Brand Equity And Online Brand Equity Finance Essay

In this chapter, the methodological analysis of the research will be described following the ‘research onion ‘ by Saunders et Al ( 2009 ) . First, the research inquiry and aim will be readdressed with mention to, the literature reappraisal to assist us happen the appropriate method for the research. The research doctrine, attack, and schemes are given to the full consideration in this chapter. Consequently, the research procedure is illustrated in order to explicate the procedure of informations aggregation ( beginning, trying, description ) and informations analysis ( theoretical account, method ) . Finally, the restrictions of the methodological analysis will be exhaustively assessed.

3.2 Research Question and Objective

This paper aims to reply the inquiry ‘how to mensurate the trade name equity for on-line manner retail merchant ‘ . After the literature reappraisal, we find out the Rios and Riquelme ‘s traditional customer-based trade name equity theoretical account ( RRM ) might be an effectual attack in on-line manner retail merchant specifically. In this respect, we need to firstly happen out the trade name equity theoretical account for the peculiar online retail merchant, measure how to mensurate the online trade name equity, and determine is the difference between RRM and others, and whether RRM is effectual by proving it on The specific aims are as follows:

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1. Definition of trade name equity and on-line trade name equity.

2. The measuring of trade name equity and RRM.

3. Confirmatory factor analysis of RRM by utilizing as a instance.

3.3 Research Doctrine

Epistemology, ontology and axiology are the three chief methods that might be used when sing the research doctrine, harmonizing to Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) . Epistemology, which emphasizes the apprehension of cognition, is perceived in this research, while ontology pursues the ‘nature of world ‘ and axiology is about the opinion of value. Furthermore, epistemology is divided into three different sorts of philosophical positions: positivism, pragmatism and interpretivism. Given that the purpose of this survey is to analyze the feasibleness of RRM and the topic of trade name equity, interpretivism is appropriate. This is because the client based position. This asserts that the apprehension of trade name equity can be researched by analyzing the feeling and attitudes of clients. Furthermore, interpretivism besides opposes the Universal Torahs and Neutral observations upon, which positivism insists. This is why we argue that the on-line trade name equity model should be different from the traditional 1s.

3.4 Research Approach and Strategy

Since the testing of RRM is the major aim of the research, the deductive attack is adopted. Robson ( 2002, in Saunders et Al. 2007 ) suggests a repeating rhythm that goes through five common phases of deductive research: hypothesis development, measuring, proving, rating and diagnosing. Following his advice, several hypotheses are proposed as a consequence of the literature reappraisal. Second, trade name equity is besides measured quantitatively by a mensurating graduated table devised from Rios and Riquelme. Quantitative informations are required for our statistical intent, because they are mensurable, comparable and structural. Quantitative day of the month is besides utile for a generalised theoretical account ( Colin, 2005 ) . Third, the mensurating graduated table is tested by a representative sample group, who have shopping experience with From deductive stance, Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) besides stated that the research worker should be independent of the research subjects observed. As a consequence, the online study is adopted, as it is self-administered and can be easy to aim at the needed respondent.

As indicated, hypotheses development and measuring has been achieved in the old literature reappraisal. Therefore we need to concentrate on how to prove them ( informations and theoretical account ) and how to modify the theoretical account for future research and pattern ( analysis ) in the staying parts of this chapter.

3.5 Survey Development ( beginning, Sampling, study design, aggregation, pilot )

In order of mensurating the online client based trade name equity, quantitative informations are needed. This subdivision, it will further explicate how to roll up the related informations for scrutiny in the following phase. The population of the research, the sampling method, study development and process of the informations aggregation are all taking into history in this subdivision.

3.5.1 Population

This research is utilizing the as its trial instance. The clients of are dwelling of 2.9 million registered users and 1.2 million active users. It is noteworthy that active users are more loyal than registered users. We will meet bias if we merely see the loyal clients, since trueness is one of the dimensions of the trade name equity. To derive a true and just position, we will utilize the 2.9 million registered clients as our research population.

3.5.2 Sample and Sampling

Due to clip restraints and others limitations, it is impossible for us to prove RRM with a figure of different companies. ASOS plc. is used as a trial instance, because it can stand for the on-line manner retail merchant as we have argued. In general, instance surveies are the preferable scheme when ‘how ‘ or ‘why ‘ inquiries are being posed ( Robert K.Yin, 2003 ) . This is applies to this research inquiry which is traveling to find ‘how to mensurate the trade name equity for on-line manner retail merchant ‘ . This sampling technique is called purposive or judgemental sampling. Although this might do prejudice in the research, it is appropriate when faced with little sample size or when adopting a grounded theory scheme ( Neuman, 2000 in Saunders et Al. 2007 ) . Furthermore, Patton ( 2002 in saunders, 2007 ) suggests that information-rich instances are normally selected in judgemental sampling. Meanwhile, ASOS plc. was listed in the Alternative Investment Market ( AIM ) in the London Security Exchange ( LSE ) in 2001. It is besides listed in FTSE AIM UK 50 index, which means it is one of the 50 largest companies in AIM. It besides reports that it has reached a 387 million lbs market cap in 2010 and takes 2nd topographic point on the list of on-line vesture visits with a 5.13 % market portion ( 2010 fiscal study ; verdict, ) . Therefore, it is possible to entree its fiscal and non-financial information, such as one-year study, moreover, it is besides one of the biggest independent online retail merchants in the UK, and can therefore be seen as representative.

Second, because of the failure to procure cooperation with ASOS plc. , we have to see directing the online study utilizing the simple sampling and bunch sampling. The questionnaire will be distributed to college and university pupils. University pupils were used as topics based on their handiness to the research worker and their homogeneousness as a group ( Calder, Phillips and Tybout 1981 ) . Another ground to utilize university pupils is that they are among the most active online purchasers ( Thomas, Burns and Dick, 2001 ) . Third, the pupil group is within the nucleus clients of ASOS plc, which it indicates that age from 16 to 34 is its targeted clients.

3.5.3 Research Instrument

A self-administered questionnaire is applied as research instrument, since the informations collected by this method are primary, accurate and quantitative-based, and it can expeditiously make a big figure of topics ( Malyor and Blackmon 2005 ) . The pick of questionnaire is besides based on the type of inquiries, which focus on sentiments, behavior and properties of the consumer ( Dillman, 2000, in Saunders, 2007 ) .

The measuring graduated table contains 22 points which were tested by Rios and Riquelme in their explorative factor analysis and 4 points of features to command the representativeness of the sample and cross-sectional analysis. An illustration of the study is set out below.

The respondents are required to indicate out their perceptual experience and attitudes towards the 22 discernible variables in respect to ASOS plc. The grounds for utilizing client perceptual experience are that, on the one manus, it can reflect the trade name equity wholly while, on the other manus, client perceptual experience plays an of import function in explicating consumer behavior ( Rios et al. , 2007 ; Yoo, Donthu, and Lee, 2000 ) . Furthermore, Olson ( 1977 ) and Dickson and Sawyer ( 1990 ) argue that perceived value, feeling, and attitude have a direct consequence on consumer psychological science apart from the existent monetary value or characteristics, and they besides asserted that these perceptual experiences are mensurable and can be coded.

The aim of the study is clearly demonstrated above. Merely experiential users or users registered with ASOS were encouraged to take part. It is assumed that they can supply more accurate information based on their shopping experience with ASOS, compared to those who do non purchase apparels from ASOS.

All 22 points were coded on 7-point Likert-type evaluation graduated table, with 1 bing ‘very strongly differ ‘ and 7 bing ‘very strongly agree ‘ . Washburn and Plank ( 2002 ) urge the seven-point graduated table alternatively of the five-point graduated table, because it can ‘increase the variableness of the responses ‘ . Vagias and Wade ( 2006 ) besides propose that the degree of understanding should be based on seven-point ground tackles. To avoid possible response prejudice, the study instructions besides indicate that no reply is considered to be right or incorrect.

Additionally, the demographic and experiential information is besides measured in the study. These experiences, such as length of interaction, will be used as an index of response cogency, since they are seen as provides more accurate information ( Rios, 2008 ) . The demographic information, such as gender, age, and occupation position, will besides assist to command the representativeness of the sample.

Finally, the questionnaire is administered in two phases, pilot testing and formal testing, and both are conducted online. The peculiar purposes of the pilot survey are to polish the measuring scales to guarantee there are no deceptive inquiries and that no other jobs for respondents will happen. There are 40 responses from the pilot research and they help us to clear up the instructions, refine the inquiries and guarantee the handiness of the study. Pilot proving can increase the cogency and dependability of consequences, every bit good as the response rate ( Saunders, 2007 ) . At the 2nd phase, the online study created on is sent to college and university pupils. However, the use of an on-line study should foremost be debated.

A quantitative online study attack has been developed to roll up informations. The usage of on-line studies and web-based study is going popular in societal scientific discipline and educational research ( Solomon, 2001 ) . The usage of an on-line study is appropriate because this subject is about analyzing on-line trade name values, and on-line studies offer existent chances in the pursuit to better understand online clients ( Simmons, 2007 ) . An on-line study are non every bit dearly-won as print and phone studies, and they provide a speedy response that may get merely a few proceedingss after the study has been posted online. Since finishing an online study merely takes a few proceedingss by the chink of a mouse or the pressure of a key, the mean figure of responses tends to be higher than for traditional method where some respondents are non willing to pick up a pen to reply the inquiries ( Fricker and Schonlau, 2002 ) . When the respondents have completed these on-line studies, one chink on the submit button is sufficient. Datas are sent in nanoseconds in contrast to the paper studies which require a considerable sum of clip and resources to return. Nonethelessi??technical jobs are unluckily associated with on-line studies and most of the clip can non be avoided. Power outages, computing machine faulty and system dislocations can happen, and there is the possibility that a respondent can non complete replying on-line selling studies due to these proficient jobs. This may ensue in losing or lost informations or, on the portion of the respondents, a loss of involvement or opportunity to finish the study. In order to avoid confusion on the portion of the respondent, the study should be user-friendly, easy to voyage and quick to reply. Those point make, an cyberspace study is suited and appropriate in this instance. The study is besides conducted harmonizing to Hewson et Al ‘s ( 2003 ) and Witmer et Al ‘s ( 1999 ) netiquette instructions. Saunders et Al. ( 2007 ) argue that it is of import to direct the study courteously and ethically, as this will straight impact the response rate.

3.6 Data Analysis

This subdivision should, foremost, depict the response to the online study conducted by the writer. It shall so travel on to present the confirmatory factor analysis ( CFA ) theoretical account, as this is usually used for the model scrutiny and the development of the measuring instruments.

3.6.1 Preliminary Description of the Survey

The entire figure of studies which were returned on clip is xx ( ordinal number ) . This is capable to be twenty response rate with 2.9 million populations. It is acceptable …

3.6.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis

The aim is to prove the RRM with an on-line manner retail merchant ASOS by using the confirmatory factor analysis ( CFA ) . Timothy A. Brown ( 2006 ) said the CFA was used to better the tantrum of the theoretical account. The other benefits of CFA are that it allows all the ascertained variables to be free to lade onto expected unseen variables or dimensions, and the mistake is explicated and controlled. Therefore, it is supported by old surveies and theory.

Brown ( 2006 ) besides provides a process of CFA. Before utilizing the CFA theoretical account with AMOS v18 package, the designation of the theoretical account should be accomplished. Therefore, in order to measure the structural hypothesis and develop the measuring instruments in this research, RRM is presented with four dimensions ( latent variable or unseen variable ) and 22 points ( observed variable ) . Their relationships will organize the way diagram of the theoretical account ( figure ) . After that, a descriptive statistical analysis is performed to analyze the cogency and dependability of the informations. For illustration, the collinearity issues and outlier sensing will be addressed.

Besides, valid and dependable informations are input into AMOS v18 and are analysed utilizing maximal likelihood appraisal ( MLE ) as the parametric quantity appraisal technique. Two sorts of analysis were conducted afterwards: fit statistics and parametric quantity estimations. The fit statistics can offer an penetration into successful theoretical account tantrum and look into the factor construction ( Brown, 2006 ) . Significant Chi-square and big CFI and other indexs can state the degree of theoretical account tantrum. Consequently, the parametric quantity estimation is checked when the appropriate theoretical account tantrum is found and aid to prove hypotheses by finding parametric quantity. The concluding phase of the analysis is the standardisation of the theoretical account, which involves alteration indices. This represents the full information analysis procedure. The elaborate analysis will be presented in the undermentioned chapter.

3.7 Methodology Limitations and Ethical Issues

Saunders et Al ( 2007 ) claims that each research method has its restrictions, restraints and negative points. In this survey, the informations aggregation method and analysis method have their ain drawbacks. One of them is that the usage of a questionnaire based on the clients ‘ feelings and attitudes, and self-administration which are considered to be subjective and prejudice ( Saunders et Al, 2007 ) . Second, the sample and its size are restricted by the clip and resources of the research worker, which might intend that the sample does non reflect the whole population of on-line manner retail merchants. Third, the RRM model might non be deemed every bit comprehensive as it could hold been. Different research workers and bookmans have come up assorted models and theoretical accounts for on-line trade name equity, For illustration, Christodoulides and Chernatony ( 2004 ) devised a different model inductively. Fourthly, anterior research has distinguished the negative consequence of maximal likeliness ( ML ) , which violates the normalcy ( Curran et al. , 1996 ; Marsh et al. , 2004 ) . Consequently, the instrument and consequences of the research will be affected by some of these factors, which will impact on the generalisation of the theoretical account.

Throughout the whole procedure, attending has been paid to ethical issues. Such issues include informed consent, privateness and confidentiality etc ( Hill, King, Eckert-Denver and Gibson, 2004 ) . We are certain that this research has been conducted in an honest and responsible manner, in respect to both ASOS plc and its clients. We conduct this research as an independent 3rd party, and besides informed respondent that this research was for academic intents merely. The platform of the online study is besides responsible for the confidentiality of the private information we collected. Second, participants are taking portion in the study voluntarily and anonymously. This is besides one of the considerations when taking an on-line study and, on the other manus, it can guarantee that the informations are objectively collected. Negative ethical facets have been kept to a lower limit.

3.8 Drumhead

With the nonsubjective ser out in subdivision 3.2 in head, the research focused on proving the RRM model in a instance survey on on-line retail merchant ASOS. The doctrine applied the interpretivism positions, because of the related topic and methodological analysis. Following this, a deductive attack is adopted. The measurement graduated table is designed based on the RRM theoretical account and sent to online targeted audiences. In order to analyze the relationship and trial the hypothesis ( see chapter 3 ) , Confirmatory Factor Analysis will be adopted n describe in subdivision 3.6.2. At the terminal of the chapter, the restrictions of the cyberspace study and CFA theoretical account are discussed to foretell any possible prejudice in the research.


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