Creating A Learning Environment To Enhance Student Motivation Education Essay

Motivation to larn a 2nd linguistic communication is considered as one of the chief determiners of pupil accomplishment. Once linguistic communication survey begins, factors related to the acquisition environment are the most of import factors to impact on motive, and are besides most likely to demotivate scholars. The intent of this empirical survey was to research the perceptual experiences of pupils refering its EFL acquisition environment in three facets: the physical environment, instructional agreements and societal interaction. The survey besides investigated the relationship between the acquisition environment and pupil motive. Consequences of the questionnaire conducted for 20 college pupils at a private university in Turkey indicate that pupil motive was positively correlated with the acquisition environment. The survey besides found that the physical environment was perceived by pupils to be an obstruction to their acquisition while the instructional agreements and the societal interaction were considered to be an inducement.

Introduction

Statement of Purpose

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This present survey, utilizing quantitative methodological analysis, examined how pupils at a private university in Turkey perceived the EFL acquisition environment in footings of the physical conditions of their school, the instructional agreements and the societal interaction. The survey besides examined the impact of these three facets of the acquisition environment on pupil motive.

Research Question

The current survey sought to reply the undermentioned research inquiry ;

Does larning environment in an EFL schoolroom enhance pupil motive to analyze English?

Research Hypothesis

The acquisition environment affects student motive.

Communication is considered as one of the trademarks of the twenty-first century and English has become the linguistic communication of planetary interaction. Therefore, in the specific country of English Language Teaching, an of import issue is how to advance instructor accomplishments to bring forth more active and motivated scholars ( Al-Ansari, 2005 ) . Csizer, Dornyei and Nemeth ( 2006 ) claimed that motive is an of import factor in pupil acquisition and accomplishment ( Huang, 2008 ) . Many 2nd and foreign linguistic communication larning research workers such as Rueda and Chen have emphasized that “ pupils with greater second/foreign linguistic communication larning motive, in most instances, receive higher classs and achieve better proficiency in the mark linguistic communication ( Rueda and Chen, 2005, p. 210 ) . Likewise, Hsieh ( 2002 ) claimed that a positive relationship exists between the acquisition environment and pupil motive. Another of import determiner of linguistic communication larning accomplishment is the chance for communicating in reliable state of affairss and scenes ( Perez, 2004 ) . There are assorted surveies conducted to analyze different facets of larning environment such as concerted larning methodological analysis and on-line EFL interaction which are believed to increase pupil larning motive.

Prior to the treatment of the surveies sing the acquisition environment, it would be good to attend to the motive concept and its assorted constituents. Gardner and Lambert ‘s ( 1959 ) theoretical model hypothesized two motivational orientations: integrative and instrumental. The former is associated with a 2nd linguistic communication scholar wishing to larn more about the civilization of the mark linguistic communication and finally be accepted as a member of that group ( Rueda and Chen, 2005 ) whereas the latter is related to “ the possible additions of L2 proficiency, such as acquiring a better occupation or a high wage ” ( Dornyei, 1994, p.274 ) . As cited in Rueda and Chen ‘s ( 2005 ) article although these two constituents were considered as indispensable to success in larning a 2nd linguistic communication, it was the facet of integrative motive that was found to prolong long term success. Bernaus and Gardner ( 2008 ) conducted a survey in Spain which investigated linguistic communication instruction schemes and their effects on pupils ‘ motive and English accomplishment. The participants were 31 EFL instructors and their pupils ( N=694 ) who rated the frequence of usage of 26 schemes in their categories. In add-on, the mini-Attitude Motivation Test Battery ( AMTB ; Gardner & A ; MacIntyre, 1993 ) was used. The consequences indicated that integrativeness, attitudes toward the acquisition state of affairs, and instrumental orientation contribute positively to motive and that motive was a positive forecaster of English accomplishment, whereas attitudes toward the acquisition state of affairs and linguistic communication anxiousness were negative forecasters. It was besides noted that these relationships vary slightly from category to category. Likewise, another survey which was conducted by Ibarraran, Lasabaster and Sierra ( 2007 ) investigated attitudes toward linguistic communications and penchants for category activities of native and foreign pupils in the Basque state. A questionnaire was designed and the consequences revealed that both groups preferred schoolroom activities that involved communicating and active engagement utilizing reliable stuffs in the linguistic communication classes alternatively of merely following the text edition. Some surveies have suggested that motivational beliefs about foreign linguistic communication acquisition vary from civilization to civilization. However, in one survey which was conducted in California, motivational procedures in linguistic communication acquisition across different cultural groups were tested through a background information study, a motive information questionnaire and a learning result questionnaire. The consequences revealed that a pupil ‘s motivational belief about foreign linguistic communication acquisition is impacted by the person ‘s cultural background and that the chief factor taking Chinese American pupils to get Chinese linguistic communication is to be portion of the Chienese-speaking household ( Rueda and Chen, 2005, p.222 ) .

There are besides some surveies that have attempted to widen the Gardnerian concept by adding new constituents, such as extrinsic motive which are characterized by behaviours that the single performs to have some extrinsic wages ( e.g. , good classs ) and intrinsic motive which is associated with internal wages ( e.g. , the joy of making a peculiar activity ) ( Dornyei, 1994 ) . As cited in Bernaus and Gardner ‘s ( 2008 ) article, Noels, Clement, and Pelletier ( 1999 ) studied the relation between pupil perceptual experiences of their instructor ‘s communicative manner and the pupils ‘ motive and linguistic communication competency. The survey found that “ intrinsic motive was negatively associated with category anxiousness, with perceptual experiences of the instructor as controlling, and with perceptual experiences of being controlled by the environment, but that it was positively related to motivational strength, to intention to go on linguistic communication survey and to self rating of linguistic communication accomplishments ” ( Bernaus and Gardner, 2008, p.388 ) .

Another of import point refering the field is that “ motive itself is dynamic ” as stated by Gardner and MacIntyre in Dornyei ‘s ( 1994 ) article. In their longitudinal and transverse sectional survey Campbell and Storch ( 2011 ) examined scholar ‘s motive to larn Chinese as a 2nd linguistic communication through carry oning interviews with scholars at different twelvemonth degrees over the class of a university semester. The survey findings showed that “ the motive of 2nd linguistic communication scholars is diverse and complex, and that L2 larning motive alterations and fluctuates over clip ” ( Campbell and Storch, 2011, p. 184 ) . As cited in Dornyei and Skehan ‘s ( 2003 ) article, “ most scholars experience a fluctuation of their enthusiasm/commitment sometimes on a daily footing ” ( Dornyei and Skehan, 2003, p. 617 ) .

In states, where there is non a environing population utilizing English actively, the linguistic communication is frequently taught as a traditional schoolroom topic, with pupils interacting entirely with their instructors and schoolmates – far from an reliable acquisition environment. These environments seldom include the chance to interact with native talkers of English and reliable stuffs are believed to be contributing to larning the mark linguistic communication. It was claimed that there is a positive relationship between the acquisition environment and pupil motive and that a good acquisition environment increases the opportunities of acquisition and inspires the acquisition spirit ( Chang & A ; Shu, 2000 ) . Wu, Yen and Marek ( 2011 ) conducted a survey at a proficient university in Taiwan with the engagement of 227 EFL scholars. For the intents of the survey, a study methodological analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling were used to analyze which elements of larning via videoconferencing most beneficially affect motive, assurance and ability. The survey revealed that good designed videoconferencing for interaction with native talkers, rich in cultural information does increase assurance and better motive. The findings led the research workers to the decision that online acquisition, used good, and managed by the instructor, supplying reliable interaction with native English talkers, can be peculiarly well-suited to travel scholars from passiveness into active, extremely motivated acquisition ” ( Wu, Yen, Marek, 2011, p.120 ) . Therefore, it was explicitly suggested in their article that EFL teachers attempt to retroflex the mark linguistic communication environment through technology-assisted instruction, inject genuineness and switch the focal point of the schoolroom from talk and memorisation to active acquisition.

Besides the usage of engineering, an impressive organic structure of research found that concerted larning – pupils working in mixed-ability groups – can be an effectual instructional method. To exemplify, Hancock ( 2004 ) carried out a survey at a university in the United States and investigated the effects of 52 alumnus pupils ‘ equal orientation on accomplishment and motive to larn with concerted larning schemes while enrolled in an educational research methods class. The research worker used the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire ( MSLQ ; Pintrich et al. , 1991 ) , the Learning Style Inventory ( LSI-2 ; Kolb, 1985 ) to measure peer orientation and techniques of qualitative research analysis to measure pupils ‘ narrative responses to the points sing what they liked and disliked about the class. The findings of this survey indicated that differences in the accomplishment of pupils with high and low equal orientation were non statistically important. However, Hancock pointed out that the motivational degrees of those pupils differed significantly. Students who had high equal orientation were significantly more motivated to larn when exposed to cooperative larning schemes than were pupils with low equal orientation ( Hancock, 2004 ) . In a similar survey, Wilson ( 1998 ) found that alumnus pupils working in concerted acquisition groups demonstrated less anxiousness when the professor used wit, applied statistics to real-world state of affairss, discussed pupils ‘ anxiousness, and lowered the menace of rating ( Hancock, 2004, p.160 ) .

All in all, in the literature reappraisal above, surveies sing the motivational concepts and the impact of larning environment on motive to analyze English have been presented. Considerable grounds has been found sing the importance of motive in 2nd and foreign linguistic communication acquisition. In the visible radiation of the above treatment, EFL teachers should take into consideration the importance of motive on pupil accomplishment and effort to make a suited acquisition environment. This survey aims to research the factors that are contributing to the creative activity of a acquisition environment and its influence on pupil motive to analyze English. It besides investigates assorted facets of an reliable acquisition environment such as the usage of computer-mediated communicating and concerted acquisition method.

Methodology

Population and Sample

In this study research, a questionnaire was administered to 20 Turkish EFL pupils who were selected indiscriminately out of 400 pupils. These 20 participants were enrolled in the preparative school in a private university in Istanbul, Turkey. The educational backgrounds of the participants demonstrated that they began to analyze English at 8.55 old ages old and that their university test mark was 358.53 on the norm. The participants ‘ mean age was 18.55 old ages. The sample for the present survey was selected utilizing random sampling in order to supply each pupil with an equal chance to be selected ( A°ncecay & A ; A°ncecay, 2009 ) . The pupils were exposed to English 30 hours per hebdomad, including grammar and four accomplishments. However, it should be kept in head that this figure decreases when they go to their several modules as they will get down holding their module classs and the direction may non needfully be given in English.

Instrumentality

This survey was inspired by Wen-chi Vivian Wu and Pin-hsiang Natalie Wu ‘s ( 2008 ) survey entitled Creating an Authentic EFL Learning Environment to Enhance Student Motivation to Study English. Data was collected utilizing a questionnaire which was developed by these research workers.

The pupils were asked to finish the questionnaire during category hr utilizing a five-point Likert graduated table ranged from “ 1 ” bespeaking non at all to “ 5 ” bespeaking really strongly ( see Appendix 1 ) . The questionnaire was divided into two subdivisions with 54 points in entire. Section A – motive for larning English consisting of 20 points asked the participants to rate how motivated they were to analyze English. The points used in this subdivision are divided into two classs: instrumental and integrative. That is, point 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,12,16, and 18 are related to instrumental motive whereas points 7,11,13,14,15,17,18 and 20 are concerned with integrative motive. Therefore, it should be kept in head that in this subdivision of the questionnaire, most of the inquiries check instrumental motive as they outnumber the other class.

Section B involved 34 points sing the features of the EFL acquisition environment. The 34 inquiry points in this subdivision were presented in three classs: physical environment, instructional agreements, and societal interaction. Two separate inquiries were used for each inquiry point in Section B.

These inquiries were:

How much is each of the following a portion of your EFL Program?

How of import is each of the following to your acquisition in the EFL Program?

The first inquiry per point asked the participants about how much each point was present in their environment utilizing a five-point Likert graduated table ranged this clip from “ 1 ” bespeaking non at all to “ 5 ” bespeaking really extremely. The 2nd inquiry asked how of import this point was to their acquisition by utilizing the same five-point Likert graduated table.

Procedure

The questionnaire was administered to 20 participants during the category period which lasted 45 proceedingss. The participants were all present in category and they received the questionnaire at the same clip. In order to guarantee that all the points on the questionnaire were clearly understood by the participants, the research worker went through each point on the questionnaire largely supplying the pupils with accounts in their native linguistic communication. The participants were besides informed about how they can rate the points harmonizing to the Likert graduated table which ranged from 1 to 5. Before the participants indicated their sentiments in Section B, the research worker drew their attending to the two inquiries that needed to be responded individually. The research worker went over each point in bend giving the participants sufficient clip to react to both inquiries. The questionnaire sheets were collected from all participants by the terminal of the category period.

Datas Analysis

The research worker used the package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) to analyse the quantitative informations. By utilizing Pearson ‘s R coefficient, the association between motive and larning environment was calculated to happen out how strongly they were related to each other and whether that correlativity was positive or negative. The research worker did non utilize some of the steps of cardinal inclination in this research because they were non valid for inquiries that use the ordinal graduated table. Consequently, the mean and the standard divergences were non calculated for inquiries utilizing the ordinal graduated table. Descriptive statistics was used to compare the per centums of the pupils ‘ responses to the study points.

Consequences

Pearson product-moment correlativities were used to analyse the inter-correlations of two motive factors which are instrumental and integrative motive. Similarly, the correlativities among the three classs of the acquisition environment – physical environment, instructional agreements and societal interaction – were calculated every bit good. Since there are two inquiries to be responded sing Section B of the questionnaire, six variables are obtained for larning environment. That is, three classs indicate the first inquiry which is related to “ existence ” and three classs refer to the 2nd inquiry refering “ being ” . Therefore, the research worker formed an eight by eight ( 8 x 8 ) matrix correlativity which involve instrumental motive, integrative motive, being of physical conditions, instructional agreements and societal interaction, and the importance of physical conditions, instructional agreements and societal interaction. Table 1 studies the correlativities among these dimensions.

Table 1. Correlation Matrix of Categories in the study

Instrumental Motivation

Integrative Motivation

Physical Environment ( Existence )

Instructional Agreements ( Existence )

Social Interaction ( Existence )

Physical Environment ( Importance )

Instructional Arrangements ( Importance )

Social Interaction ( Importance )

Instrumental Motivation

Integrative Motivation

– .098

Physical Environment ( Existence )

.003

.250**

Instructional Agreements ( Existence )

.035

-.014

.174*

Social Interaction ( Existence )

.085

-.052

-.115

.259**

Physical Environment ( Importance )

.273**

.117

.117

.099

.106

Instructional Arrangements ( Importance )

.176**

.067

-.004

.204**

.323**

.375**

Social Interaction ( Importance )

.039

.114

.016

.300**

.581**

.137

.388**

** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

* . Correlation is important at the 0.05 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

In Table 1, the correlativities among the variables are really low and non meaningful. The figure of observations among the classs are non equal ( see Table 2 ) . Therefore, frequence tabular array was used and based on the frequence tabular array, the research worker ran a correlativity matrix. Table 3

indicates the per centums of the participants ‘ responses to each class on the questionnaire. In other words, descriptive statistics were used to compare the classs.

Table 2. The figure of observations on the questionnaire

Statistics

Instrumental Motivation

Integrative Motivation

Physical Environment ( Existence )

Physical Environment ( Importance )

Instructional Agreements ( Existence )

Instructional Arrangements ( Importance )

Social Interaction ( Existence )

Social Interaction ( Importance )

Nitrogen

Valid

240

160

160

160

360

360

160

160

Missing

120

200

200

200

0

0

200

200

Table 3. Descriptive statistics for motive and acquisition environment

VALID PERCENT

Motivation

Learning ENVIRONMENT

Instrumental Motivation

Integrative Motivation

Physical Environment ( Existence )

Physical Environment ( Importance )

Instructional Agreements ( Existence )

Instructional Arrangements ( Importance )

Social Interaction ( Existence )

Social Interaction ( Importance )

Not at all

16.3

13.8

24.4

8.8

15.0

2.5

5.6

3.8

Very Small

14.2

8.8

21.9

9.4

15.3

7.5

15.0

6.9

Reasonably

20.4

17.5

23.1

15.6

20.3

17.8

21.9

17.5

Strongly/Highly

17.1

28.1

21.3

30.0

30.3

33.1

30.6

38.8

Very Strongly /Very Highly

32.1

31.9

9.4

36.3

19.2

39.2

26.9

33.1

As for the two facets of motive, integrative motive seemed to be higher than instrumental motive. Descriptive statistics revealed that 60 per cent of the participants have integrative motive whereas 49.2 per cent of the participants rated for instrumental motive. Student answering perceptual experiences refering the extent that environmental factors were present in their acquisition environment included three issues – physical, instructional and societal environment. As it is seen in Table 3 above, the consequences show that the bulk of the

scholars take parting in this survey were cognizant of the importance of the three constituents of the acquisition environment. For each of the point included in the 2nd portion of the questionnaire, more than 65 % of the scholars ( 70 % in norm ) pointed out that they consider the importance of the three factors sing the acquisition environment as either ‘very extremely ‘ or ‘highly ‘ for their acquisition in the EFL plan.

For the physical environment, respondents rated the importance of the environment ( 66.3 % ) as higher than the pupils who perceived factors really being in being ( 30.7 % ) in their EFL environment. 46.3 per cent of the participants claimed that the physical conditions in their acquisition environment are non sufficient. For the instructional agreements, merely 10 per cent of the pupils claimed this factor is non of import. On the other manus, 72.3 per cent rated for the importance of instructional agreements. 49.5 per cent of the pupil respondents claimed that instructional agreements exist in their acquisition environment. Likewise, when societal interaction is considered, pupils who rate for its importance represent a high sum of the population ( 71.9 % ) . On the other manus, 57.5 per cent of the participants emphasized the being of societal interaction in their EFL acquisition environment.

Based on the frequence tabular array, the research worker ran a correlativity matrix to find how strongly the eight variables were related to each other and whether that correlativity was strong or weak ( see Table 4 ) .

Table 4. Correlation Matrix of the Likert Scale

Instrumental Motivation

Integrative Motivation

Physical Environment ( Existence )

Instructional Agreements ( Existence )

Social Interaction ( Existence )

Physical Environment ( Importance )

Instructional Arrangements ( Importance )

Social Interaction ( Importance )

Instrumental Motivation

Integrative Motivation

.751

Physical Environment ( Existence )

-.918*

-.731

Instructional Agreements ( Existence )

.036

.651

-.054

Social Interaction ( Existence )

.480

.798

-.524

.809

Physical Environment ( Importance )

.759

.978**

-.804

.628

.855

Instructional Arrangements ( Importance )

.732

.955*

-.765

.673

.921*

.987**

Social Interaction ( Importance )

.541

.930*

-.580

.843

.944*

.945*

.964**

* . Correlation is important at the 0.05 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

Table 4 comprises rather high correlativities among the variables. The correlativity coefficient between instructional agreements and physical environment in footings of importance is.987** which represents a really strong positive relationship at the.01 degree. Significant correlativities at the.01 degree were besides found between physical environment ( importance ) and integrative motive ( r = .978, P & lt ; .01 ) . That is, there is a really strong positive correlativity between these two variables. In contrast, instrumental motive was non significantly correlated with instructional agreements ( being ) ( r = .036 ) . On the other manus, there is a important negative correlativity between instrumental motive and physical environment ( being ) at.05 degree. For the participants in this survey, negative and high correlativities existed between the physical environment ( being ) and the other dimensions of the acquisition environment. For case, the magnitude of correlativity between the being and importance of the physical environment was observed to be rather strong ( r = -.804 ) .

Discussion

The most dramatic determination of this survey was that the participants considered the physical facet of the EFL environment to be an obstruction to their acquisition while the instructional agreements and the societal interaction were perceived as an inducement. The consequences displayed the importance of the three facets of the learning environment: physical environment, instructional agreements and societal interaction. One can reason that the bulk of the participants in this survey were cognizant of the importance of these three facets while undergoing the procedure of larning. It seemed that more than half of the pupil respondents perceived the physical environment as of important importance to their acquisition and that 46.3 per cent of them claimed that the physical conditions in their acquisition environment were non sufficient. The correlativity matrix besides indicates that the importance and the being of the physical environment are negatively correlated with one another and this correlativity is a really important 1. For the other facets of the acquisition environment, more than 70 per cent of the participants seemed to value instructional agreements and societal interaction notably. However, merely a one-fourth of them ( 25 % in norm ) think that instructional agreements and societal interaction do non be or hold really small being in their acquisition environment. Therefore, the physical facet of the acquisition environment seemed to be the least existing factor in the pupils ‘ EFL acquisition environment. In other words, while the physical environment was perceived to be an obstruction to the pupils ‘ acquisition, the instructional agreements and the societal interaction were considered by the pupils as an inducement. It was noted, nevertheless, that these relationships vary slightly from category to category, bespeaking that category variables have an consequence on these relationships as Bernaus and Gardner ( 2008 ) stated in their survey.

This survey besides investigated the relationship between the larning context and pupil motive. As Chang and Shu ( 2000 ) argued in their survey, there is a positive relationship between the acquisition environment and pupil motive and that a good acquisition environment increases the opportunities of acquisition and inspires and boosts the acquisition spirit. The consequences of this survey indicate that there is a important association between the acquisition environment and pupil motive. Sing the intercorrelations of the variables and the coveted results, the participants in this survey appeared to hold integrative motive more than instrumental motive. The information indicated high and positive dealingss between integrative motive and all seven measured variables except for the physical environment ( being ) . Since there is a high and negative correlativity between integrative motive and the physical facet of the acquisition environment, it can be concluded that the participants consider the physical conditions in their EFL acquisition environment as insufficient and an obstruction to their acquisition.

Changing larning environment elements that are under the school ‘s control will demo pupils that their university is working to run into their demands and support pupils ‘ optimal acquisition success. As Hsieh ( 2002 ) stated in his survey, bettering the physical environment would better pupil motive and thereby student accomplishment, giving pupils what they need, and allowing them know about it, urges them to make more on their ain. The research worker presents certain recommendations based on the consequences of this survey. Since the findings of the survey indicate that the physical environment has a powerful consequence on larning motive, the school can avoid larning contexts that decrease pupil motive by put ining modern multimedia in all schoolrooms, edifice linguistic communication labs with audio / ocular stuffs and supplying the schoolrooms with good lighting and air conditioning. Making an English Corner is another recommendation meant to promote pupils to see separately or with friends. Including non-academic scenes ( such as eating houses, karaoke ) and fun extracurricular activities ( such as ask foring English speech production writers, hosting English games, watching English films ) in the English Corner plan will pull the pupils ‘ attending and give them a opportunity to pattern their English outside of category clip and be engaged with activities where English is indispensable. Likewise, supplying the schoolrooms with notice boards where pupils can expose their undertakings and assignments might lend to their peripheral acquisition.

The consequences of this survey have certain deductions. First, the consequences demonstrate that pupils differ from one another in footings of the types of motivational beliefs. Even though pupils report similar incentives, their intents may be different. The differences in motivational beliefs could ensue from household cultural values or socioeconomic position and their perceptual experiences of instruction. The coevals of these motivational orientations was beyond the range of this survey but would be an of import focal point for farther research. Second, as Campbell and Storch ( 2011 ) stated in their survey, the motive of 2nd linguistic communication scholars is diverse and complex, and that L2 larning motive alterations and fluctuates over clip. Therefore, provided that the questionnaire was reassigned to the participants at a ulterior clip, different consequences might be observed. Third, because the consequences of this survey are drawn from EFL pupils at a private university, to generalise the findings to all foreign linguistic communication larning state of affairss is inappropriate. The function of motivational factors in foreign linguistic communication acquisition needs to be farther examined among scholars from different age groups, socioeconomic position and proficiency degrees.

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