Today, as the engineering is available and comparatively user-friendly to every facet, there is no ground for the universe of teaching method to be isolated from its approvals. Educational establishments should encompass it in order to guarantee the scholars ‘ gait in the race for up-to-date cognition and accomplishments. As stated by Jarvis ( 2000 ) , the cutting border cognition has turned the acquisition society into futuristic and automatic ( cited by Olaniran and Agnello 2008 ) . The acquisition attacks are aimed to develop single capablenesss which are qualified to go portion of the planetary market. Peoples are willing to alter in align with and adapt rapidly to the technological universe. Thus, educational engineering is indispensable to remain connected to the beginnings of cognition.
Regardless the beginnings, it is the procedure of larning to make the beginning and derive the cognition ( Chaharbaghi and Cripps, 2006 ) . In switching the accent from cognition to acquisition, there will be an alternate thought about rational capital who has the potency of unveiling “ what ” , “ how ” and “ why ” . Van de Meer-Kooistra and Zijlstra ( 2001 ) one time pointed out that human cognition and experience is the chief component to do sense of rational capital ( cited by Wang and Chang 2005 ) . Therefore, human capital will bask a strong rhetorical entreaty in back uping the unreal intelligence provided by technological promotion. Without rational capital, the promotions are claimed to be nonfunctional.
Similarly, educational engineering on its ain does non take to effectual acquisition because merely the pedagogical counsel from rational capital can resuscitate the spirit in engineering. The restrictions can be good illustrated when universe hungriness, organisational protest and household crisis will ne’er be solved by technological promotions ( Postman 1992, cited by Olaniran and Agnello 2008, p. 77 ) . In kernel, the chance of effectual acquisition is rose-colored when there is a good integrating between technological promotion and rational capitals in the universe of teaching method.
My research aim is to analyze whether technological promotion can ensue in effectual acquisition among the scholars. Besides, this research is besides aimed to place to what extent the functions of rational capital have contributed in back uping the technological promotions to make effectual acquisition.
There are three chief inquiries in regard of this research:
Does technological promotion provides good beginnings and tools for effectual acquisition?
Does parts of rational capital in managing the technological promotion necessary to make effectivity in larning?
What are the challenges faced in using and trusting on rational capitals?
Technological promotion provides good beginnings and tools for effectual acquisition.
The parts of rational capital are necessary to supplement the technological promotion in accomplishing effectual acquisition.
Technological Advancement and Effective Learning
Conceptualization of Technological Advancement
Technology has become the built-in portion underpinning activities in different field of enterprise and therefore each profession may present different definitions for technological promotion. Adopting the definition made by Burgelman et Al. ( 2004 ) , technological promotion is the touchable resulted from the theoretical and practical cognition, accomplishments and artefacts ( cited by Smith and Shariff n.d. ) . Reflecting in footings of instruction, technological promotions such as computing machines, cyberspace, overhead projectors and other educational engineerings are going of import acquisition tools to better educational quality.
In a acquisition environment, engineering Acts of the Apostless as a helpful tool that provides chances for pupils to interact fruitfully and widen their field of cognition beyond the text editions. It can be efficaciously utilised to supply just-in-time information that learners require regardless when and where ( Yam 2002 ) . This has finally created acquisition in the signifiers of computer-based acquisition and distance acquisition. Network connectivity utilizing broadband and orbiter is so powerful to do the acquisition efficaciously in a affiliated universe.
Conceptualization of Effective Learning
Harmonizing to Wang ( 2002 ) , larning occurs in the signifier of instruction, find, experience and experiment to do cognition in a meaningful and valuable context. It is an attack that should affect two parties in circulating information and geting cognition. So, mental and physical battle in acquisition is of import to make effectivity ( Salter 2003 ) .
Populating in this automatic society, as identified by Jarvis ( 2000 ) , larning will ne’er come to an terminal because society tidal bore to alter with demands of the planetary universe ( cited Olaniran and Agnello 2008 ) . In this instance, educational establishments should ne’er waver but be able to do a measure farther to progress the end of instruction and society ‘s desire by utilizing technological promotion. For the intent of this research, three stages of cognition remarked by Jonassen ( 1992 ) and Quinn et Al. ( 1996 ) will be recognized due to their clear and evidenced surveies. They are cognitive cognition, advanced cognition and expertness ( cited by Wang 2002 ) .
Effectiveness of Learning with Technological Promotions
Technological promotion seeks to better and heighten the effectivity of larning through decrease of clip spent in carry throughing work, immense storage of information up to 100s of Giga bytes and besides the creative activity of multimedia to heighten larning experience ( Mowat 2002, Rose 2009 ) . However, the chief consideration is that to what extent the universe is in doing the attempt to implement technological promotions for the common end of effectual acquisition. In fact, the proliferation of educational engineering policies and execution programs has been intentionally considered and launched in US ( Chang et al. 2008 ) . Evidenced by the outstanding US ‘s national studies which are The Goals 2000: Educate America Act ( Glennan and Melmed, 1996 ) , Getting America ‘s Students Ready for the twenty-first Century: Meeting the Technology Literacy Challenge ( ED Office of Educational Technology, 2001 ) and Enhancing Education through Technology: No Child Left Behind ( 2001 ) , the youngest coevals would be well-prepared for the information century ( cited by Chang et Al. 2008 ) . Mentioning to Graeme Salter ( 2003 ) , three larning attacks as below must be enhanced by technological promotions to accomplish effectual acquisition.
Learning as knowing
Harmonizing to Wang ( 2002 ) , cognitive cognition is acquired in this early phase of larning when the basic constructs of contents are prepackaged, generalized and simplified. It is knows by understanding instead than memorising that aid scholars to get cognition. In this instance, digitisation enterprises such as illustrating images are claimed to be an assistance to understanding ( Mowat 2002 ) . With technological promotions, 100s of 1000s of digital images are available in the signifier of graphics, life and documental exposure. Images are powerful to convey the significance of “ a sea of content ” in ocular footings, assisting the scholar experience the capable country in a manner that is barely reached by verbal context. This has led Biggs ( 1999, p.78 ) to indicate out that “ larning directly declaratory cognition, the material of academe, is best done in association with a rich shop of images. ” ( cited by Mowat 2002 ) .
Learning as using cognition
As stated by Porter and Foster ( 1998 ) , the quality of acquisition is questionable when cognition gained can non be applied to new or similar state of affairs ( cited by Salter 2003 ) . Therefore, the context of acquisition should be reliable, reflecting the manner the cognition will be utile in the existent universe. Looking at the recent attempt made by OSK Investment Bank Berhad ( OSK 2010 ) , Malayan pupils who pursue in concern and finance are greatly benefited with the on-line stock trading competition. With technological promotions, OSK created a system leting participants with a practical capital of RM100, 000 to merchandise online based on the existent regulations applied in Bursa Malaysia. In this instance, engineering, similar to other pedagogical tool, provides scholars with a stimulating and positive educational experience of puting in the stock market ( Barron and Gruber 2008 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: //www.oskic.com/events/events.aspx
Learning as a way to wisdom
Expert cognition contains lacy interconnected cognition constructions that can merely be brewed through the accretion of experiences ( Eklund and Sinclair 2000 ) . Therefore, experience metamorphoses the manner cognition is organized, stored and retrieved, which finally lead to a peculiar subject and action. Through planetary acquisition web, scholars gain cognition about other civilizations, life style, economic and political issues around the universe ( Coffey 1998 ) . This nexus to the existent universe helps scholars to see themselves as portion of this big community and entitle to perpetrate wise action.
In fact, none of the scholars can larn efficaciously by following either one of the attacks because three of them are every bit of import and should come together as a organic structure. The potency of technological promotions to be portion of pedagogical tool is easy developed throughout the whole universe ( Paek 2005 ) . In 1990, when Internet was 7 old ages old, merely 3 million people had entree to it worldwide. Today, cyberspace users in US entirely have reached up to 266.2 million of people ( Gbaje 2010 ) . Besides, surveies done by Parsad et al. , revealed that 93 % of US ‘s educational establishments had equipped with Internet entree in twelvemonth 2003 as compared to merely 3 % in twelvemonth 1994 which normally through dial-up connexion ( cited by Paek, 2005 ) . Therefore, it is sensible to state that technological promotions are endeavouring to accomplish effectual acquisition by heightening the three attacks in acquisition.
Correlation between Technological Advancement, Intellectual Capital and Effective Learning
Conceptualization of Intellectual Capital
The centrality of rational capital ( IC ) has chiefly captured in the concern universe, but there is besides a turning involvement in non-profit organisations presents. Harmonizing to Klein and Prusak ( 1994 ) , IC is defined as “ rational stuff that has been formalized, captured and leveraged to bring forth a higher valued plus ” ( cited by Secundo et Al. 2010, p. 142 ) . By and large, IC comprises three common elements which are human capital, organisational capital and societal capital ( Leliaert et al. 2003, de Castro and Saez 2008, Cabello and Kekale 2008 ) . However, using Human Capital Theory, human capital is deemed to be the important component underpinning the constructs of IC. This is because people uninterrupted invest in themselves through formal and informal instruction, assuring relevant and up-to-date end products of cognition and accomplishments to the organisation and society ( Nerdrum and Erikson 2001 ) . Therefore, the IC mentioned in this research are peculiarly referred to human capital.
The Contribution of Intellectual Capital in Supplementing the Technological Advancement to Achieve Effective Learning
Each moving ridge of emerging engineering seems to animate unchecked optimism and assurance that it will work out the universe ‘s instruction jobs. However, in the reappraisal of the impacts of technological promotions on instruction made by Clark ( 1994 ) and Kozma ( 1994 ) , there is a demand to reconsider the capablenesss of technological promotions in accomplishing effectual acquisition ( cited by Yam 2002 ) . Technology in general, do non and so can non ensue in larning results because it is excessively generic as instructional artefacts. Therefore, IC is recognized as the steering angle to supply the pedagogical counsel and direction. Concerning of this correlativity, Volery and Lord ( 2000 ) pointed that human capital, as the teacher, plays a cardinal function in finding the effectivity of larning utilizing technological promotions. Among their parts, teacher ‘s “ range and profusion ” and “ flexibleness and unity ” are the major consideration in making effectual acquisition.
Reach and Richness
Harmonizing to Weigel ( 2000 ) , reach refers to handiness, which means tackling the engineering to accomplish the acquisition content. On the other manus, profusion bases for a peculiar quality of a content which is capable of easing human acquisition ( cited by Yam, 2002 ) . This function played by IC is believed to better use educational engineering in accomplishing effectual acquisition.
Learning as knowing
Very frequently learners rely on proficient appliances to work out simple computations to acquire immediate and accurate consequences. In fact, this has led to infringing their ability to believe creatively ( Pistone 2010 ) . They besides act like an empty vas waiting to be filled with small cognition. Harmonizing to Salter ( 2003 ) , these people will ne’er success in their acquisition because memorising facts and information does non turn out anything besides holding a immense capacity of memory. Therefore, handiness of IC enables scholars to state back things they have learnt by interacting with them. These intellectuals can place, analyze and justify every reply given by scholars which can non be done by technological promotions entirely ( Yam, 2002 ) . This is because systems possibly really stiff to a specific input or reply whereas there is normally more than one reply for a inquiry depending on scholar ‘s comprehensibility.
Learning as using cognition
Through the genteelness of engineering, WebCT is developed for educational intellectuals to make on-line classs or merely publish stuffs to supplement bing classs in related field of surveies ( Volery and Lord 2000 ) . This plan is decidedly a gift from engineering to those busy executives who desire to travel from current calling to professional development ( Barron and Gruber 2008 ) . Although the class content is available online, pedagogical counsel from intellectuals is of critical to present and explicate the subjects. Mentioning to Joia ( 2000 ) , scholars can ever remain connected to the experts or intellectuals in a peculiar field utilizing class conferencing system and electronic mail. Having this unrecorded interaction and interface on an issue, scholars would experience personally involved with an issue and therefore heightening their cognition in that peculiar country ( Petre and Harrington 1996, cited by Salter 2003 ) .
Learning as a way to wisdom
The archival stuffs provided by engineering incorporated sound, exposure, picture, scanned handwritten letters and diaries of historical persons or incidents ( Barron and Gruber 2008 ) . Therefore, technological promotions are claimed to be resourceful in demoing the stuffs but unluckily, can non show the history emotionally to the scholars. Human teachers are so of import in footings of their personal attack and information-dissemination mode to develop a sense of belonging and battle such as loyal sing the topic ( Volery and Lord 2000, Yam 2002 ) . Besides, humanistic engineering is of great import presents and this can merely be achieved by rational instruction that is based on philosophical intervention coordinated by intellectuals ( Rise 2009 ) .
A trial conducted utilizing Pearson correlativity shows a coefficient of 0.563 with a p-value of 0.001between effectual acquisition and engineering. However, a farther analysis indicates that IC is the cognition sailing master that suitably utilizes this impersonal tool to accomplish effectual acquisition ( Volery and Lord 2000 ) . Therefore, the parts of range and profusion provide full support for the scholars in larning efficaciously utilizing technological promotion.
Flexibility and Integrity
Today, the larning society should be well-prepared for the following millenary, to be active to catch the issue and challenges before jobs occur ( Hill 1999 ) . It is the flexibleness of IC to accommodate accomplishments and gait in mobilising the scholars to confront different state of affairs in the procedure of effectual acquisition ( Rucinski and Bauch 2006, Hill 1999, Davenport et al. 1999 ) . In proving the effectivity of assorted learning manner, Principles of Adult Learning Scale ( PALS ) indicated that the learner-centered instruction manner recorded the highest mark with a standard divergence of 20 ( Conti 1985, cited by McCoy 2006 ) . This shows that technological advancement deficiency of this ability to accomplish effectual larning since different people will hold different ways in nearing effectual acquisition. Apart from flexibleness, a research found that IC has deliberately use the educational engineering to make effectual acquisition in ways that enable them to pull off their unity of the conflicting individualities as pedagogues, professional practicians and institutional employees ( Henderson and Bradey 2008 ) . Again, IC ‘s part in footings of flexibleness and unity enhance the acquisition procedure through three attacks.
Learning as knowing
Surveies show that scholars can get the hang a capable country merely when they response to a peculiar signifiers of larning that suit their personal penchants ( Mumford 1999, Gelfand and Riggs 2004 ) . Evidenced by the larning doctrine of Glorie Bobbie, human encephalon is alone that there is no right or incorrect manner in nearing effectual acquisition and therefore, there can non be a standardised acquisition method ( Gelfand and Riggs 2004 ) . As oppose to the stiff educational technological promotions, IC “ demonstrates the virtuousnesss of bravery, moderation, generousness, self-denial, honestness, sociableness, modestness, equity and justness ” to per se actuate and prosecute assorted types of scholars ( Rucinski and Bauch 2006, p. 495 ) . With the educational engineerings, IC can orient larning to the manner of the pupils, whether larning in sequence, parts and linguistic communication or larning with images, infinite and colorss ( McCoy 2006 ) .
Learning as using cognition
To do larning more effectual, IC plays a function in following a good and effectual method to measure scholars. Harmonizing to Paek ( 2005 ) , computer-adoptive trial ( CAT ) is extremely recommended by pedagogues presents to replace the traditional multiple pick proving scenes since surveies prove that the acceptance will non impact scholar ‘s public presentation. The flexibleness of IC do non curtail the development of larning methods and attacks in this technological century, but continuously seeking ways to better heighten the effectivity of larning. Besides cut downing the ingestion of paper, computerized appraisal diminish the clip to finish a trial which finally avoid scholars from a nerve-racking appraisal ( Barron 2006 ) .
Learning as a way to wisdom
In a survey of 476 concern pupils, research workers found that 73.6 % of them agree that it is easier to rip off in an on-line versus traditional class ( King et al. 2009, cited by Bailie and Jortberg 2009 ) . To reenforce the academic unity policies, IC has created series of system and package to get the better of this unwise action among the scholars ( Rucinski and Bauch 2006, Freeman and Thomas 2005 ) . User hallmark was chiefly created to guarantee users ‘ individuality with their really ain IDs and watchwords. Yet, it was called out for holding much exposure and therefore, the latest application nowadayss challenge inquiries based on informations managed by the establishments. With this brilliant system, National American University can make 150 to 300 challenge inquiries per single when scholars enter a “ trigger event ” such as an test ( Bailie and Jortberg 2009 ) .
The surface attack to educational engineering usage improves entree to larning but without needfully bettering larning itself. Therefore, a thoughtful acquisition design by IC is indispensable for larning paradigm. With a good integrating between technological promotion and IC, effectual acquisition will ne’er be a miracle to go on. It is articulately reflected in the ancient Chinese adage of “ Tell me and I ‘ll bury, Show me and I may retrieve, Involve me and I ‘ll understand ” ( Mowat 2002, p.8 ) .
Challenges Faced by the Heavy Reliance on Intellectual Capital
It can be a sedate error to presume that all academic intellectuals who are effectual in learning can successfully do the spring into making effectual acquisition among the scholars without experience and preparation in managing educational technological promotions ( Barron 2006 ) . Knowledge can be learned and applied right, but this does non bespeak valued acquisition has taken topographic point. Besides, experts have estimated that the chief educational barrier is professional and proficient obsolescence in the IC ( Rose 2009 ) . Therefore, the employment of pedagogical and proficient IC is even though advantageous and indispensable in educational establishment ( Leliaert et al. 2003 ) , there are still serious hurdlings to the heavy trust on IC to accomplish effectual acquisition.
Assurance and competency of pedagogues are known to be impacting their usage of engineering in direction. They are dying and may non exposed to engineering preparation and therefore, most likely abort the benefits of technological promotions when they do non necessitate scholars to utilize engineering ( Deubel 2003, Crowther et Al. 2004, cited by Erdemir et Al. 2009 ) . Therefore, educational establishments may necessitate to incur a great budget in preparation and development plan for their human capitals to better their engineering literacy. Besides, appropriate facilitates should be provided to help the IC such as buying appropriate package application and hardware that best suit their use. Lack of some basic package such as anti-virus package can be a serious job to an establishment because another large sum of money will necessitate to incur when the whole system interrupt down ( Joia 2000 ) . Buying educational package is non inexpensive because package comes in footings of licence where establishment will necessitate to hold with the footings and conditions applied. If the licence contract is breached, another sum of money should be prepared for case.
Whenever there is human capital, there will be ethical issues and same thing applies here. Mentioning to the prostration of Enron, while the major cause of this corporate meltdown has been indentified to be fiscal use, their IC had ne’er run off from lending to this failure ( Chatzkel 2003 ) . This reflects that the cogency of IC as a important component in organisation is so can be so easy manipulated. Harmonizing to Lev ( 2001 ) , educational establishment is covering with increased importance of values, moral cloth and behavioral component when it moves to intangible intensive context. In accomplishing effectual larning utilizing educational engineering, ethical issue is of chief concern every bit good because human capital has unluckily demonstrated that their value can be manipulated and destroyed, harmonizing to their state of affairs and context ( Kannan and Aulbur 2004 ) .
In this research, my chief focal point is to analyze and explicate the relationship between technological promotion and effectual acquisition, which is moderated by IC. I have limited my research country to these three variables and therefore, my research is an explanatory survey. I am non interested in seeking new penetration or clear uping my apprehension of this issue, which chiefly reflected by exploratory survey, but wish to set up a causal relationship between the variables ( Saunders et al. 2007 ) .
Therefore, I will follow epistemology as my research doctrine. “ Epistemology concerns what constitutes acceptable cognition in a field of survey ” ( Saunders et Al. 2007, p.102 ) . With the aggregation and analysis of facts in the existent universe, we are extremely acknowledged that technological promotion is inevitable in our life and proved to be contributable particularly in pedagogical universe. However, I may non cognize to what extent its functions have led to effectual acquisition. Therefore, I will indentify how IC influences the maps of educational engineering in accomplishing effectual acquisition.
To increase the cogency of my research survey, I will move as a critical realist. Harmonizing to Bhaskar ( 1989 ) , what we see is normally portion of the bigger image and therefore we should do an attempt to place the invisible portion through the practical and theoretical procedures of the societal scientific discipline ( cited by Saunders et Al. 2007 ) . Therefore, besides analyzing technological promotion itself and the esthesiss it conveys, I will necessitate to see the societal construction that has given rise to or as a consequence of educational engineering. For case, when we allow machines and engineerings to derive greater control, there is possibility that scholars will lose the ability to believe, to inquire and to look into the enigma of everything ( Pistone 2010 ) .
I used the diary articles and literature to assist me place theories and thoughts that I should utilize in this research. Therefore, my research will use deductive attack in which I should foremost develop a theoretical model for me to prove utilizing informations ( Saunders et al. 2007 ) . This attack is suited in my explanatory survey because it allows me to prove my hypotheses and supply verification.
Experiment is the chief scheme I will implement in proving my hypotheses. It is meant to analyze causal links between independent and dependent variables ( Hakim 2000, cited by Saunders et Al. 2007 ) , which in my instance would be technological promotion and effectual acquisition. Experimental group and control group are formed to compare the effectivity of larning in the environment with and without educational engineering. Besides, I will besides utilize study to roll up informations from a ample population in analyzing the outgrowth of IC into the mentioned relationship. Using this scheme, I will carry on interview and give out questionnaire to the respondents ( Saunders et al. 2007 ) . As a critical realist, I will hold semi-structured interview to derive possible suggestions and perceptual experiences sing the parts of IC in this state of affairs. The quantitative informations such as per centum of educational institutes equipped with educational engineering, per centum of IC who are both pedagogical and proficient, and per centum of academic passing rate after implementing educational engineering are collected utilizing structured questionnaire.
In this instance, I will be transporting out assorted method research because I use both quantitative and qualitative informations aggregation techniques and analysis processs at the same clip. Harmonizing to Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) , assorted method research enables triangulation to take topographic point and therefore, farther enhances the credibleness of my survey. For case, the semi-structured interview can break triangulate the statistical informations that I will roll up from structured questionnaire.
My sample choice will be done on two-stage bunch sampling in which “ the population is divided into distinct groups or bunchs prior to trying ” ( Saunders et Al. 2007, p. 593 ) . With the trying frame of instruction, I will group the educational establishments based on geographical country such as Asia, Europe, Africa, America and Australia. Sample of 100 will be chosen indiscriminately from each group to undergo experiment and study. The estimated continuance will cross four months, which normally indicates one semester.
In fact, it is preferred to use longitudinal survey in this research rubric. An penetration into developments in educational engineering and acquisition attacks over a period of wide-ranging alteration is of import for a research to be valid and believable. However, I will do my research to be cross-sectional due to clip restraint. I will be concentrating more on the use of technological promotion presents in larning context and explicate the relationship between variables.
Upon finishing the literature reappraisal, it is of high possibility that the hypotheses will be accepted. Effective acquisition can be achieved through three attacks of larning as knowing, larning as using cognition and acquisition as a way to wisdom. The parts of IC should ne’er be neglected in covering with technological promotion to accomplish effectual acquisition.
Reflecting on all of the facts and issues indentified in the literature reappraisal, the individual implicit in significance is that the turning inclination of technological promotions on pedagogical mean necessitates the full support and part from IC. The development of educational engineering will decidedly profit the scholars regardless their age, civilization, background and even state. However, it had and will go on to speed up so quickly that no individual thing in this Universe would catch it up. In this instance, human capital, which is at the top of the nutrient concatenation, is claimed to hold the possible to dominant over the mechanical and non-organic technological universe.
First, IC is rich with its valuable cognition, accomplishment and experience to manage the educational engineering. Barriers of clip and topographic point are overcome when scholars can ever remain connected with the beginning of cognition such as their pedagogues to acquire just-in-time information and counsel. Second, IC is flexible in following educational engineering to make effectual acquisition because there is a truth that different scholars require different ways to get cognition. Besides, it is believed that IC is reasonable and wise in using the manipulatable technological promotions. However, the heavy trust of IC should be handled carefully with high consideration on the possible drawbacks which might be generated from hapless fiscal position and ethical issues.
As a decision, the acceptance of technological promotions and IC can assist educational establishments to convey scholars to greater highs through the three critical larning attacks. Besides the purpose to make it, establishment should besides hold the capablenesss to implement them efficaciously.