Comparative Analysis on Kikuyu within the SPE and Post-SPE Framework
Term Paper for Foundations of Phonology Course
This paper aims at detecting the information set of Kikuyu linguistic communication. Two models are compared, i.e. the Sound Pattern of English ( henceforth ; SPE ) , and Post SPE ( Autosegmental Phonology ) . Within the treatment, attacks form other theories will besides be highlighted ; nevertheless, the chief point addressed in this paper is to measure the informations set of Kikuyu on the footing of phonological theories within the two models involved.
Based on SPE theory, the lexical entries should dwell of sufficient information for the phonological regulations in order to place its phonic signifiers for each context. In other words, each lexical entry is entered as a set of phonological typical characteristics. Furthermore, the implicit in representation ( UR ) is considered as an abstract representation in comparing to a surface representation ( SR ) . Along the paper, we will discourse both models together with characteristic notations and so we will analyse the information set segmentally to obtain the regulations regulating the linguistic communication of Kikuyu.
In the following subdivision, we will try to analyse the variableness of the co-ordinated articulary setup with the spirit of the Post-SPE model driven by a figure of inquiries in the optimisation of the information set analysis of with regard to the model inquestion. During the analysis, we will non see some basic demands such asNo Crossing ConstraintandAssociating Constraintin order to be consistent with the well-formedness status of Post-SPE model. Furthermore, we will besides near the alleged geometry of phonic representations accompanied by sufficient illustrations to calculate out any possible solution.
One of the cardinal issues addressed within this paper is the analysis on the shifting of rhinal + consonant with regard to the given informations set. We will seek to compare two theories in inquiry and detect how those theories could account for the alterations in the information set. At a ulterior phase, we will see which theory dramatis personaes better analysis of the given informations than the other does.
Some literatures will be considered particularly those from the text edition ofPhonological Theory: The Essential Readingsby Goldsmith, J. such asThe Sound Pattern of Englishby Chomsky, N. and Halle, M. , among others, every bit good as relevant beginnings which might give us more information about the linguistic communication of Kikuyu. Now, allow us travel through the analysis from the first model, i.e. the SPE model.
The SPE Framework
The SPE model is believed to be the footing of Generative Phonology since theories within this model were influenced by the positions from productive linguistics. Chomsky and Halle ( in Goldsmith, 1999: 17-19 ) states that a talker ‘s cognition of his linguistic communication consists of cognizing the lexical points of the linguistic communication and each lexical entry must incorporate specified characteristics, which determine the phonic signifier of the point in all contexts, i.e. the point ‘s phonological characteristics. Furthermore, such phonological characteristics are classificatory devices, they are binary, as are all other classificatory characteristics in the vocabulary, for the natural manner of bespeaking whether or non an point belongs to a peculiar class is by agencies of binary characteristics.
There will be two degrees of representations that will be discussed in the SPE model ; implicit in representation ( i.e. lexical or morphophonemic sequence ) and the surface signifier ( i.e. phonic end product signifier ) . Given the writers ‘ purpose at maximising the ‘simplicity ‘ of the grammar, it follows that underlying representations should be every bit abstract as possible and avoid redundant, or non-distinctive, characteristics. Minimized implicit in representations are so a demand to guarantee the generalization of the overall lingual system.
Within this model, we will analyse the information set on the linguistic communication of Kikuyu in the spirit of morphological analysis, overview on any possible alternation within the dataset, every bit good as placing the implicit in representation ( UR ) from the given informations set. Following this analysis, we will seek to detect possible regulations with feature notation of the given informations in order to acquire a generalised regulation telling within the information set. For this analysis, we besides refer to the International Phonetic Alphabet ( IPA ) chart, particularly for the consonants chart and their characteristics. Let us seek to analyse the informations set from the morphological analysis with the given informations set below.
The information set of Kikuyu is given below in table 1:
Imperative -- -1 sg.Imperfect -- English Meaning
& A ; szlig ; ura -- -- -- mbureet? -- -- -- -- 'lop off '
& A ; szlig ; aara -- -- -mbaareet? -- -- -- -'look at '
T? mom -- -- -- nd? meet? -- -- -- -- 'cut '
toma -- -- -- ndomeet? -- -- -- -- 'send '
reha -- -- -- ndeheet? -- -- -- -- 'pay '
Ru? a -- -- -- ndu? eet? -- -- -- -- 'cook '
cina -- -- -- ? ? ineet? -- -- -- -- 'burn '
koma -- -- -- ? gomeet? -- -- -- -- 'sleep '
Kera -- -- -- ? gereet? -- -- -- -- 'cross '
? ora -- -- -- ? goreet? -- -- -- -- 'buy '
? aja -- -- -- ? gajeet? -- -- -- -- 'divide '
From table 1, we can see that there are two signifiers to detect, the one beingImperativeand the other being the 1-sg-Imperfect from informations set of Kikuyu linguistic communication, which is followed by its significance in English. The tabular array shows that for each given word, several letters remain unchanged, which is typed in Bold inside the word. Most of them seem to hold a Vowel and Consonant order ( VC ) and a long vowel one ( i.e. VVC ) such as in& A ; szlig ; aara. Furthermore, we can besides see in the Imperative column in which all words are ever ended witha,marked after a slash mark ( – ) . Subsequently, the words in the first remarkable Imperfect column are ever ended with an ‘eet? ‘ , which is besides separated by a cut ( – ) . A complete information set analysis is given in table 2 below.
Imperative -- -- -- -- -- -- -1 seaborgium. Imperfect -- -- -- -- -- -- English Translation
& A ; szlig ;ur -a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- megabitur -eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'lop off '
& A ; szlig ;aar-a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- megabitaar-eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'look at '
T?m -a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- neodymium?m -eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'cut '
Tom -a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- neodymiumom -eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'send '
Reh -a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- neodymiumeh -eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'pay '
RU? -a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- neodymiumU? -eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'cook '
degree Celsiussin -a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ? ?in -eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'burn '
Kom -a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ? gom -eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'sleep '
Ker -a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ? ger -eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'cross '
?or -a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ? gor -eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'buy '
?aj -a -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ? gaj -eet? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'divide '
From table 2, we can see that the unchanged letters, which are Bold typed above, are the roots or could be portion of the roots of the word in implicit in representation. Furthermore, we can besides see postfixs, which indicate the Imperativeness or the given words that are signaled as the concluding missive ‘a ‘ at the concluding place of the word. From the regularity of the concluding letters ‘eet? ‘ , we can state that the given words must be classified as postfixs bespeaking the 1 seaborgium. Imperfect signifier of Kikuyu linguistic communication. We will discourse the implicit in signifiers of the morphemes regularity in a separate treatment in a ulterior portion. Now let us see the construction of the nasal sound which occurs before the root.
It is imaginable that an alternation is defined as a morpheme, which has two different sound forms, which can be analyzed by a phonological procedure. From the information set of Kikuyu, the some alternations can be observed as indicated in the undermentioned tabular array ( see table 3 ) . The alternations can be identified easy in that & A ; szlig ; becomes b ; t /r becomes vitamin D ; c go? ; k / ? becomes g. Those alternations can be viewed as the alternations in the linguistic communication of Kikuyu whose phonological procedure will be explored in regulations.
Imperative -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 seaborgium. Progressive
In a.b. & A ; szlig ; -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -mb
In c.d.t -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -nd
In e.f.r -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -nd
In g.c -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - ? ?
In h. i. K -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - ? g
In j. K. ? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - ? g
Furthermore, we can besides see that a rhinal consonant is inserted before the changed consonant, e.g. m ; n ; ? and? , which suggests that the morphological procedure goes along with the phonological procedure. Such interpolation shows us of import points for the information set in the linguistic communication of Kikuyu. We will discourse such phenomenon in greater concern in ulterior portion. However, there is one thing to state about this phenomenon in the interpolation of rhinal consonant in the 1 seaborgium. Imperfect groups could be analyzed as certain prefixes embedded which might show the tense of a verb. Whenever the alternation is constructed in an opposite manner, i.e. B becomes & A ; szlig ; in informations set, this lead to an ailment formed building. Such a instance is besides confirmable from informations h. and j. in which? g would go K and? severally following the instance. Therefore, we will see the sequence of alternation as from Imperative to 1 seaborgium. Imperfect. The reanalysis of the root of both signifiers is illustrated in table 4 below. Both prefixes ( nasals ) and postfixs (– aand– eet?) are discarded in table 4 so that we can acquire the root of each verb.
Imperative -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 seaborgium. Imperfect -- -- -- -- -- -- -- English Meaning
& A ; szlig ; ur -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -bur -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -'lop off '
& A ; szlig ; Aare -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- baar -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 'look at '
T? m -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -d? m -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -'cut '
Tom -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -dom -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -'send '
reh -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -deh -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -'pay '
ruc -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -du? -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -'cook '
cin -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - ? in -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -'burn '
kom -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -gom -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -'sleep '
ker -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -ger -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -'cross '
? or -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -gor -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -'buy '
? aj -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -gaj -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -'divide '
What we have observed so far indicates that phonological constituents are obtained by mapping from the underlying representation ( UR ) to the surface ( phonic ) representation ( SR ) . This function phenomenon can be observed byrevision regulationswhich will be discussed in a separate portion. In other words, the informations set of Kikuyu we have so far could be considered as the Surface Representation. In the undermentioned paragraphs, we attempt to place the implicit in representation of the Kikuyu linguistic communication.
As noted above, we have seen that the unchanged letters in table 2 could be analyzed as the roots or portion of the roots of the words in the implicit in representation. On the footing of minimisation of the implicit in representation we will try to govern in the consonant before the unchanged letters because it seems to be implausible to foretell the consonants such as & A ; szlig ; , T, R, degree Celsius, K, ? by regulation. Furthermore, we have besides observed that the consonant & A ; szlig ; can switch to b non the frailty versa. Mentioning to the SPE theory, minimising the implicit in representation means that anything, which can be predicted by a regulation, should be eliminated from the implicit in representation. For case, the switching from & A ; szlig ; to b can be viewed in tabular array 4 which is exemplified by the shifting is from & A ; szlig ; ur to bur. Such procedure besides applies to all other words in the information set. By definition, we could acquire something like / & A ; szlig ; ur/ to be the existent root for underlying representation of the word, which means ‘lop off ‘ in Kikuyu. The root in underlying representation in the information set are presented in table 5 below and the Underlying Representations for the Imperative and 1 seaborgium. Imperfect are represented in table 6.
UR Stem English Meaning
/ & A ; szlig ; ur/ 'lop off '
/ & A ; szlig ; aar/ 'look at '
/t? m/ 'cut '
/tom/ 'send '
/reh/ 'pay '
/ru? / 'cook '
/cin/ 'burn '
/kom/ 'sleep '
/ker/ 'cross '
/ ? or/ 'buy '
/ ? aj/ 'divide '
Imperative UR 1 seaborgium. Imperfect UR English Meaning
/ & A ; szlig ; ur - a/ /Nas - bur -eet 'lop off '
/ & A ; szlig ; aar - a/ /Nas - baar-eet 'look at '
/t? m - a/ /Nas - vitamin D? thousand -eet 'cut '
/tom - a/ /Nas - dom -eet 'send '
/reh - a/ /Nas - deh -eet 'pay '
/ru? - a/ /Nas - du? -eet 'cook '
/cin - a/ /Nas - ? in -eet 'burn '
/kom - a/ /Nas - gom -eet 'sleep '
/ker - a/ /Nas - ger -eet 'cross '
/ ? or - a/ /Nas - gor -eet 'buy '
/ ? aj - a/ /Nas - gaj -eet 'divide '
In the model of SPE, we have been familiar with the footings such as abbreviatory conventions, concision, Minimize UR, Rule format and Evaluation steps, etc. They will be considered here under IPA harmonic chart and characteristic tabular array where relevant information is given in table 7 below:
( Imp = Imperative ) ( 1sg = 1 seaborgium. Imperfect )
Group A ( information a. B. )
& A ; szlig ; - bilabial spirant ( Imp )
b - bilabial stop consonant ( 1sg )
m - bilabial nasal ( 1sg )
Group B ( informations c. d. e. degree Fahrenheits. )
t - alveolar stop consonant ( Imp )
r - alveolar spirant ( Imp )
d - alveolar stop consonant ( 1sg )
n - alveolar nasal ( 1sg )
Group C ( informations g. )
c - palatine stop consonant ( Imp )
? - palatine stop consonant ( 1sg )
? - palatal nasal ( 1sg )
Group D ( informations h. i. j. K. )
k - velar stop consonant ( Imp )
? - velar spirant ( Imp )
g - velar stop consonant ( 1sg )
? - velar nasal ( 1sg )
From the distribution in table 7, we can pull some of import information in the surface degree. In Imperative categorization ( Imp ) , we can detect that the spirants are stop consonants whereas in ( 1sg ) group, we merely observe the stop consonants 1s. This observation is helpful for geting at the tax write-off that under certain environment, fricatives/plosives are interpreted as ( & A ; agrave ; ) plosives. Furthermore, within each group, we can place that the same topographic point of articulation is shared, i.e. , bilabial / dental consonant / palatal / velar. This observation will lend to place the relation between the changed consonants and the added nasal sound types.
In the average clip, within each ‘1sg ‘ group, we can besides detect that the rhinal sound ever precedes the plosive sound. This observation is utile for understanding whether the prefix [ Nasal ] maps are in a additive order. By using the minimized major characteristic for these consonants, we can bring forth some important characteristic notations as celebrated below.
1. Fricative consonants [ -son, +cont ]
2. Stop consonants [ -son, -cont ]
3. Nasal consonants [ +son, -cont ]
Therefore, now we can detect the assimilation of the characteristic [ cont ] in the class of reassigning from spirants to stop consonants and likely the dissimilation of the characteristic [ boy ] between nasals and stop consonants. In order to fulfill the conditions of Minimize UR and the Evaluation step, we could detect each sound in item and add the characteristic [ voice ] where we can see that all stop consonants and nasals are [ +voiced ] as illustrated in table 8 below.
Features - harmonic Features-place of articulation
Group A ( information a. B. )
& A ; szlig ; - [ -son ] [ +cont ] [ +voiced ] ( Imp ) [ +ant ] [ -cor ]
b - [ -son ] [ -cont ] [ +voiced ] ( 1sg ) [ +ant ] [ -cor ]
m - [ +son ] [ -cont ] [ +voiced ] ( 1sg ) [ +ant ] [ -cor ]
Group B ( informations c. d. e. degree Fahrenheits. )
t - [ -son ] [ -cont ] [ -voiced ] ( Imp ) [ +ant ] [ +cor ]
r - [ +son ] [ +cont ] [ +voiced ] ( Imp ) [ +ant ] [ +cor ]
d - [ -son ] [ -cont ] [ +voiced ] ( 1sg ) [ +ant ] [ +cor ]
n - [ +son ] [ -cont ] [ +voiced ] ( 1sg ) [ +ant ] [ +cor ]
Group C ( informations g. )
c - [ -son ] [ -cont ] [ -voiced ] ( Imp ) [ -ant ] [ +cor ]
? - [ -son ] [ -cont ] [ +voiced ] ( 1sg ) [ -ant ] [ +cor ]
? - [ +son ] [ -cont ] [ +voiced ] ( 1sg ) [ -ant ] [ +cor ]
Group D ( informations h. i. j. K. )
k - [ -son ] [ -cont ] [ -voiced ] ( Imp ) [ -ant ] [ -cor ]
? - [ -son ] [ +cont ] [ +voiced ] ( Imp ) [ -ant ] [ -cor ]
g - [ -son ] [ -cont ] [ +voiced ] ( 1sg ) [ -ant ] [ -cor ]
? - [ +son ] [ -cont ] [ +voiced ] ( 1sg ) [ -ant ] [ -cor ]
From the characteristics distribution above, we can detect several of import generalisations. First, as we can see in the left column, consonants could set themselves to the nasal during the switching to plosive by continuing [ -cont ] and [ +voiced ] . Then, the consonantRin Group B is the lone consonant in Imp which has characteristic [ +son ] , hence, we have to switch it to go [ -son ] every bit good in the class of switching to plosive. However, this is decidedly non a sort of accommodation to the nasal since it is imaginable that all nasals are found to be [ +son ] .
Second, in the right column, we can detect that the interpolations of prefixing nasals adjust themselves to the consonants and go bilabial / dental consonant / palatal / velar nasal severally in topographic point of articulation. Furthermore, we attempt to calculate out the accommodations above as assimilation, every bit good as the “ dis-adjustment ” of R as dissimilation. In amount, we can obtain two of import regulations in the linguistic communication in inquiry.
[ -cont ]
[ +cons ] & amp ; agrave ; [ +voice ] / [ +nas ] ______
[ -son ]
Such regulation entails the accommodation of the consonants to the nasals. Under this regulation, & A ; szlig ; becomes b ; T and R becomes d ; c becomes? ; K and? becomes g due to the prefixing nasal. Then, all fricatives become stop consonants as given the undermentioned regulation.
[ +nas ] & A ; agrave ; [ aPlace ] /______ [ aPlace ]
In regulation B, the same topographic point of articulation is construed by the notation [ aPlace ] represents here. This regulation signals the accommodation of the nasals to the consonants. By utilizing this regulation, nasal will go thousand whenever aPlace is bilabial ; n whenever aPlace is alveolar ; ? whenever aPlace is palatine and? whenever aPlace is velar. The beginning nasal in prefixing can non be observed from the given informations set. For case, if it is [ +nas, +cor ] so it should be a harmonic ‘n ‘ .
Along the old portion, we have observed some telling regulations in the linguistic communication of Kikuyu. Further in this portion, we will seek to calculate out the ordination of the two regulations we have mentioned in progress. Based on the SPE model, we have seen that all morphological regulations apply before all phonological regulations. Although Kiparsky and many others believe the other manner against this model, we try to see whether this regulation is so feasible within the spirit of SPE model.
Here, the morphological regulations are viewed as infix interpolation, i.e. prefix /Nas/ ; suffix /-a/ and /–eet? / in the given informations set which will use in the first topographic point and the phonological regulations given in Rule A and Rule B above will use in the 2nd topographic point. Now the inquiry turns to which phonological regulation applies in first order, being Rule A or Rule B. Suppose we take illustrations in informations vitamin Ds and vitamin E from the given informations set. First, allow us look at informations d. it seems that we will non happen any difference in informations vitamin D with regard to the ordination of two regulations and hence the consequence looks like the same. Then, seek to compare with informations e. Let see what happens.
Data vitamin D = from [ toma ] to [ ndomeet? ]
If Rule A precedes Rule B
Morphologic Rule /Nas/ + /tom/ + /eet? / =UR
Rule A /Nas/ + /dom/ + /eet? /
Rule B /n/ + /dom/ + /eet? / =SR
If Rule B precedes Rule A
Morphologic Rule /Nas/ + /tom/ + /eet? / =UR
Rule B /n/ + /tom/ + /eet? /
Rule A /n/ + /dom/ + /eet? / =SR
Data e. from [ reha ] to [ ndeheet? ]
If Rule A precedes Rule B
Morphologic Rule /Nas/ + /reh/ + /eet? / =UR
Rule A /Nas/ + /deh/ + /eet? /
Rule B /n/ + /deh/ + /eet? / =SR
If Rule B precedes Rule A
Morphologic Rule /Nas/ + /reh/ + /eet? / =UR
Rule B /n/ + /reh/ + /eet? /
Rule A /n/ + /deh/ + /eet? / =SR
As we can see above, the comparing between informations vitamin Ds and vitamin E indicates the same thing for telling of two regulations every bit good. This suggests that the ordination of regulations do non hold something to make with the consequence. It farther suggests that the nasals and the derived consonants could hold a comparatively strong connexion with each other, i.e. one co-exists with the other.
Within the SPE model, the information set has been analyzed in the signifier of characteristics of lexical single sections. We tried to use the regulations we have and they seems to work good. This gives farther indicant that the SPE model can be considered as effectual tool in explicating the phenomenon in informations set of Kikuyu linguistic communication. However, it seems that the relationship between the two regulations is non crystalline. The ground for this might be the trouble in bring forthing the lone one regulation alternatively of two explicating such phenomenon in the SPE model.
The Post-SPE Framework
Autosegmental phonemics was introduced by John Goldsmith ( 1976 ) and re presented a great measure frontward in lingual research. In the classical generative theory developed by Chomsky and Halle, phonological constituents were additive sequences of sections which themselves consisted of characteristic packages. One of the ruins of the
SPE model resided in the premise that every section had to match to precisely one characteristic specification and vice-versa ( every characteristic specification had to match to precisely one section ) . Consequently, many phonological phenomena ( related to emphasize, lengthening, beat and modulation for case ) were left unexplained.
SPE merely had no manner of supplying a proper history of prosodic phenomena. As stated by Goldsmith himself ( ( 1999: p.137 ) , “ Autosegmental phonemics constitutes a peculiar claim about the geometry of phonic and phonological representations. it suggests that the phonic representation is composed of a set of several coincident sequences of these sections, with certain simple restraints on how the assorted degrees of sequences can be interrelated or ‘associated ‘ . The chief invention brought about by Post-SPE model is the fact that supra segmental characteristics, such as emphasis or tone, are no longer confined to precisely one section but can be shared by two or more sections and vice-versa. Some characteristics, while staying associated with a section, are now handled individually. Many phonological phenomena can so be analyzed in footings of a restructuring or reorganisation of the autosegments in a representation.
Different from the first subdivision, here we will analyse the information set of Kikuyu within the Post-SPE model, or besides known as the Autosegmental Phonology but within this paper we instead use the term Post SPE merely for the interest of relaxation in comparing. In this subdivision, we will besides see the usage of the IPA chart and characteristic notations for the treatment in the Post-SPE model. Besides in this portion we might still see some regulations from SPE model and will be reviewed in the spirit of Post-SPE model. Phenomenon such as assimilation and dissimilation will be approached to turn to the jobs we found in the information set of Kikuyu Language. Of class, other theories within the Post-SPE will besides be introduced. Let us get down our treatment with the designation of characteristics and distributing in this model.
In this model, characteristics will be viewed as independent characteristics of their sections in order for them to be represented as auto-segments. We can detect in the information set of Kikuyu linguistic communication that a phonological procedure can act upon more than one consonant at a clip. This might take us to reexamine the information we had in table 3 where & A ; szlig ; – megabit ; t – neodymium ; r – neodymium ; c – ? ? ; k – ? g ; ? – ? g, with the given two regulations. We have mentioned earlier about assimilation in SPE, i.e. an alternation which copies a characteristic specification from the closest section. Take Group A and Rule B as an illustration:
[ +nas ] & A ; agrave ; [ bila Place ] / ______ [ bila Place ]
N & A ; agrave ; m / ______ & A ; szlig ; / B
In the Post-SPE model, assimilation is identified as the spreading of characteristics to the neighbouring X-slots. This means that an X-slot is associated with the two X-slots, ensuing assimilation as illustrated below:
NX NX maxwell
| & A ; agrave ; ?| & A ; agrave ; ?| [ +ant ] [ +ant ] [ +ant ]
[ -cor ] [ -cor ] [ -cor ]
For the interest of relaxation, some grades are excluded. Here, X represents the changed consonant in Kikuyu. The nasal is considered another X slot, which is marked as N. After distributing, we see that the two X-slots portion the characteristic of [ +ant ] and [ -cor ] . The characteristic from the adjacent X-slot could be deleted after the class of distributing. The replacing of Rule A in the Post SPE model is a bit more complicated than Rule B since omission is involved. As for case, see Group A we have noted above, within the SPE model, we will acquire the shifting below.
[ +cons ] & amp ; agrave ; [ -cont ] [ +voice ] [ -son ] / [ +nas ] ______
& A ; szlig ; & A ; agrave ; b / N______
Then, allow us use this within the Post SPE model to analyse this phenomenon where we have two X-slots represent Nasal and Consonant severally during the class of alternation. An illustration of switching from N & A ; szlig ; to Nb is given below.
Ten X X X
| | & A ; agrave ; | /
[ +son ] [ -son ] [ +son ] [ -son ]
[ -cont ] [ +cont ] [ -cont ] [ -cont ]
[ +voiced ] [ +voiced ] [ +voiced ] [ +voiced ]
For the interest of relaxation, some grades are reduced. We can see in the shifting procedure that [ -son, +voiced ] characteristics are preserved during the shifting and [ +cont ] characteristic becomes [ -cont ] . In the SPE model, it is imaginable that morphological regulations apply before phonological regulations, so we have a Nasal slot before Consonant slot in 1 seaborgium. Imperfect in Kikuyu. When we analyze farther in the Post SPE model during the shifting, [ +son and -son ] features reduces to [ -son ] , so [ cont and voice ] characteristics shift to [ -cont, +voiced ] . This suggests assimilation to the rhinal characteristic. All consonants following the nasal are still [ -cont, +voiced ] but this is still regarded as procedure of assimilation. Therefore, the same topographic point of articulation of rhinal accommodating to the undermentioned consonant is considered a procedure of assimilation.
Different from assimilation, allow us discourse about the dissimilation in the given informations set for the characteristic [ boy ] . In table 3, we have seen that in informations vitamin Es and degree Fahrenheit, R becomes nd. The analysis under Post-SPE is figured out in the undermentioned diagram.
R & A ; agrave ; N + R & A ; agrave ; N + R & A ; agrave ; N + vitamin D & A ; agrave ; nd
Twenty XX XX X
| & A ; agrave ; | | & A ; agrave ; | -| /
[ +son ] [ +son ] [ +son ] [ +son ] [ +son ] [ +son ] [ -son ]
[ +cont ] [ -cont ] [ +cont ] [ -cont ] [ +cont ] [ -cont ] [ -cont ]
[ +voiced ] [ +voiced ] [ +voiced ] [ +voiced ] [ +voiced ] [ +voiced ] [ +voiced ]
In the above diagram, we have reduced some grades for the interest of relaxation. When the lines are associated, the line behind Ten is deleted, which is marked as ( – ) . This consequence the remotion of the characteristic [ +cont ] [ +voiced ] and the slot receives new characteristics from characteristics under the N ( nasal ) slot. However, we see that characteristic [ +son ] turns into [ -son ] during the class of switching. Therefore, this leads to an assimilation procedure towards nasal sound since nasal sound is [ +son ] and all other consonants do non alter their [ -son ] features. This is debatable. Therefore, we might near it within the spirit of “ Geometry of Phonological Features ” by Clement. He suggests that there are three types of assimilation ; entire, partial and single-feature, trusting much on the place of the distributing component in the grades. We see that [ boy ] and [ cont ] generate on the same grade, i.e. mode grade. Therefore, sorting this phenomenon as partial and individual characteristic assimilation seems to be implausible since the assimilation of the information set has involved more than one characteristic. It seems that dissimilation with such theory can non be preserved. Now let us seek to account for the phenomenon with the X theory. See the undermentioned diagram with an illustration the word & A ; szlig ; ura in informations a.
s s hierarchal syllable construction
/ | / |
/R / R ( Rhyme )
/ | / |
ON ON ( Onset - Nucleus - Finale )
| | | |
Twenty XX skeleton ( no characteristic [ ±syllabic ] in X theory )
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& A ; szlig ; u Ra autosegmental characteristics
The two sections such as nasal and plosive behave like as if one section. These sections can be considered as pre-nasalized consonants which might be marked in other signifiers. Similar phenomenon can besides be found in other linguistic communications such as Bantu linguistic communication. With regard to Kikuyu, it seem to be implausible for such a linguistic communication to hold a Nasal+Consonant ( NC ) bunch in 1 seaborgium. Imperfect being a prenasalized consonant. Since the NC in the information set of Kikuyu is really one X-slot it seems to be generalizeable that such a linguistic communication does non let two [ +son ] in one slot and one of them has to travel [ -son ] , which is in this instance the consonant 1. In other words, in NC bunch nasal sound is pronounced with [ +son ] and NC portion the same [ -cont, +voiced ] characteristics. Further, on this issue, we may necessitate to turn to such phenomenon with another theory, which is still in the spirit of station SPE, i.e. the Mora theory
The treatment within this attack might give better apprehension on the phenomena of single-channel segmental NC bunch. In Mora theory, nevertheless, it seems to be more hard to suggest farther analysis on the given grounds for the alterations, which have been involved in the linguistic communication of Kikuyu. In this theory, an oncoming is what might be able to be altering in this linguistic communication since an oncoming consonant is irrelevant to mora due to the absence of weight. It could be arguable that since the oncoming consonants do non number for timing ( Van Oostendorp ) , the slot might merely be one slot for the NC sounds alternatively of two slots for such a linguistic communication. See the diagram below, which might propose the first measure of morphological alternation within the Mora theory.
s... s... s...
/ | // | /|
/µ & A ; agrave ; // µ or /µ
/ | // | /|
CV C CV CV
& A ; szlig ; u N & A ; szlig ; u N & A ; szlig ; u
Within this subdivision, we attempt to account for the happening of distributing and assimilation within the Post-SPE model. Certain phenomenon, which used to be a spot complicated to explicate under the old model of phonological representations, is acquiring much more revealed if we try to detect any phenomena from the position of the Post SPE model. The observation on the phenomenon of the Kikuyu information set seems to be better explained under the latest theory yet the nature of the informations set should be preserved in such a good manner, as Goldsmith proposes.
So far, we have tried to account for the phenomenon of Kikuyu linguistic communication within the two models, i.e. SPE and Post SPE. We have seen both strengths and failings. By and big, the chief difference between the two models, SPE and Post SPE is that in SPE, information set of Kikuyu is analyzed within segmental degree whereas in the ulterior model, the information set is analyzed in an auto-segmental degree, hence it is called Autosegmental phonemics. Further differentiations can besides be captured within the impression of assimilation. In SPE model, assimilation is construed as sort of copying procedure whereas in the ulterior model, assimilation is analyzed as spreading. Furthermore, in SPE we seems to hold one-to-one which is defined as function whereas the ulterior model, the X place can be associated with nothing, be it one or two autosegments.
In the SPE model, we obtain the implicit in representations on the footing of the characteristics analysis in which at the ulterior phase, we could bring forth two regulations to stand for the phenomenon of switching in Kikuyu information set. In the ulterior model, we do non cover with regulations, alternatively distributing of association lines and assimilation to account for the job are involved. When we attempt to integrate the two regulations in SPE model into one individual spreading in the station SPE model, some obstructions such as dissimilation of [ boy ] could be encountered. We tried to suggest some possible solutions to the job in inquiry ; nevertheless, we seem to hold some staying jobs. For illustration, when we try to suggest one premise of mono-segment alternatively of bi-segment for NC bunch within the Post SPE model, but still there are some inquiries left.
In decision, both models have their ain strengths and failings. In the SPE model, we found that the regulations are considered as good explained to cover with the given phenomenon. However, this model is still unable to uncover the inner relationship among the altering elements in Kikuyu. In the ulterior model, the analysis is reasonably much closer to the inner relationship but we see that there some exclusions that need to be considered. If we have to take, we would state that the Post SPE model seems to be much more helpful than that of the first model irrespective some exclusions exist. Following Goldsmith, the Post SPE model contributes greater in calculating out the nature of Kikuyu linguistic communication than the first one since it could near some conditions of Kikuyu linguistic communication better.
Chomsky, N. and M. Halle ( 1968 ) . “ Phonetic and Phonological Representation ” . In
Goldsmith ( 1999 ) :Phonological Theory:The Essential Readings. Blackwell Publishers ( pp.17-21 ) .
Chomsky, N. and M. Halle ( 1976 ) .The Sound Pattern of English.New York: Harper and Row.
Clements, G.N. and S.J. Keyser ( 1983 ) .CV Phonology: A Generative Theory of the Syllable.Cambridge: MIT Press. Van Oostendorp, M ( 2005 ) . Mora Theory. p1-8
Goldsmith ( 1999 ) :Phonological Theory:The Essential Readings. Blackwell Publishers.
Goldsmith, J. ( 1976 ) . An Overview of Autosegmental Phonology.PhonologicalTheory:The Essential Readings.Blackwell Publishers.
Session 1 – Classical Generative Phonology ( 2008.Sept.12 )
Session 2 – Summary of standard characteristics ( 2008.Sept.19 )
Session 4 – Autosegmental phonemics I – characteristics ( 2008.Oct.3 )
Session 5 – Autosegmental phonemics II – the CV skeleton ( 2008.Oct.10 )
Session 6 – Autosegmental phonemics III – the mora ( 2008.Oct.17 )