The subject of our research is to analyze the consequence of coffin nail revenue enhancement addition to the alteration of the Malaysian ‘s smoke ingestion behavior due to different demographic and smoking grade factors. In this chapter, we will show the research background, job statement, research inquiries and aims, significance of our survey, and lineation of our research. Basic information about coffin nail revenue enhancement subject and our research can be gained by reading this chapter.
1.1 Research Background
Smoke has been proven to convey inauspicious impacts to the wellness of tobacco user and non-smoker ( Department of Health and Children of Ireland, 2000 ; Napier, 1996 ) . A tobacco user who smokes early in life is expected to decease 6 old ages earlier than non-smoker due to smoking related diseases such as lung and bosom disease ( Cutler, Gruber, Hartmen, Landrum, Newhouse, & A ; Rosenthal, 2001 ) . There were about 3 million tobacco users in Malaysia which made up of 2.8 million grownups and 0.2 million bush leagues below 18 old ages of age based on Malaysia 3rd National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006. The figures are believed have been increased throughout the old ages. In 2009, our state had about 368,000 teenage tobacco users and the figure of teenage tobacco users is increasing by 50 to 60 per twenty-four hours ( Snus News & A ; Other Tobacco Product, 2009 ) .
Harmonizing to the Malayan Council for Tobacco Control ( 2005 ) , 25 % of all deceases in Malaysia are due to coffin nails smoking, with smoking-related deceases consisting three out of five top slayers in Malaysia ( Othman, Ong, & A ; Bindah, 2007 ) . Dr. Abrizah Ahmad presented in the Malayan Conference for Tobacco Control ( 2006 ) that the cost of intervention for disease attributed to smoking in Malaysia is about RM450 million. Furthermore, harmonizing to Viscusi ( 1993 ) , Viscusi and Aldy ( 2003 ) , the cost for a loss in life is really high and can run to several 1000000s of dollars. These facts show that authorities has to bear a heavy load because of the loss of human capital and cost of medical intervention. Therefore, actions have to be taken and one of the most effectual ways to cut down coffin nail ingestion is through enforcing coffin nail revenue enhancement ( Lee & A ; Chen, 2008 ) .
Effectiveness of revenue enhancement control to the coffin nail ingestion has shown in many states. To implement the revenue enhancement control efficaciously, the coffin nail ingestion must be elastic ( Gospodinov & A ; Irvine, 2008 ) . When the coffin nail monetary value is elastic, there is a larger decrease in the coffin nail ingestion. The surveies had done in United Stated ( Chaloupka, 1991 ; Warner, Chaloupka, & A ; Cook, 1995 ) , United Kingdom ( Duffy, 1995 ) , Canada ( Goel, 2004 ) and other states. Yoruzu and Zhou ( 2002 ) , Kim and Seldon ( 2004 ) and Lee ( 2008 ) proved that the revenue enhancement control policy is effectual in Asiatic states as in the Western states. The addition of coffin nail revenue enhancement non merely can cut down the coffin nail ingestion, it besides can bring forth higher entire revenue enhancement gross ( Tsai, Yen, Yang, & A ; Chen, 2003 ) .
1.2 Problem Statement
Our primary concern in this research is whether tobacco users will cut down ingestion or quit smoke in response to cigarette revenue enhancement addition. However, some research workers have thought that coffin nail is habit-forming goods that do non conform to standard jurisprudence of economic ( Elster, 1999 ) and the addicted tobacco user is non rational. They think people will still devour same degree of coffin nails even if revenue enhancement has increased. Numerous surveies had found that this is non true ( Seldon & A ; Boyd, 1991 ; Simonich, 1991 ; Sung, Hu, & A ; Keeler, 1994 ; Barnett, Keeler, & A ; Hu, 1995 ; Keeler, Hu, Barnett, & A ; Manning, 1996 ) . On norm, they found that a 10 % addition in cigarette monetary value will ensue in 4 % decrease in coffin nail ingestion.
However, most of the surveies did non take into account impact of coffin nail revenue enhancements on population subgroup. Surveies on overall population are excessively general and may make revenue enhancement regressivity jobs for certain groups of people like low income young person ( Chaloupka & A ; Warner, 1999 ) . A few analyses tried to turn to the issues in other state. Lewit, Coate, and Grossman ( 1981 ) and Chaploupka and Grossman ( 1996 ) studied the consequence of coffin nail revenue enhancement on smoking behavior of young person. Madden ( 2007 ) had looked into the function of instruction in impacting tobacco users ‘ determination to discontinue given a revenue enhancement addition. Stehr ( 2007 ) studied the differences in reactivity to cigarette revenue enhancement addition between work forces and adult females. Last, Townsend, Roderick, and Cooper ( 1994 ) , Biener, Aseltine, Cohen, and Anderka ( 1998 ) and Lee ( 2008 ) had looked into the differential impact of coffin nail revenue enhancement on the overall population subgroup characterized by age, gender and socioeconomic position. However, there seems to be a deficiency of similar research in Malaysia. Therefore, we attempt to estimate the differential consequence of coffin nail revenue enhancement on population subgroups in Malaysia through this research.
1.3 Research Questions and Aims
1.3.1 Research Questions
The research inquiries that guide our statements and aims are:
a ) Do the responses on coffin nail ingestion differ when coffin nail revenue enhancement increased based on socio-economic factors ( gender, age, income degree and instruction degree ) ?
B ) Does the smoke degree create different responses to cigarette revenue enhancement increased?
1.3.2 Research Aims
Lee ( 2008 ) had suggested tobacco users ‘ socioeconomic background and smoke features influence their ingestion behavior. Our purpose in showing this research study is to:
a ) Investigate the likely responses on coffin nail ingestion given a conjectural coffin nail revenue enhancement increased based on the different socioeconomic factors ( gender, age, income degree, and instruction degree ) .
B ) Determine the effects of coffin nail revenue enhancement addition in coffin nail to the coffin nail ingestion based on the smoke degree factor.
1.4 Significance of survey
This research is important because we can cognize the effects of coffin nail revenue enhancement addition on population subgroups in Malaysia through our research. As stated in the job statement subdivision, there is deficiency of coffin nail revenue enhancement research in Malaysia. Malaysia ‘s tobacco users may response otherwise from the abroad ‘ tobacco users. Knowledge of differential monetary value consequence on each subgroup can profit authorities in changing smoking control policy to maximise smoking surcease among different subgroups ( Chaloupka, 1990 ) . Besides that, if revenue enhancements entirely are found to be non effectual for high-income person, authorities can use extra smoke-free indoor regulations, advertisement prohibition for baccy merchandises or revelation of smoking jeopardy ( Ross & A ; Chaloupka, 2004 ) .
Young person tobacco users are a peculiarly of import subgroup. Most tobacco users start smoking before their 21st birthday and continue for the remainder of their life ( Gilpin, Lee, Evans, & A ; Pierce, 1994 ) . Young person tobacco users are less concern about the wellness effects of smoke and nicotine dependence ( Kessler, 1995 ; Johnston, O’Malley, & A ; Bachman, 2002 ) . If our research shows that young person is more sensitive to monetary value addition, hence, increasing coffin nail revenue enhancement could perchance forestall young person tobacco users from originating smoking behavior. This could potentially salvage 1000000s of lives.
1.5 Outline of the Study
After present the background of our research, every bit good as the job statement, the balance of this research is organized in the undermentioned mode: Chapter 2 presents the rational dependence theoretical account, critical reappraisal of past surveies. Chapter 3 explains the research methodological analysis. This includes information analysis technique and variable measuring. Chapter 4 presents the consequences of our analysis and besides descriptive statistics. Chapter 5 discusses about major findings, deductions, recommendations, restrictions, and decision of the survey.
In general, the coffin nail revenue enhancement policy is an of import policy implemented by the authoritiess throughout the universe. An effectual coffin nail revenue enhancement policy can alter the tobacco users ‘ smoking behaviour and cut down the figure of tobacco users. As stated in the job statement subdivision, there is deficiency of researches on coffin nail revenue enhancement subject in Malaysia. The smoking behavior in Malaysia may be different from abroad. Our survey in this subject can give a clearer image on the alteration of coffin nail ingestion behaviour in Malaysia when the coffin nail revenue enhancement is increased.