relationships

Individuality: focal point on single

Bolshevism: focal point on group

Impersonal: reserved with emotions

Affectional: demonstrative with emotions

Specific: distance in relationships

Specific: distance in relationships

Accomplishment: doing/merit

Middle – Attribution / Accomplishment: being/status, doing/merit

( Parsons, 1951 )

Trompenaar ‘s Neutral V Affective

Research shows that France has an inexplicit civilization in which communicating is frequently indirect as opposed to being concise and clear as of the expressed civilization and communicating methods of the UK. The Gallic mode of communicating and importance ensuing from an affectional civilization can impact their attack to analysis. It is frequently the instance that these inexplicit societies will “think more diffusively or holistically, doing determinations more on intuition than on facts and figures. They can frequently look indirect and equivocal ( Overby, 2005 ) .”

Therefore in the workplace it may be evident that a high concern is given to the demands of people in and around the administration and guaranting those demands are being met as a precedence over acquiring the occupation done and disbursement clip discoursing factual impersonal information ( Overby, 2005 ) .

As a consequence when UK and Gallic employees and directors are together it will be of import to turn to the issue of emotions ; taking into consideration the French ‘s attitude towards uncertainness every bit good. Suspicion, uncertainties and cautiousness possibly demonstrated in a extremely effectual manner instead than the civilization frequently found in western organisations such as the UK, where intuition, uncertainties and a sense of malaise is frequently merely evident amongst little groups as opposed to sharing these feelings or doing them known in a more outward mode.

Trompenaar ‘s Specific V Diffuse

For those in specific civilizations such as the UK, clear differences and separation is given in footings of their position and persona portrayed between work and societal lives. In contrast diffuse civilizations like France withhold the same character in work and outside of work and believe that their work position plays a important function in their sensed position in society. This can convey differences in how co-workers interact with each other ( if at all ) without the parturiency of the workplace.

Workplace societal events or assemblages are normally viewed in the UK as being an chance to truly acquire to cognize and talk to the existent individual without the parturiencies of place, position or responsibilities to act upon a individual ‘s behavior or actions. However, in a diffuse civilization such an juncture may non be perceived in the same manner ; such people may happen it hard to talk with or tie in with others without giving regard to the position or place they have in the workplace. In this case diffuse civilizations look to the position or place of an person as a manner of ordering who the person is and therefore how others should interact with them.

This dimension closely relates to the significance and importance given to position across civilizations. As mentioned antecedently, the UK can separate between work and societal life and therefore a director in the workplace regardless of accomplishments, experience and makings will non needfully be given the same regard and esteem outside the workplace. In contrast France ( diffuse civilization ) maintains the same regard and position of that individual which can frequently convey privileges and favors outside the workplace strictly from the regard given to their position. For illustration, those who have graduated from Grande Ecoles ( the French elite of universities ) go on to keep top places within organisations and authorities ( Earley, 2002 ) . However, the regard and position awarded to them holds the outlook amongst society that they will guarantee the wellbeing of the community within the organisation.


Brazil scores rather high on the uncertainness turning away index which is declarative of its civilization where structural order is sought to cut down uncertainness ( Hofstede, 2009 ) . Rigorous processs are implemented in order to cut down ambiguity and avoid struggle ( Hofstede, 2009 ) . Alternatively, the civilization in U.K embraces ambiguity and thrives on struggle. There are flexible constructions in topographic point and hazards are endorsed without fright of failure. For the British, failure is another measure in the manner towards success whereas the Brazilian, perceive it negatively. Both perceptual experiences are a contemplation of their several flexible and structured hierarchal societies. Therefore, it is of import in Brazil, to avoid facing one about an issue refering others and seting them on the topographic point about an sentiment ( Trompenaars F. W. , 2001 ) . The Brazilian inclination to avoid hazard may impact how concern is conducted with U.K as both differ badly in this respect and it will be of import to see this as it might impact future articulation concern ventures or trade partnerships.

Inter-Relational Dimensions



Universalism: regulations

Particularism: relationships

Individuality: focal point on single

Bolshevism: focal point on group

Impersonal: reserved with emotions

Affectional: demonstrative with emotions

Specific: distance in relationships

Diffuse: engagement in relationships

Accomplishment: doing/merit

Attribution: being/status

( Parsons, 1951 )

Trompenaar ‘s Neutral V Affective

Peoples from affectional civilizations like Brazil tend to demo their emotions, whereas person from a impersonal one like the U.K will look more reserved and chorus from showing emotions ( Trompenaars F. H.-T. , 1998 ) . The manner of interrelating is different in Brazil as compared to the UK as oculus contact, touching, and personal infinites are of import to them. Therefore, it is of import to see these interpersonal elements of interaction when prosecuting in concern with the Brazilian since they can construct or discourage trust, apprehension, and likeability of clients. Awareness of these elusive differences can assist in avoiding awkward state of affairss or piquing person. The Brazilian, have transparence and expressiveness in release of tensenesss and may look dramatic in bringing of statements as emotions flow vehemently and without suppression ( Earley, 2002 ) . It ‘s different from the British civilization where emotions are concealed and there is a deficiency of physical contact, gestures, or strong facial looks along with a drone manner of unwritten bringing.

Trompenaar ‘s Specific V Diffuse

In a diffuse society like Brazil, intimacy and assurance between those working together will be more of import than a fancy gross revenues presentation of a merchandise or service as might be the instance in the U.K. The concluding determination of subscribing a trade will reflect the relationship edifice that has taken topographic point during the dialogue procedure. This construct of diffuse is exemplified in the intervention of clients geting in Brazil. Harmonizing to the picture series “Doing Business in Brazil” ( Boulder, 1977 ) , sing concern people are normally picked up in individual by a driver or some representative from the company for all assignments and are invited to repasts and societal events. In the instance of the specific relational class reflected in the U.K. , clients fundamentally must fend for themselves by cab and relationships are kept purely to concern. The chief point in this picture is that in Brazil, the key to making concern is constructing personal relationships and incorporating oneself into the local web. The thought of private versus public infinite besides correlates with the diffuse versus specific context. Trompenaar ( Trompenaars F. H.-T. , 1998 ) cites the illustration of a state of affairs where if a director or manager were to meet a subsidiary in a societal context wholly separate from work. In a specific-oriented civilization like the U.K. , the two persons would be on equal land, the degrees of professional hierarchy less important. However, in a diffuse- orientated society like Brazil, the hierarchal infinite and the high quality of the higher rank would pervade more perceptibly into every state of affairs, work-related or non ( Trompenaar, 2006 ) . Therefore, even in an brush outside of work, the subsidiary must still postpone to the authorization. Caution must be taken to mind the local system of hierarchy in Brazil when covering with the societal degrees and position even though it is less classless than the U.K. It could be violative to a Brazilian to non esteem the societal distance between oneself and an inferior.


Power Distance Index ( PDI ) that is the extent to which the less powerful members of organisations and establishments ( like the household ) accept and expect that power is distributed unevenly. This represents inequality ( more versus less ) , but defined from below, non from above. It suggests that a society ‘s degree of inequality is endorsed by the followings every bit much as by the leaders. Power and inequality, of class, are highly cardinal facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be cognizant that ‘all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others ‘ .

Individualism ( IDV ) on the one side versus its antonym, Bolshevism, that is the grade to which persons are integrated into groups. On the individualist side we find societies in which the ties between persons are loose: everyone is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate household. On the collectivized side, we find societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, frequently drawn-out households ( with uncles, aunts and grandparents ) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning trueness. The word ‘collectivism ‘ in this sense has no political significance: it refers to the group, non to the province. Again, the issue addressed by this dimension is an highly cardinal one, sing all societies in the universe.

Masculinity ( MAS ) versus its antonym, muliebrity refers to the distribution of functions between the genders which is another cardinal issue for any society to which a scope of solutions are found. The IBM surveies revealed that ( a ) adult females ‘s values differ less among societies than work forces ‘s values ; ( B ) work forces ‘s values from one state to another contain a dimension from really self-asserting and competitory and maximally different from adult females ‘s values on the one side, to modest and lovingness and similar to adult females ‘s values on the other. The self-asserting pole has been called ‘masculine ‘ and the modest, caring pole ‘feminine ‘ . The adult females in feminine states have the same modest, caring values as the work forces ; in the masculine states they are slightly self-asserting and competitory, but non every bit much as the work forces, so that these states show a spread between work forces ‘s values and adult females ‘s values.

Uncertainty Avoidance Index ( UAI ) deals with a society ‘s tolerance for uncertainness and ambiguity ; it finally refers to adult male ‘s hunt for Truth. It indicates to what extent a civilization plans its members to experience either uncomfortable or comfy in unstructured state of affairss. Unstructured state of affairss are fresh, unknown, surprising, and different from usual. Uncertainty avoiding civilizations try to minimise the possibility of such state of affairss by rigorous Torahs and regulations, safety and security steps, and on the philosophical and spiritual degree by a belief in absolute Truth ; ‘there can merely be one Truth and we have it ‘ . Peoples in uncertainness avoiding states are besides more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy. The opposite type, uncertainness accepting civilizations, are more tolerant of sentiments different from what they are used to ; they try to hold as few regulations as possible, and on the philosophical and spiritual degree they are relativist and let many currents to flux side by side. Peoples within these civilizations are more phlegmatic and brooding, and non expected by their environment to show emotions.

Long-run Orientation ( LTO ) versus short-run orientation: this 5th dimension was found in a survey among pupils in 23 states around the universe, utilizing a questionnaire designed by Chinese bookmans It can be said to cover with Virtue regardless of Truth. Valuess associated with Long Term Orientation are thrift and doggedness ; values associated with Short Term Orientation are regard for tradition, carry throughing societal duties, and protecting one ‘s ‘face ‘ . Both the positively and the negatively rated values of this dimension are found in the instructions of Confucius, the most influential Chinese philosopher who lived around 500 B.C. ; nevertheless, the dimension besides applies to states without a Confucian heritage.


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