AN ANALYSIS INTO THE CAUSES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR IN AN AREA OF HIGH ECONOMIC DEPRIVATION.
1. The Aims and Objectives of this study.
This study has been commissioned by Everpool Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership ( EC & A ; DRP ) with the purpose being to analyze the causes of condemnable behavior within an country near to the town Centre of Everpool, which suffers from high economic want. The country ‘s population is both ethnically and culturally diverse, with a high unemployment rate. Substance abuse is platitude and the country is blighted by packs of young persons and job households. The local authorization receives regular ailments about the behavior on the estate of these packs and job households.
To be able to analyze the causes of these behaviors assorted criminological positions, will be discussed and applied in order that each may offer some account of the issues environing the country. Following which this study will analyze whether criminological positions contribute towards an apprehension of the issues concerned
2. The Historical Development of Criminology.
In order for the reader to better understand criminology it may be of relevancy to discourse briefly the development of the topic get downing with the outgrowth of classical criminology.
Classical criminology emerged in the 18th century with Jeremy Bentham ‘s BOOK ( 1748-1832 ) utilitarianism in which he suggested that people applied reason to their actions, and weighed up their possible additions against the possible costs. Cesare Beccaria ( 1738-1794 ) applied these rules in his book ‘On Crimes and Punishment ‘ BIBLIOGRAPHY ( 1764 ) , in which he reasoned that to discourage offense the hurting of penalty must be adequate to compensate the pleasance obtained from offense ( Siegel, 2009 ) . Classical criminology focused both on criminalism and the condemnable justness system, with its chief rules being offense as a free-willed pick, with the benefits or wagess of offense outweighing the costs, every bit good as disincentive. Where the condemnable justness system was concerned Beccaria suggested a fixed graduated table of penalty in which the penalty must be equal to the offense. Classical idea influenced penal pattern for two hundred old ages until unfavorable judgment, and scientific method led to the outgrowth of Positivism through the plants of Auguste Comte ( 1798-1857 ) and his surveies into society, of which the chief elements were application of scientific method, intervention and find of pathology and intervention. This meant the focal point of rationalist criminology was on the wrongdoer unlike classicalism ( Siegel, 2009 ) . Cesare Lombroso ( 1835-1909 ) BOOKconsidered the laminitis of modern criminology, developed biological positivism with his suggestions that a felon was born, along with what he considered to be mensurable physical differences between felons and non-criminals. Later bookmans, in peculiar Ferri ( 1856-1929 ) and Garofalo ( 1852-1934 ) , developed positivism to include psychological and sociological factors. Though Lombroso ‘s work has been mostly discredited, his parts to criminology have been of great importance with the debut of empirical grounds to explicate both offense and the felon, which is of great importance in modern criminology. Meanwhile the work of Beccaria and Bentham form the bosom of the modern justness system in the western universe, whilst their rational pick has seen a re-emergence, peculiarly over the last 20 twelvemonth ( Joyce, 2001, cited in Shaftoe, 2004 ) .
3. Criminological Positions in the Explanation of Crime.
Criminological theory refers to attempts to explicate or understand offense causing. To be used to maximal effectivity, theories must hold logical consistence, explicate as much offense as possible, and be every bit concise as possible. Most significantly the theory must hold cogency ( Hagan, 2010 ) .This study shall try to use the undermentioned theories to the choice of jobs on the Everpool estate: Rational Choice, Determinism, Social Disorganisation and Zonal Hypothesis.
3.1 Rational Choice Theory. 3.1.1
Rational pick theory topographic points accent on the expected wagess or additions of perpetrating offense against the costs, hence ensuing in a rational person doing a rational determination. Rational pick stems from the theories of Beccaria and Bentham but has seen a significant re-emergence over the last 20 old ages, with “ aˆ¦ considerable authorities enthusiasm for situational offense bar steps ” ( Burke, 2002:42 )
Everpool is an country of high economic want and high unemployment which would propose a individual from the estate could be probably to perpetrate offense for wages or addition, the fact they have really small could good be the inducement needed. This could propose rational pick theory can be applied, though foremost it may be of benefit to analyze whether high economic want and condemnable behavior are interlinked.
( Home Office,2010 )
Figure 1 shows that there does look to be higher degrees of family offense ( burglary, hooliganism and vehicle larceny ) in countries with the highest want degrees. The tendency besides seems to hold followed a similar form from 2001/2 right through until 2009/10.
These figures hence do look to propose that high economic want and condemnable behavior are interlinked. Although it could be argued, that poorness and want give the wrongdoer small pick in their actions, and offenses could be timeserving or even because of a demand instead than the actions of a rational mind looking to derive wages. It is besides hard to use rational pick theory without some sort of penetration into wrongdoers on the estate and their motivations.
The theory of determinism suggests all events are predetermined, and a individual has no direct control over their lives, the environment they are brought up in, economic factors or other such influences REF. Maclaughlin and Muncie ( 2009 ) believe determinism when believing about condemnable behavior is of import because if it can be judged that behavior is determined ( rationalist ) , so this challenges the rules of free will ( classicist ) and hence the rules upon which many justness systems are built.
Lack of money and limited cognition needed to entree necessary bureaus can intend persons and households from lodging estates like that in Everpool become socially excluded and “ … acquire caught up in disadvantage in ways it is progressively hard to get away ” ( Page, 2000, online ) . Harmonizing to a study, commissioned for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation ( 2000 ) the prostration in household income within societal lodging could be a ground for these jobs, in 1979 the top 40 per cent of earners lived in societal lodging, this had dropped to less than five per cent by 1994, compared to the lowest earners populating in societal lodging which in 1979 was merely half of the 40 per cent of lowest earners, lifting to well over three quarters in 1994 ( from general Household study informations, 1998b, cited by Page,2000 ) whilst the mean income of families in societal lodging fell from over three quarters of the national norm in 1980, to less than half by 1990 ( below the European Union poorness threshold ) .
Whilst income fell, in recent old ages unemployment has risen dramatically, with 2007 seeing the highest degrees of unemployment seen in the UK harmonizing to a study by the Cabinet Office ( 2009 ) which besides states “ … experience of high degree unemployment can take to long lasting and wide effects, including community atomization, low aspirations, physical diminution, long-run unemployment and benefit dependence.
It could be argued that both the studies support the thought that poorness and societal exclusion go manus in manus in lodging estates making jobs that spiral, and are highly hard to get away from. Determinism could be applied to Everpool with respects to certain jobs such as poorness and the societal environment, but it could be argued that unemployment, in many instances, could be pick instead than ‘determined ‘ and if so so a individual could potentially be in a place in which they do non desire to alter their fortunes instead than being unable to.
3.2 Zonal Hypothesis.
Zonal hypothesis is the cardinal thought of the theory of urban ecology, developed by Robert Park ( 1864-1944 ) and Ernest Burgess ( 1886-1966 ) . Urban ecology was the impression that urban countries were scarce and this led to competition between different groups of people and finally to the division of land into different countries where people of similar societal features tended to shack ( Brown, nd ) . Parks and Burgess ‘ zonary hypothesis theoretical account ( figure 2 ) proposed that metropoliss could be split into five homocentric zones, with the poorer countries within the interior metropolis ( zone of passage ) , and the outer zones going bit by bit more flush.
I. The Loop-the innermost zone is the metropolis Centre, the cardinal concern territory.
two. The Zone of Transition- mills, poorer/immigrant abodes, ruddy light territories.
three. The Zone of working category home-the places of the working categories ( including those who had moved out of the zone of passage )
four. Residential Homes-areas with much nicer, and bigger lodging.
v. Commuters Zone- much more flush countries, with occupants transposing into the metropolis.
( Brown, neodymium )
The Everpool estate would fall into the zone of passage, it is merely outside of the town Centre, is a hapless country and has a population that is both ethnically and culturally diverse. To give the theory some cogency, Everpool will be compared to the town of Blackburn, to see if a more accurate portraiture of the hypothesis can be found.
Figure 3, is taken from the Lancashire County Council web site and shows an image of Blackburn and degrees of multiple want.
( Lancashire County Council, 2008 )
The ruddy shading shows the countries with the highest degrees of want. The lightest shading represents the countries with the least want, whilst different sunglassess of blue are representative of changing want degrees.
As for the population of the town, the recent ONS experimental REFstatistics estimates it at being 77 per centum white and hence 23 per centum ethnic ( BWDBC, 2010 ) with a high per centum of the cultural population shacking in the most disadvantaged countries.
Blackburn shows a really definite zone in the Centre of town, where the highest degrees of want are concentrated as Parks and Burgess suggested. Whilst the outskirts of the town shows a really definite zone where the most flush countries of Blackburn tend to be. The theory can be criticised within the ‘in-between ‘ zones as the image does non demo a clear differentiation between these zones, as they appear to be knitted together. It could be said that Zonal Hypothesis does non to the full use to Blackburn as the topic ( ? ) .
As a geographical image of Everpool is non available, it would be hard to try to use the Hypothesis, nevertheless given the information about the estate, it could be argued that Everpool has features-high want and merely outside of the Centre, that surely fit into the thought of the zone of passage.
3.3. Social Disorganisation Theory.
Social disorganization theory was popularised by the plants of Shaw and Mckay ( 1931 ) , who linked life in disorganized countries to neighbourhood offense rates. They through empirical observation tested zonary hypothesis by looking at tribunal statistics and records ( in Chicago ) crossing several decennaries and found that piquing behavior flourished in the zone of passage, diminishing as they moved to the outer zones. This led them to reason “ It was the nature of the neighbourhoods-not the nature of the persons… that regulated engagement in offense ” ( Burke,2002:104 ) .
Accurate informations and statistics have non been provided in relation to the extent of certain jobs on the estate, hence in order to try to analyze the theory it would possibly be relevant to utilize Blackburn one time once more. As proven with zonary hypothesis, Blackburn has a really definite job with high degrees of want within the Centre of the town, hence, it could be said that these countries suffer from societal disorganization. As the theory links this to higher offense degrees this is what the study will look at following.
( Lancashire County Council,2008 )
Figure 4, shows an image of Blackburn utilizing offense informations. The ruddy high spots the countries with the highest offense, whilst the lightest coloring material shows the countries with the lowest offense.
Figure 4 appears to give credibleness to the applied theory. Whilst the offense is non every bit widespread as the want ( figure 3 ) , it is concentrated in the Centre of the town with degrees acquiring less as the town moves outwards, as Shaw and Mckay theorised.
Harmonizing to Siegel ( 2009 ) indexs of societal disorganization include high unemployment, deteriorated lodging, low income degrees, jurisprudence go againsting packs every bit good as unequal societal control. The estate is enduring from all these jobs, so can be considered to be enduring from societal disorganization, and if, as Shaw and Mckay concluded, vicinities instead than persons are to fault for offense rates so it could be considered that the theory can to the full explicate the issues.
Whilst merely four theories have been applied in this study and there have been some unfavorable judgments each has, to some grade, been able to explicate some of the behavior on the estate. However, it should be noted that the grounds within this study suggests that the most relevant theory should be societal disorganization. No unfavorable judgment of this theory could be found, whilst it appeared to to the full explicate the jobs and behaviors of both Everpool and Blackburn.
The usage of merely a little figure of theories gives ground for this study to reason that criminological positions do play a immense portion in supplying accounts for criminalism, non merely on the Everpool estate but in all state of affairss and the application of these theories can merely be good in happening solutions for certain behaviors.
5. Interventions and Recommendations.
5.1 Crime Prevention Methods.
Neighbourhood policing squads are a good topographic point to get down for occupants who are concerned about any issues within their countries, they normally conduct occupants meetings and have panels for occupants to fall in enabling them to hold a say in community sentencing and patroling precedences ( direct.gov.uk, 2010 ) . A neighbourhood ticker strategy could work on the estate if there are plenty interested occupants, and as the local council has received ailments about packs and job households, this could be a starting point. Anti-social behaviour squads consist of a figure of bureaus working together such as drug action squads and offense and decrease partnership ( Home Office, 2006 ) . This could supply a solution to the condemnable behavior, packs and drug abuse At local council degree, a solution could be to look into ‘designing out offense ‘ within the estate. Many local council ‘s are looking into or utilizing this enterprise to try to battle offense, with prima industry experts, including authorities advisers, constabulary, and the Home Office at the helm ( Design Council, 2010 ) .
5.2 Behaviour Therapy.
Behaviour therapy may be of benefit to some persons on the estate. Addressing certain issues they may hold with their lives could potentially hold a direct impact on their actions.
Cognitive Analytical Therapy is a therapy that focuses on what has gone incorrectly in the yesteryear, and how to do certain things go right in the hereafter by looking into get bying mechanisms that have been used and trying to better their ways of get bying. It can be done separately or in a group which may be of more involvement to occupants.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy aims to assist a individual pull off their jobs by altering how they think and act. It does non concentrate on the yesteryear, merely what is go oning at the present clip. It is peculiarly helpful for depression or drug and intoxicant abuse ( NHS Choices, 2010 ) .
5.3 Focused Interventions
Family based intervention- Youth intervention- drug intercession.