Case studies help today’s nursing professionals acquire essential critical thinking skills for solving both common and more complex health problems. This paper discusses about two different cases- Ms. A with iron-deficiency anemia and Mr. P with congestive heart failure. Case study#1 “Anemia is a reduction in the total number of erythrocytes in the circulating blood or a decrease in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin” (McCance, Huether, 2010).
Anemia results from decreased production of erythrocytes, chronic or acute blood loss, and excessive destruction of erythrocytes. With the given history and laboratory values of Ms. A, she has iron- deficiency anemia. Further test needs to be done to determine the cause of this anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is a very common form of anemia. This anemia is caused due to insufficient iron which is very essential in the production of hemoglobin. This hemoglobin helps to carry oxygen throughout the body.
Once the stored iron is decreased, the body can make only very few red blood cells. The red blood cells the body is able to make are abnormal and do not have a normal hemoglobin-carrying capacity, as do normal red blood cells(E,Sherry,2011). That is the reason people with iron-deficiency anemia gets easily tired or short of breath. The laboratory works shows erythrocyte count of 3. 1x 10/mm and smear showed microcytic and hypochromic cells which indicates Ms.
A has iron- deficiency anemia. This is economically very important because it decreases the capacity of individuals to perform physical labor and it also affects the growth and learning of children (M, Conrad, 2011). The patients with iron-deficiency anemia usually have symptoms like fatigue, shortness or breath, dizziness, headache, coldness of hands and feet and in severe cases patients may have enlarge spleen, spoon shaped nails and chest pain (McCance, Huether, 2010).