Myrdal ‘s Circular Cumulative Causation theory ( CCC ) was the first attack to see the non-economic and institutional factors as of import determiners of the kineticss associated with the development of hapless parts. Harmonizing to Myrdal ( 1974 ) , it is whether the factor is related to the job, non whether it is an ‘economic factor ‘ , that decides what should be included in the analysis.
That seminal position offered the footing for the outgrowth of a tendency of faculty members who proposed the usage of non-orthodox[ 1 ]mechanisms to near critical issues associated with the societal and economic inquiries embracing hapless parts ; furthermore, to the being of local contexts that could non be ignored and disassociated from the stage of conceptualisation of the steps directed to excite regional development ( Fujita, 2004 ) .
Myrdal ( 1974 ) stressed the being of economic disparities between states, which he classified into two groups: ‘developed states ‘ , characterized by high income and educational degrees, and ‘developing states ‘ , characterized by deficient indexs in what concerns these socioeconomic facets.
Furthermore, and possibly more relevant, he discussed the being of disparities within states, reasoning that it is possible to detect the being of hapless and stagnated parts in developed states, every bit good as really dynamic and comfortable parts in developing states ( James, 2001 ) .
The relevancy attributed to the being of multiple contexts within the same state, and the accent on cultural differences among parts, stimulated some critics to state that Myrdal ‘s CCC theory is really generalist and does non show any clear ‘model ‘ ( Preston, 1996 ) .
However, posited against the usage of simplistic definitions for development, and narrow positions about the kineticss of societal systems, Myrdal argues that:
By development I mean the motion upward of the full societal system, and I believe this is the lone logically well-founded definition. This societal system encloses, besides the so called economic factors, all non-economic factors, including all kinds of ingestion by assorted groups of people ; ingestion provided jointly ; educational and wellness installations and degrees ; the distribution of power in society ; and more by and large economic, societal, and political stratification ; loosely speech production, establishments and attitude. ( Myrdal, 1974, p. 729 )
Harmonizing to Preston ( 1996 ) , the definition of a societal system proposed by Myrdal offered a realistic position to understand the causes of the underdevelopment of parts and states, one time it incorporated the societal, economic, political and cultural facets that form different local contexts.
Following that position, Myrdal ( 1974 ) argues that societal and economic procedures present features of ‘circular cumulative causing ‘ so that an initial alteration is amplified over clip to go a relevant tendency. When that logic is applied to the socioeconomic context of parts and states, it is expected that rich parts will turn richer, and hapless 1s poorer ( Peet and Hartwick, 2009, p. 72 ) .
Giving application to the constructs of cumulative causing, Myrdal ( 1957 ) studied nine states runing from India, Pakistan to Philippines, and his decisions indicated a broad scope of socioeconomic jobs with the roots in critical issues such as lacking educational systems and high degrees of corruptness.
He contrasted the being of ‘spread effects ‘ , which resulted in a positive cumulative circle with ‘backwash ‘ effects, which created a negative cumulative circle. Thus, one time a part initiates a rhythm of socioeconomic prosperity it will be given to pull investings, qualified labours, develop solid establishments and hence excite the outgrowth of other positive factors.
Those new resources are expected to prolong a positive flight for the socioeconomic conditions. On the other manus, features like relentless poorness are expected to ensue in unemployment, high birthrate rates, low educational degrees and inchoate substructure, all of which will lend to increase poorness and, hence, do a impairment of the socioeconomic conditions ( Pressman, 1999 ) .
The self-reinforcing kineticss created by ‘spread effects ‘ and ‘backwash ‘ effects result in what Myrdal describes as a circle ( barbarous or virtuous ) . The construct of a barbarous circle was extended by many bookmans with an involvement in the development of hapless parts.
Escobar ( 1995, p. 40 ) describes the state of affairs of some hapless states as ‘trapped in a barbarous circle of poorness ‘ , that can merely be broken through a complex set of steps embracing factors like engineering, instruction and capital.
Besides, Johnstone ( 2000, p. 30 ) remarks on Castells ( 2000 ) to depict how cognition and engineering can be used as goaded forces of economic and societal alteration, since ‘A virtuous circle of productiveness is set up in which cognition gives command to engineering, which increases cognition, which leads to better engineering, which further additions knowledge ‘ .
Therefore, pulling of the constructs of cumulative causing proposed by Myrdal, a motion initiated in the socioeconomic system of a part would be given to precipitate a concatenation reaction into a positive or negative way.
Figure 1 describes the propositions found in the CCC theory. On the left-hand side of the image is represented a part sing a virtuous circle of development, with the high income giving people entree to good educational criterions, which will make non merely extremely qualified workers but besides stimulate the entrepreneurial activity in the part, which in bend will make more and better occupations that wage high-wages and hence increasing the regional income degree.
On the other manus, the right-hand side of the image is represented by a part sing a barbarous rhythm, with poorness forestalling entree to instruction, which consequences in lower degrees of making associated with deficient entrepreneurial activities ; accordingly, the occupations created in that parts will necessitate unqualified work force and hence will pay low rewards, therefore increasing the regional poorness.
Figure 1: Regional Dynamicss and Circles of Development
Despite of the fact that Myrdal did non believe that the flight of hapless parts could be self-corrected, his theory is non based on a deterministic position. Harmonizing to Myrdal, the barbarous circle can be broken to airt the socioeconomic system onto an upward way of development ( Preston, 1996 ) .
That procedure can be initiated by internal or external urges caused by factors with adequate relevancy to alter the construction of the local socioeconomic system.
That position was extended by many bookmans ( e.g. Ayres, 1995 ; Escobar, 1995 ; Castells, 2000 ) who described how the barbarous circle can be broken through actions like the investing in instruction, creative activity of occupations, investings in engineering or assistencialist public assistance plans.
2.1 Socioeconomic Development and Non-Economic Factors:
Discussions about the relevancy of non-economic factors for the local development of hapless parts are non new issues. The thought that development is strongly influenced by factors like civilization, traditions, faiths and ethnicity has become more and more disseminated and accepted between faculty members and policy-makers ( Guiso et al. , 2006 ) .
Harmonizing to Dasgupta ( 2009 ) , it is widely recognized that the traditional mechanisms used to better socioeconomic public assistance can non be understood apart from less nonsubjective factors that besides encompass economic and societal forces.
Writers like Escobar ( 1995, p. 228 ) travel a measure farther, and inquiry the traditional theoretical accounts of development that, harmonizing to him, have been ‘imposed on the 3rd universe ‘ as a formula to work out economic jobs.
Therefore, the usage of mechanisms that respect the specific socioeconomic context of each location have been suggested by some writers as the most feasible path by which to advance development in hapless parts.
Sing that non-traditional position, many bookmans have demonstrated how the usage of Information and Communication Technologies ( ICTs ) can lend to advance development and cut down inequalities in hapless parts within developing, every bit good as developed states ( Walsham et al. , 2007 ) .
The support that ICTs offer for a broad scope of societal services, such as instruction and wellness, has been a valuable part to get the better of some of the most critical socioeconomic jobs of hapless parts ( Avgerou and Walsham, 2000 ) . Examples of this fact are non scarce in the literature.
Miscione ( 2007 ) demonstrates how, despite some local barriers, the usage of a telemedicine system in the jungles of Peru can be used to better wellness conditions of local communities. Madon ( 2000 ) describes how the usage of IT in Ethiopia, Uganda, Zambia and Senegal supports the local universities in carry oning research undertakings, better resource mobility and cut down costs between distant sites.
Duncombe ( 2007 ) explains how ICTs can cut down the exposure of microenterprises in Botswana and hence contribute to better the socioeconomic indexs in rural countries. Klonner and Nolen ( 2008 ) show the positive economic effects of the rollout of nomadic phone webs in rural South Africa, turn outing that in the parts which received web coverage the employment rate increased by 15 % .
ICTs are normally associated with sophisticated and expensive engineerings, and for this ground their possible to lend to the development has been underestimated ( Chapman and Slaymaker, 2002 ) . However, harmonizing to Walshan et Al. ( 2007 ) , the arguments about whether ICTS would be relevant for developing states have been resolved with the huge presentation of socioeconomic benefits obtained from the proper investings and application for those engineerings.
In this context, ICTs include a broad scope of electronic engineerings and techniques that are used to pull off information and cognition ( United Nations, 2003 ) . They range from wireless, telecasting and the telephone to the most modern computing machines and orbiters ( Unwin, 2009 ) .
Among the benefits obtained from the usage of ICTs, Pena-Bandalaria ( 2007 ) argues that those engineerings can be used to cut down operational costs, overcome distances, create undertakings adapted to the local civilization and offer high flexibleness to accommodate to different scenarios.
2.1.1 Distance Learning, ICTs and Development:
One of the most traditional instruments used to advance development has been investing in the different educational degrees. The benefits that result from the betterment of the educational systems of parts and states have been widely demonstrated by academic surveies. Furthermore, Oghuvbu ( 2007 ) argue that the causes of underdevelopment in most hapless states present a high correlativity with inefficient educational systems.
However, at the same clip that this correlativity has been clearly identified, some barriers still prevent a significant betterment of the educational degrees of many developing states. Features such as deficiency of financess, low degrees of inter-regional integrating and strong socioeconomic dissymmetries between parts are among the chief obstructions faced by the authoritiess of developing states.
Acknowledging those restrictions, writers like Larreamendy-Joerns and Leinhardt ( 2006 ) have suggested that the execution of distance-learning systems is a feasible option to excite the decrease of socioeconomic inequalities. The features of this sort of system offer an option to get the better of some of the barriers faced by developing states.
Sing the statements above, it is possible to detect that there are strong groundss about the support that ICTs can give to better educational systems by manner of distance-learning plans.
Harmonizing to Wagner et Al. ( 2005 ) , ‘ICTs are presently being used widely to help instruction in many developing states, and it appears that there is increasing demand for their usage in instruction by policymakers and parents in developing states. Teachers corps ravaged by AIDS, unequal figure of schools, deficiency of equal educational chances for misss, despairing poorness – ICTs can play a function in assisting to battle all of these important challenges ‘ ( p. seven ) .
Therefore, particularly in the context of developing states, the usage of ICTs in back uping distance-learning enterprises can stand for one of the few feasible options to excite local development through betterments in the educational degrees.
In this manner, the association between the impactful investings in instruction with the benefits obtained from the usage of ICTs has proven to be a feasible option to interrupting the barbarous circle of hapless parts. The features present in many developing states prevent the development of effectual educational systems which are able to alter the way of the negative cumulative effects.
However, the high figure of empirical groundss has systematically demonstrated that the usage of ICTs is a feasible manner of making schemes to excite the development of hapless parts through efficient educational plans.
3. Case Description:
The constructs of inter-regional differences within the same state can be clearly observed in the illustration of the Brazilian economic system. While some provinces located in the South of Brazil have presented degrees of development compatible with developed states, the provinces in the North have demonstrated really low societal and economic indexs.
Exemplifying that state of affairs, Figure 2 demonstrates the Human Development Index ( HDI )[ 2 ]of Brazilian provinces. As can be seen, the colourss blue and green are used to depict those topographic points with High and Very-High HDI rates, while the yellow and orange colourss represent Medium and Low. The parts in ruddy are classified as topographic points sing utmost state of affairss of poorness, which are below the universe norm.
Despite the being of reviews against the usage of the HDI as an index for development ( for a elaborate treatment see Streeten, 1994 ) , in the present context it can be used to depict the strong inter-regional differences in footings of life anticipation, educational degree and the criterions of life.
Figure 2: Human Development Index in Brazil ( 2005 )
Beginning: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statisticss
In this context of strong differences within the same state, it is possible to detect the province of Para as one of the most critical parts in footings of low socioeconomic development. Para province is located in northern Brazil and some of its features create an interesting instance for development surveies.
First, in footings of territorial dimensions, it occupies 1.247.689, 515A kmA? ( 14 % of the Brazilian district ) , an country that is bigger than states like France, Germany and Great Britain. Second, 87 % of this district is covered by the Amazon forest, making non merely sensitive environmental issues but besides societal inquiries associated with the high figure of local communities[ 3 ]that hold different civilizations and values.
Finally, the socioeconomic indexs have been persistently below the national norm ; for illustration, 52 % ( 3.246.882 dwellers ) of the entire population is below the line of poorness.
Despite the natural troubles expected to arise from the immense territorial dimensions, it is imaginable to presume that the size would non be an obstruction to advancing development if the metropoliss and the parts within the province were good integrated with each other ( Reyer et al. , 2009 ) .
However, the sum of investing necessary in order to offer all metropoliss similar conditions in educational and wellness systems, and the proper substructure to back up the local houses, represents a barrier for the local authorities to excite the development of the province on an equal footing.
Consequently, it has been observed that a little figure of metropoliss with socioeconomic indexs are compatible with the national degree, while most of the them present deficient conditions.
Figure 3 exemplifies that state of affairs in the province of Para . Analyzing the indexs of each single metropolis, the map on the left-hand side represents the per centum of the population below the poorness line, while the alphabetisation rate is shown on the right-hand side.
Detecting those two indexs, it is possible to see some ‘islands ‘ that, compared to the overall rate of the province, exhibit higher socioeconomic indexs ; nevertheless, most of the metropoliss are far from acceptable educational and economic degrees.
Population below the Line of Poverty Alphabetization Rate
Figure 3: Socioeconomic Indexs of the State of Para ( 2005 )
Beginning: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statisticss
Describing the features of the Brazilian portion of the Amazon part, Godfrey ( 1990, p. 104 ) uses a traditional position of development to analyse the causes of the socioeconomic conditions in this country:
The rate of urbanisation has been traditionally low in Amazonia, and the part has been merely weakly integrated with the urban system in the remainder of the state. The mercantile dependance of the part on extractive boom-and-bust rhythms created a scattered web of rivers colonies that functioned as externally oriented trading entrepots. An accent on trade in natural resources, instead than on industrial production, inhibited self-sufficient regional economic development and impoverished the part.
Those features formed over the old ages have limited the effectivity of policies that were intended to alter the socioeconomic system of the province as a whole. The low educational degree of the local population consequences in hapless kineticss associated with the creative activity of occupations and the income degrees.
In footings of high instruction, statistics indicate that, of the entire population of 7.5 million people, merely 2.128 persons[ 4 ]hold a Masterss and/or a PhD grade. Therefore, the complete absence of a qualified work force drove the economic activities to the marauding extractivism of natural resources, particularly wood, which is easy obtained straight from the Amazon forest.
Using a historical position, it is possible to reason that this economic orientation has presented two chief negative effects. First, despite the environmental debasement, no consistent betterment in the socioeconomic indexs has been observed. Second, the manner that natural resources have been obtained is non based on patterns that assure environmental sustainability.
Therefore, that negative and complex scenario clearly constitutes what Myrdal describes as a barbarous circle, making a cumulative procedure that has impoverished the province. Furthermore, sing the premises found in the CCC theory, it is non expected that the regional socioeconomic system will develop the necessary conditions to self-orient itself onto a positive flight of development.
3.1 ICT Supporting the Local Development:
Acknowledging the necessity of steps to alter the socioeconomic state of affairs of the metropoliss located within the province of Para , the local authorities had decided that the investings in instruction should be the most feasible option in order to excite the betterment of poorness and illiteracy indexs.
In this context, a distance-learning plan was created in 2008 with the aim of conveying instruction to the metropoliss in the countryside of the province. Despite the cardinal importance that primary instruction has for the creative activity of a qualified work force, the chief mark of this plan was to offer proficient and academic grades[ 5 ].
That determination was based on the fact that the figure of primary schools in the countryside was already high ( despite the low quality ) , and the return of investing of proficient and academic grades should be observed more rapidly.
Some facts were taken into consideration in order to make up one’s mind which theoretical account should be used to better the educational degree of the province, such as:
The complete absence of qualified lectors in the countryside represented a barrier for the plan to cover a important figure of metropoliss.
The geographic distances and the hapless substructure incorporating the parts made it hard for the motion of lectors from the capital to the state side.
It would non be wise to offer standard classs to all metropoliss, inasmuch each part is characterized by different potencies and limitations.
This manner, sing those features, the theoretical account chosen to implement the undertaking was based on the intensive usage of ICTs. The authorities created the PROEAD[ 6 ], which was a partnership between local universities positioned in the capital and the authorities. In pattern, the universities used financess from the authorities to implement local centres inside public schools that already existed.
The centres were strategically positioned in ‘hub-cities ‘ with the necessary substructure in footings of entree to internet, telephones, stable supply of electric energy, roads and ports. Those centres were fundamentally equipped with computing machines connected to the cyberspace and other equipments of support, such as pressmans, scanners, facsimiles and TVs.
The classs were taught by lectors located in the capital and broadcast to the schoolrooms inside the centres. In order to offer classs that attended to the local demands, the universities foremost mapped the socioeconomic profile of the metropoliss and so decided which class should be offered for each specific location.
That scheme allowed the benefits associated with the graduated table ( cost decreases ) at the same clip that the classs were customized to single necessities.
As discussed before, the low educational degree represents one of the chief barriers that prevent developing states and hapless parts to originate virtuous circles of development, and in the province of Para it is non different. It is still early to place the effectivity of the steps adopted by the local authorities.
The greatest challenge of the development in this part is more complex than merely better the qualify the work force, it is necessary a reorientation of the local socioeconomic systems. In this context, it is possible to detect a huge figure of empirical observations and theoretical theoretical accounts back uping the investings in instruction as the first step to be adopted in order to interrupt barbarous circles of poorness.
4. Restrictions and Decision:
Despite the extremely explicative and prognostic power of the Circular Cumulative Causation theory, some restrictions must be addressed. First, that attack is merely concerned with the positive effects arising from the virtuous circles of development, and do non take into consideration the possible collateral effects that may arise from this procedure.
For illustration, in the instance of a part sing a virtuous circle of development, it is expected to see an increasing degree of economic activities, which can ensue in higher degrees of pollution, exhaustion of natural resources, population enlargement, in-migration from other parts, and other unsought effects.
Second, while the wide position of development allows the effectual incorporation of non-economic factors to discourse development, it may besides stand for a barrier for the practical application of the constructs proposed by Myrdal. By its ain nature, the CCC theory can non offer a clear description of the most relevant factors that would make virtuous circles.
Third, despite the fact that Myrdal presented strong critics against the traditional constructs of development, his thoughts still concentrate on the procedure of development determined by industrial growing, while disregarding other valuable positions.
Despite those restrictions, it is expected that the usage of this paper can offer an insightful position about the challenges faced by hapless parts trapped in circles of poorness ; furthermore, about the relevancy that factors like ICTs can hold to lend for the local development through the betterment of the socio-economic conditions.