During the period of 1944 and 1947 a series of Education Acts were enforced in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England and Wales was the first to implement it in 1944, Scotland in 1945 and lastly Northern Ireland in 1947. As quoted by Bob Morris, ‘The Education Act 1944 became something of a milestone in modern educational history ( B Morris 1990). With the support of unions in England and Wales it was imperative that there was a ‘drastic recasting of educational system’ (Giles 1946) required. Through the Education Act, education was organized into three sectors- primary, secondary and further education.
It remains the same to this day. The school leaving age was altered to 15 and then to 16 years of age. By doing this in present day it has given young people more opportunities for a better education, regardless of their situation. During the first period free medicals, free milk and free school lunches were provided. Now it extends to free breakfast clubs and for a fee after school clubs in some primary schools. Unfortunately comparing Nursery provision to the first period to the last period, the provision wasn’t thought necessary, all due to lack of funding.
Luckily, this changed for the positive during 1997 and 1999 when the National Curriculum was reviewed. So, from 2000 the National Curriculum was implemented by the National Assembly. Six areas of learning was to be assessed- although still wasn’t compulsory for pre-school age children. As there is now funding and support of staff, unlike during the first period since the Foundation Phase stated in 2008 that ‘ it should provide a suitable and integrated approach for young children’s learning’ ( Welsh Assembly Government). A new revised National Curriculum was written in January 2008, as the Foundation Phase didn’t include beyond key stage 1.
Children from the National Curriculum to present finally had a structured framework, a far cry from the unstipulated education during the first period. During the first period Local Educational Authorities were liable to build secondary schools. IQ tests were performed on the children and only particular children were selected to attend grammar schools. McCulloch’s belief was that grammar schools were a ‘specialized type of secondary education’ ( G McCulloch 1998) Luckily, opinions changed so all children could be educated for free.
Equal opportunities still applies today for every child. Wilkinson believed that secondary schooling should include everyday skills. This was reflected in the National Curriculum when Career 1 Sian Hawkins 20652990 assessment 40241/01 Education was made compulsory. O levels were changed to GCSE’s, GNVQ and COEA’s in 1998. The revised National Curriculum backed up the values of education during the first period by stating that the National Curriculum ‘is inclusive and provides equality of opportunity (Welsh Assembly Government). Further Education has improved a great deal.
To this day colleges offer a variety of courses and universities offer Teacher Training courses amongst others to young people. When colleges and Teacher Training colleges opened in 1950 a direct grant could be applied for. A grant is available today to apply for. Funding from 1997 was improved dramatically, the complete opposite to the first period. As Robert Morris said, and always the central issue is the availability of scarce public resources ( R Morris). Availability during the first period for integrating special needs children into school was not successful, unlike from 1997.
Finance was blamed for the lack of support ‘for pupils who suffer him from any disability of mind and body’ (Ken Jones 2008). Although, lack of support from the National Curriculum, the provision for Special Needs changed. Pupils attended from part time to full time in school and work was differentiated for individual children. When a SEN statement applied to a child may not comply with the National Curriculum. Since the Foundation Phase took over all schools have to provide equal opportunities regardless of age, disability, race, belief r religion. So, in conclusion during the first period the provisions that were available were unable to put into action for one major factor. Lack of finance meant children and young people were unable to be educated unfortunately. Thankfully, since the last period to the period to the present day the situation has improved. Down to backing from the Government with funding readily available and grants available young people and children are able to continue in their education to achieve their dream career.
As stated by the Welsh Assembly Government (2008), ‘Learners of all abilities should have access to appropriate assessment and accreditation. ’ Bibliography Morris,R (1990) Central and local control of Education of Education after Reform Act 1988. Longman Group UK Giles, GCT (1946) The new school Tie. London: Pilot Press Welsh Assembly Government (2008) Framework for children’s learning for 3 to 7 year olds in Wales. Department for children, Education, lifelong learning and skills. McCulloch,G (1998) Failing the ordinary child: the theory and practice of working- class secondary education. Buckingham: Open University Press 2