English is taught in Malaysia schools as 2nd linguistic communication. Government has done tonss of attempt in order to assist pupils to accomplish better consequence in English topic. The debut of English as the medium of lesson for Mathematicss and Science has raised assorted effects among the pupils. The scenario known as code-switching has occurred everyplace in Malaysia and it has created the involvement among the linguists in Malaysia itself.
Code-switching is where two linguistic communications or more are used in one communicating. Muthusamy ( 2010 ) states that code-switching can be defined as exchanging from one linguistic communication codification to another during individual communicating event. Zakaria & A ; Kalong ( 2010 ) defined code-switching as the usage of more than one linguistic communication in a conversation. Code-switching among Malayan has been used from primary, secondary, third instructions and in mundane life. It is a scenario that has brought the attending whether the code-switching scenario occurs in order to make full the spread between the talkers and hearers or it merely the manner Malayan communicate to each other.
In the present paper, the grounds and types of code-switching are investigated. It is hypothesized that code-switching in Malaysian has been used as a tool for a communicating and has been used to convey the message in every degree of Malaysian community. The undermentioned eight literature reviews effort to show and back up the hypothesis by looking at school degree, third educational degree, in organisational degree and community degree.
Students ‘ background has been identified as one of the of import function in code-switching. Muthusamy ( 2010 ) conducted a survey on the forms of code-switching among secondary pupils and how the construction of code-switching is formed in lingual facet. He besides examined on pupils ‘ laterality in linguistic communication pick based on their household background. He conducted a study by gathered 20 pupils from different ethnicities and given the subject to discourse. The treatments were divided into two subdivision, multi cultural group and same cultural group. He besides administered a questionnaire consisting 45 inquiries in order to derive information about the pupils ‘ background. He used Matrix Language Frame Model by Myers-Scotton ( 2001 ) in analysing the information. In this survey he found the code-switching in secondary school pupils is relatively higher. He identified the usage of English as matrix linguistic communication is among pupils with extremely educated and socio-economic background. Other pupils from low socio-economic background used their female parent lingua linguistic communication as matrix linguistic communication. One restriction of the survey is the pick of 20 pupils ( twelve Indians, four Malayans and four Chinese ) should be every bit selected. Another restriction is merely one rural school has been selected in the survey, it should be two schools because the equal sum of schools from urban, suburban and rural countries. From the survey, pupils even in their group of cultural or different group of ethnic will utilize code-switching in their conversation. The ground can be seen as the deduction of the deficiency of vocabulary.
Following, for low proficient pupils, instructors need to utilize the scheme to reassign the cognition and the contents to pupils. In a research article by Ahmad ( 2009 ) , the survey examined a ) a significance relationship between code-switching and scholars ‘ positive affectional acquisition province and B ) relationship between code-switching and scholars ‘ larning success. Ahmad ( 2009 ) had administered a set of questionnaire contains 20 inquiries to 257 respondents. The information gathered from questionnaire was analyzed utilizing Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis and the survey found that scholars perceived code-switching scheme as positive. Ahmad ( 2009 ) concluded that the necessity of code-switching scheme for low proficient scholars in assisting the pupils to larn the linguistic communication and the contents of lesson. One restriction in the survey is identified when the survey merely concentrate on pupils ‘ perceptual experience towards code-switching used by instructor. Study should besides concentrate on utilizing code-switching in learning methods and how effectual to low adept pupils. Therefore, in this survey, code-switching has been identified as a tool to assist low adept pupils to derive cognition by adding their female parent lingua linguistic communication.
Muthusamy ( 2009 ) examined the maps and ground for code-switching in Malaysia, for Tamil pupils. In the survey, five major maps of code-switching have been identified ; a ) Communication, B ) Conceptual, degree Celsius ) Emphasis, vitamin D ) Interlocution and vitamin E ) Lexicon ( Muthusamy,2009 ) . 13 pupils were involved and their conversation had been recorded and analyzed utilizing Lalita Malik ( 1994 ) Reason for Code-switching tabular array. The survey found the chief ground for code-switching among Tamil pupils when they emphasized on accustomed look because of their behaviour. The survey besides suggested even English is dominant, Tamil talkers have the inclination to infix Tamil linguistic communication if possible. One restriction of this survey is the economic background of the Tamil talkers was non put into consideration. The survey should place the economic background of the talkers in order to acquire more important consequence of the survey. When the group of same ethnic of pupils involve in conversation, pupils with good bid of English will utilize few words from their female parent lingua linguistic communication to pass on with other pupils. It is apprehensible because they will seek to exemplify their ethnicity of their group.
Teacher besides used code-switching when they need to reiterate the word to do certain the pupils have developed the apprehension in the lesson. Then & amp ; Ting ( 2009 ) examined the discourse map of teacher code-switching in secondary schools English and Science schoolrooms in Malaysia. The category Sessionss were recorded and so the information was analyzed utilizing Semantic Model Encompassing Situational and Metaphorical Code-Switching by Gumperz ( 1982 ) . Then & amp ; Ting ( 2009 ) found that the maps of code-switching in the survey are Reiteration ( 41.67 % ) , Message Qualification ( 37.5 % ) , Interjections ( 8.33 % ) , Quotations ( 6.25 % ) , Personalization or Objectivization ( 2.08 % ) , Addressee Specification ( 2.08 % ) and Situational Switching ( 2.08 % ) . The survey has divided the lessons into two classs, Teacher-fronted Content Lessons ( teacher giving accounts and giving inputs to pupils ) and Teacher-facilitated English Lesson ( teacher inquiring pupils in order to construct their response ) . The higher per centum of Reiteration is shown in Teacher-fronted Content Lesson because the demands of instructor to reiterate the information in two linguistic communications to do certain pupils are able to understand the content. In 2nd class, code-switching is non used for account but it is used in Personalization. Teacher used this scheme to cite pupils sentences while pupils reacting to the inquiries. One restriction of this survey is the usage of one ethnic of instructor ( Chinese ) , the correlativity may hold been significantly different when instructors from other ethnics have been involved. It is clear that the ground of code-switching in this survey is to do certain the pupils will understand the contents of the lesson. Code-switching is used in this survey to look into the pupils understanding towards the lesson.
Third Educational Degree
Next, the subject of in relation to code-switching is researches in third educational degree. After we investigated the scenario in code-switching in secondary schools, the following reappraisal will touch on the scenario of codification exchanging in third instruction. The pupils have taken MUET ( Malaysia University English Test ) before enter the universities. So the pupils will be graded from Band 1 ( lowest ) to Band 6 ( highest ) . In the universities, code-switching occurs even during talks. The lectors and pupils use code-switching while discoursing certain subjects. Yusuf ( 2009 ) examined the maps of code-switching from Malay linguistic communication to English in bilingual schoolroom. Yusof ( 2009 ) collected the information from a category meeting with 114 pupils. The talk was recorded and transcribed when code-switching occurred. The information gathered and analyzed utilizing theoretical models from Rayfield ( 1970 ) , Gumperz ( 1982 ) and Jacobson & A ; Osman ( 1987 ) . The analysis was conducted to look at colloquial maps and the per centum in happening of code-switching. During the talk, Malay linguistic communication was used and alter to English. The research found that the maps of code-switching are Loanwords ( 26.35 % ) , Technical Term ( 18.75 % ) , Hesitation ( 13.88 % ) , Quotations ( 11.80 % ) , Transfers of Subconscious Markers ( 9.03 % ) , Addressee Specification ( 2.08 % ) , Interjections ( 2.08 % ) , Message Qualification ( 2.08 % ) , Number ( 2.08 % ) , Parenthetic Remark ( 2.08 % ) , Reiteration ( 1.38 % ) and Objectivization ( 1.38 % ) . Yusof ( 2009 ) assumed that the ground for higher per centum of loanwords because of the insufficient of words that have similar significance in linguistic communication, used assimilated borrowed words into the linguistic communication and to emphasis the subject. One restriction of the survey is the observation merely in one schoolroom session. The research should analyze the pupils in first semester because they are new to the class and do non hold prior knowledge about the class. It will demo the important consequence because the survey can look into how lecturer uses code-switching schemes to present the contents in the lesson. Code-switching should be allowed during category treatment because it is clearly will promote pupils to portion and addition cognition in the schoolroom. In written assignment, instructors and lectors should non let the pupils to utilize code-switching because pupils should hold adequate cognition during the category treatment.
Even for Malayan that proficient in English will utilize code-switching while holding conversation within their group. In the research article by Zakaria & A ; Kalong ( 2010 ) , grounds and types of code-switching were examined during informal conversation among group of TESL pupils in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia ( UTM ) . They conducted the survey on four TESL pupils by utilizing 47 proceedingss of entering while the pupils watching telecasting. Two of the respondents were identified to hold first-class proficiency in English while other two of them were identified as good in English. The survey has identified the ground for code-switching. The grounds are to demo solidarity and to construct an confidant and close relationship among the group members, to signal group rank and local designation, elaborate inside informations, to stress inside informations, to stipulate and to stipulate the addressee ( Zakaria & A ; Kalong, 2010 ) . While the types of code-switching had been identified in this research were: 1 ) intra-sentential ( in sentences ) , code-switching was identified when the participants used a word or clause of English in one sentence. 2 ) Intra-sentential ( between sentences ) , happened when participants used one sentence of Bahasa Melayu and so changed the following sentence in English. 3 ) Situational code-switching happened when participants discussed about certain issue or event utilizing different linguistic communication and 4 ) metaphorical code-switching happened when participants used English words to show their feeling because they might believe that the English words had better impact in showing their feeling. The consequence from the survey has shown us that code-switching can be used as a tool to assist the TESL pupils to larn communicating accomplishment but at the same clip it was non compromised their proficiency in English. One restriction of the survey is it should be conducted in different environment. Survey can be conducted while pupils are holding treatment without intervention of telecasting to analyze the important of code-switching among TESL pupils. The mixture of code-switching forms occurs because the talkers use it unconsciously. The chief ground is the exposure of certain words is high in their life and they use English to signal that they are TESL pupils.
In Organizational Level
Next, the subject in relation to code-switching is research in organisational degree. Code-switching is besides occurred in working environment, it has been studied by Ariffin & A ; Shameem ( 2009 ) , a specific inquiry has addressed for steering the survey, how codification shift is employed in accomplishing one ‘s communicative purpose in Bahasa Melayu to English bilingual conversation during organisational preparation Sessionss? Ariffin & A ; Shameem ( 2009 ) have examined the intent of code-switching and how it is used to accomplish the talkers ‘ communicative purposes. Ariffin & A ; Shameem ( 2009 ) conducted the research in organisation preparation Sessionss by entering the address from trainers. In this survey, Arifin & A ; Shameem ( 2009 ) have identified that code-switching occurred deliberately and non to demo the deficiency of proficiency. The survey found 11 maps of code-switching and all consequences combined confirm the hypothesis that code-switching can be employed by looking at these maps: to signal societal relationship, to signal linguistic communication penchant, to rid of troubles, to border discourse, to contrast personalization and objectivization, to convey cultural-expressive message, to dramatise keywords, to take down linguistic communication barriers, to keep the rightness of context, to demo rank and association with others and to repeat messages ( Ariffin & A ; Shameem, 2009 ) . One restriction of the survey is the used of one preparation session. Future survey can concentrate more on other state of affairss such as during meeting, entertaining clients and during lunch interruption among the staffs in same organisation.
In Community Level
Finally, the subject in relation of code-switching is research in community degree. Bakar ( 2009 ) has investigated code-switching in Malay by insulating and concentrating on Kuala Lumpur Malay. The research has been conducted by interviewed and the talker responses have been recorded. The survey found the usage of English is higher in Kuala Lumpur Malay talkers. The survey has identified that words borrowed from English in Kuala Lumpur Malay vocabulary ( Bakar,2009 ) . The survey besides examined code-switching in phonemics and morphology facet. In other determination, female has higher of imported words from English in their address compared to male. The survey suggested that the deficiency of Malay linguistic communication to back up the interlingual rendition of nomenclature in instructional medium in school as the factor of code-switching in Kuala Lumpur Malay talkers. One restriction to this survey is the research worker should carry on the survey on different economic background in Kuala Lumpur Malay in order to demo the important usage of code-switching. Another restriction is the survey of code-switching in Malay sub-ethnics such as Java, Mandailing, Bugis and Kelantanese people in Kuala Lumpur.
Taken together, the consequence from the surveies indicate that the four degrees in society play an of import function in code-switching ( Muthusamy, 2009, 2010 ; Ahmad, 2009 ; Then & amp ; Ting, 2009 ; Yusuf, 2009 ; Zakaria & A ; Kalong, 2010 ; Ariffin & A ; Shameem, 2009 ; Bakar, 2009 ) . The grounds from code-switching are derived from the demand to reassign the information during communicating.
It can be assumed from these eight literature reviews that code-switching has a large impact in heightening communicating accomplishments. The different degrees between talkers and hearers can be narrowed down by utilizing code-switching. Code-switching besides can be used as the tool to replace certain words and nomenclatures in the higher educational contents where English is the chief beginning and Bahasa Melayu still lacked of its interlingual rendition.
Code shift can besides be identified as the consequence of hapless or incompatibility in authorities linguistic communication policy in Malaysia educational system. The debut of English as the medium of learning Science and Mathematics has sparked the involvements in pupils to larn English but the lacked of vocabulary has made the thing worse. When the pupils are comfy larning those topics in English, Malayan authorities has taken a backward measure by presenting Bahasa Melayu as medium in learning those topics. This move has created a vacuity in pupils ‘ instructional linguistic communication and their proficiency in English.
Most of the methods in the surveies are utilizing Conversation Analysis, where the research workers videotaped or recorded the conversation in their survey. The failing of this method is the research worker must hold entree to the linguistic communication that being used by the participants. It besides clip consuming because the research workers need to transcribe into written text. That is why some surveies merely used minimal figure of participants. The usage of Ethnographic Methods while look intoing code-switching can be done in order to place the inclination of one ethnic to retain their ain linguistic communication while pass oning. Another method is look intoing code-switching utilizing literature analysis. Literature is accessible to everybody.
In future, the survey of code-switching should be conducted in pre-school pupils where now parents be given to direct their kids to English-based kindergarten and pre-school. The survey can look into how the early exposure of 2nd linguistic communication or foreign linguistic communication to immature kids will assist to develop code-switching. Another survey can concentrate on how immature kids from inter-racial matrimony manage with code-switching in their household.