Terrorism is defined by Dr. R. RUBENSTIEN as a “ Politically motivated force by little groups clamming to stand for the multitudes ” . These groups do non possess the military and political power necessary to battle their sensed unfairnesss through traditional channels, so they resort to terrorist act. Counter-terrorism is viewed as the patterns, tactics, techniques and schemes that authorities organic structures and corporations adopt to forestall or in response to terrorist menaces. Over the past 20 ( 20 ) old ages, terrorists have committed highly violent Acts of the Apostless for alleged spiritual or political grounds. Religious extremists frequently reject the authorization of authoritiess and view legal systems that are non based on “ their ” spiritual beliefs as bastard. They frequently view modernisation attempts as perverting influences on traditional civilization. The 11 September 2001 ( 9/11 ) terrorist onslaught, the largest act of international terrorist act had political and economic branchings that were felt around the universe.
The increased hazard and prevalence of planetary terrorist act is a go oning major menace to development in the part which experts say has been the most badly affected portion of the universe after the 9/11 onslaughts, due chiefly to the diminution in tourer travel which resulted in a fall-out in the touristry sectors of most states within the part. Further to this, the find of a secret plan against the JFK airdrome in New York, allegedly affecting four work forces from Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago suspected of seeking to blow up a fuel supply line that might hold killed 100s, coupled with the close ticker of the controversial Jamaat Al Muslimeen ( JAM ) in Trinidad and Sheik Abdullah AL FISAL in Jamaica, have raised the profile of the Caribbean on the terrorist radio detection and ranging screen. These put the Caribbean in the limelight of the war against terrorist act, even though American Investigators admit that neither the JAM nor the secret plan against the JFK airdrome has any known connexion with Al-Qaida.[ 1 ]
Lino GUTIERREZ, Acting Assistant Secretary of State for the Western Hemisphere, noted that there is an increased cause for concern amongst experts that new onslaughts against the American fatherland could come from outside the state, including at least one improbable part – the Caribbean, due to the significant Numberss of Muslims in Guyana ( 76,528 ) , Suriname ( 161,000 ) and Trinidad and Tobago ( 65,318 ) . If this occurs, he added, there could be a farther weakening of chances for economic growing and the concern clime throughout the hemisphere.[ 2 ]
An article published by Joan MARQUES in 2002, noted that the bead in touristry resulted in the loss of foreign exchange net incomes, revenue enhancement grosss, concern chances for budding enterprisers, and loss of employment for workers in the industry.
In an attempt to re-boost the touristry sector after the onslaughts, the CARICOM caputs of authorities have agreed to set about a figure of enterprises. Those which are straight linked to touristry are:
Provide through the Governments and Private Sectors a US $ 18 million major touristry publicity and selling development run focus oning chiefly on the USA, UK and Canadian markets.
The convention of a Tourism Summit in the Bahamas in December 2001.
Enhance air power security affecting both the airdromes and the air hoses, and heighten security at airdromes, havens, and boundary lines.
A Country study on Anti-terrorism Laws and Policing, highlighted that the 9/11 onslaughts on America led to the tightening of preexistent anti-terrorism Torahs by Commonwealth Caribbean states. The Financial Action Task Force on money laundering ( FATF ) added terrorist act funding to its Torahs. An illustration of the heightened security concern that the part was faced with, was that all the Caribbean states ( Antigua & A ; Barbuda, Barbados, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St Lucia, St Kitts & A ; Nevis, the Grenadines and Trinidad & A ; Tobago ) that hosted the Cricket World Cup in 2007 ( March 11 – April 28 ) were required to ordain particular anti-terrorism security statute law for the event. The Torahs were impermanent, because they were scheduled to run out within six months, hence were labeled the “ sunset statute law ” . They provided for stricter in-migration and imposts controls and an enhanced constabulary presence, including some foreign armed forces to help regional and local constabulary during the World Cup. Other steps included the constitution of “ regulative and supervisory machinery, every bit good as Financial Intelligence Units for look intoing money laundering and machinery for interchanging information with foreign governments.[ 3 ]
The Commonwealth Heads of Government have in 2002, mandated that a programme be developed to help jurisprudence enforcement functionaries to forestall and battle terrorist act. The Commonwealth Secretariat has since provided preparation to Commonwealth states runing from the development of theoretical account statute law, execution kit to assist states implement the international counter-terrorism conventions, hosting preparation of specializers and trainers workshops and develop a manual to steer trainers in distributing the cognition within their legal power.[ 4 ]
Owing to the fact that Airline is one chief means that enable possible terrorists to come in mark states, The Transport Security Administration on New Security Measures for International Flights to the United States of America ( TSA ) have issued new directives which includes long-run, sustainable security steps developed in audience with jurisprudence enforcement functionaries and other domestic and international spouses.
Transportation security administration have mandated that every person winging into the U.S. from anyplace in the universe who holds a passport issued by, or is going from, or through states that are province patrons of terrorist act or other states of involvement, is required to travel through enhanced showing. TSA have besides increased the usage of enhanced showing engineerings and mandates threat-based and random showing for bulk riders on U.S. bound international. They have besides late begun more thorough rap downs of riders and have installed full organic structure scanners at some airdromes that produce a virtually bare image. More controversial is the impression of rider profiling systems which is believed to be helpful, even though there are political deductions associated with singling out racial, cultural, gender, or age groups in a free society.[ 5 ]
Interpol ‘s Counter-Terrorism Resolutions Since 9-11 – Interpol besides decided to undertake terrorist act and organized offense more efficaciously. The highest precedence was given to the issue of “ Red Notices ” ( International Interpol warrants to seek apprehension and extradition ) for terrorists sought in connexion with the onslaughts. Interpol has besides initiated the execution of particular air power databases and the funding of counter-terrorism.
The diplomatic ties, trade confederations and economic dependence on the USA, and the fact that Caribbean states were seen as a base from where terrorists could transport out their operations, left the Caribbean with small pick but to adhere to certain counter-terrorism demands outlined by the USA in the “ war on panic. These includes ; forestalling terrorists or terrorist organisations from come ining or pass throughing the Caribbean en-route to other states, peculiarly the United States, increasing states ‘ consciousness of the possible menace from terrorists or terrorist organisations, forestalling terrorists or terrorists organisations from developing safe oasiss in the Caribbean and increasing states ‘ capablenesss to forestall terrorists from assailing marks of chance.
Research shows that the Caribbean is the 10th largest trading spouse of the USA, and an of import finish for both tourers and concern investings from America. Acts of panic which have affected the first universe states has trickled down to the Caribbean Region impacting critical sectors of its economic system such as conveyance, touristry, agribusiness, excavation, fabrication and finance. The Caribbean Region has overtime become susceptible to terrorist onslaughts, hence considerable attempts have been expended in implementing constabularies and steps to counter terrorist act. This has proved highly dearly-won peculiarly when the economic systems of states in the part are in diminution.
The Caribbean is vulnerable to terrorist act, as there is no identifiable terrorist group, for illustration Al-Qaeda, in the Caribbean part, therefore it is believed that the most Caribbean states may see trouble in placing an activity that may take to a terrorist onslaught. Besides, the Caribbean has non had to cover up near with the most detrimental effects of terrorist act, therefore is prone to complacence and a false sense of security. This may earnestly interrupt or compromise attempts aimed at counter-terrorism.
The Office for the Coordinator for Terrorism Country Report published on 05 August 2010 highlighted that the political will of the Caribbean state in honouring their primary aims to battle terrorist act remains strong, despite limited resources and capablenesss.
IMPLICATIONS FOR THE REGION
In a Counter Terrorism briefing conducted by members of the Homeland Security in the US, insisted that, “ the first duty of any authorities is to supply security for its citizens, as without security from foreign onslaught or internal force there is no foundation on which to construct economic and societal establishments ” .
The go oning menace of terrorist act imposes ongoing costs ; it creates uncertainness, reduces assurance and increases hazard perceptual experiences and hazard premiums taking to take down rates of investing and lower economic growing. The costs of implementing counter-terrorism steps should be viewed as an investing that, by cut downing the menace of terrorist act, will cut down hazard premiums and the prejudice against longer term, productiveness raising activities that uncertainness and hazard create.[ 6 ]
Mr FRAZER of the Commonwealth Secretariat noted that CARICOM has developed a regional scheme for offense and security aimed at making partnerships at the national, regional and international degrees and the acceptance of a multi-dimensional attack. He nevertheless pointed out that more must be done in an effort to free the part any planned Acts of the Apostless of panic.
To exert control of the assorted security systems and steps implemented, demands a high degree of watchfulness peculiarly in states which are more vulnerable, as a oversight in the monitoring of these systems could ensue in non-effective usage and devastation of equipment etc which are deserving 1000000s of dollars and could besides impact negatively on the economic system, thereby gnawing the populace ‘s assurance in air travel which will finally impact the touristry Sector which for most states in the part is the largest earner of foreign exchange.
There is a demand for greater coaction among regional security services, peculiarly jurisprudence enforcement and imposts and in-migration in intelligence assemblage, analysis and information sharing, with battling terrorist act being one of the chief focal point. There should be uninterrupted developing for boundary line and imposts forces in the usage of designation systems every bit good as INTERPOL databases.
A intelligence article published by the Commonwealth Secretariat highlighted the fact that, a terrorist act in the Caribbean would be lay waste toing. But, a determination that a terrorist act was in some manner aided and abetted by funding that passed through the Caribbean due to inadequate systems and deficiency of capacity, would besides cover a important blow to the part.
Terrorism overtime has evolved, therefore today ‘s onslaughts are less frequent, but more lifelessly. Al-Qaida and other terrorist groups continue to seek advanced ways to carry on onslaughts and circumvent security processs, therefore the war on panic is non merely limited to the state that is affected the most, it has a ruffling consequence, hence becomes everybody ‘s concern, in one manner or another and to a lesser or greater grade we are all victims of terrorist onslaughts. We all have a function to play and it is by acknowledging what those functions are, and moving upon them in the best and fastest manner possible that will take us a measure further in battling this war.
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